Skip to content

Vestments

IN WESTERN EUROPE

By liturgical vestments are meant the vestments that, according to the rules of the Church or from ecclesiastical usage, are to be worn by the clergy in performing the ceremonies of the services of the Church, consequently, above all, at the celebration of the Mass, then in the administration of the sacraments, at blessings, the solemn recitation of the canonical hours, public services of prayer, processions, etc.

The liturgical vestments of the Latin Rite are: the amice, alb, cincture, maniple, stole, tunicle, dalmatic, chasuble, surplice, cope, sandals, stockings (or buskins ), gloves, mitre, pallium, succinctorium, and fanon.

The pope has the most elaborate and the greatest number of liturgical vestments, for all the vestments mentioned belong to him. The vestments of the priest are the amice, alb, cincture, maniple, stole, chasuble --vestments which the priest wears at the celebration of the Mass--then, in addition, the surplice and the cope. Besides the vestments worn by the priest the liturgical dress of the bishop includes also the tunic, dalmatic, sandals, buskins, gloves, and mitre ; those of the archbishop include further the pallium. The subdiaconal vestments consist of the amice, alb, cincture, maniple, and dalmatic ; those of the deacon of amice, alb, cincture, maniple, stole, and dalmatic. Finally, the lower clergy wear the surplice as a liturgical vestment, a vestment that belongs to all the grades of ordination.

IN THE EAST

There are also liturgical vestments in the Oriental Rites. They are fewer than the sacerdotal vestments of western Europe and vary from these also as regards form, nature, and use. Nevertheless the sacerdotal vestments of the East and West agree in essentials. The liturgical vestments worn in all Oriental Rites as well as in western Europe are: the under-tunic ( alb ), the cincture, stole, chasuble, and omophorion ( pallium ). In the East the chasuble is still bell-shaped, but, according to present usage, is slit in front in some rites. It is customary only in a few of the Eastern Rites to use the humeral veil and the mitre as in the Latin Rite, still, some, instead of a mitre, have a hat like the tiara, a covering like a turban, or, lastly, a cowl or veil. The vestments peculiar to the Oriental Rites are: the sakkos, the outer vestment of the Greek bishop, which is like a dalmatic ; the epigonation of the Greeks and Armenians, a rhombic-shaped ornament of bishops and prelates that hangs on the right side to below the knee, hence the name; lastly the epimanikia, cuffs, or gloves with the part for the hand cut off, customary in all Oriental Rites. Pontifical vestments are the liturgical head-covering, excepting in the Armenian Rite where the priest also wears such a covering for the head, the sakkos, the omophorion, the epigonation, and the epimanikia.

Liturgical Vestments in a more General Sense

Besides the vestments worn by the clergy there are various other articles of clothing worn by ecclesiastics which are not, it is true, designated as vestes sacrae , but which, nevertheless, in a general sense can be included among the liturgical vestments. Thus, in the Latin Rite, there are the cappa magna, the amess, the mozetta, the rochet, the biretta ; in the Greek Rite the mandyas (mantle) of the bishops, and the biretta-like covering for the head called kamelaukion, which, when worn by monks or bishops, has a veil called exokamelaukion.

Origin

The liturgical vestments have by no means remained the same from the founding of the Church until the present day. There is as great a difference between the vestments worn at the Holy Sacrifice in the pre-Constantinian period, and even in the following centuries, and those now customary at the services of the Church, as between the rite of the early Church and that of modern times. Just as the ceremonies that today surround the celebration of the Sacred Mysteries are the product of a long development, so are also the present liturgical vestments. It was sought at an earlier era to derive the Christian priestly dress from the vestments of the Jewish religion. Yet even a superficial comparison of the liturgical vestments of the New Covenant with those of the Old should have sufficed to show the error of such an opinion. The Christian vestments did not originate in the priestly dress of the Old Testament ; they have, rather, developed from the secular dress of the Graeco-Roman world. The influence of the dress of the Mosaic cult upon the form of the Christian priestly dress can only conceded in this sense that the recollection of it must have made the use of liturgical garments specially reserved for the services of the Church appear not only entirely in keeping with the dignity of the mysteries of religion, but even necessary. This influence, however, was clearly general in character, not such as to make the Jewish priestly dress the prototype of the Christian.

Development

Four main periods may be distinguished in the development of the Christian priestly dress. The first embraces the era before Constantine. In that period the priestly dress did not yet differ from the secular costume in form and ornament. The dress of daily life was worn at the offices of the Church. In times of peace and under normal conditions better garments were probably used, and these were especially reserved for the celebration of the Sacred Mysteries. It would undoubtedly have scandalized the faithful if they had seen the dusty, dirty, or worn garments. The opinion which St. Jerome expresses--"The Divine religion has one dress in the service of sacred things, another in ordinary intercourse and life"--is certainly true also for the pre-Constantinian period, which it is hardly permitted to regard as a period of liturgical barbarism. It is even possible, though not demonstrated, that, as early as the close of the pre-Constantinian period, liturgical insignia came into use among the bishops and deacons, as the orarion, or stole, and the omophorion or pallium.

The second period embraces the time from about the fourth to the ninth century. It is the most important epoch in the history of liturgical vestments, the epoch in which not merely a priestly dress in a special sense was created, but one which at the same time determined the chief vestments of the present liturgical dress.

The process of development which was completed in this period includes five essential elements: definitive separation of the vestments worn at the liturgical offices from all non-liturgical clothing, and especially from that used in secular life; separation and definitive settlement of certain articles of dress; introduction of the sacrales distinctiva ; employment of the vestments definitively assigned for use at the Divine offices with retention of the ordinary clothing under these vestments; lastly, introduction of a special blessing for the vestments intended for liturgical use.

It cannot be decided positively how far this development was consummated by means of mere custom, and how far by positive ecclesiastical legislation. However, it may be taken as certain that the growth of a priestly dress did not proceed everywhere at a equal pace, and it is very probable that this development was completed earlier and more rapidly in the East than in Western Europe, and that the Orient was the prototype for Western Europe, at least with regard to certain garments (stole and pallium ). It was of much importance for the forming of a special priestly costume differing from the garments ordinarily worn, that the poenula (cloak or mantle) and the long tunic, which came into universal use in the third century and were also worn in the offices of the Church, were gradually replaced in daily life, from about the sixth century, by the shorter tunic and the more convenient open mantle. The Church did not join in this return to the former fashion, but retained the existing costume, which was more suitable to the dignity of the Divine offices; this fact in itself was the beginning of a rubrically distinct priestly dress. As regards the influence of Rome upon the development of a liturgical costume in other parts of Western Europe, such influence cannot have been of much importance outside of Italy before the eighth century. The case, however, was different in the eighth century, and as early as the ninth century Roman custom was authoritative nearly everywhere in the West. The great simplicity of the liturgical dress in the pre-Carlovingian era is very striking. The dignified shape with many folds that is constantly met in the sculpture and pictures of that era did not in fact require decoration, which at that time was limited almost exclusively to the clavi , the red ornamental trimming of the dalmatic.

The third period, extending from the ninth to the thirteenth century, completed the development of the priestly vestments in Western Europe. It ceased to be customary for the acolytes to wear the chasuble, stole, and maniple. The tunicle became the customary vestment of the subdeacons ; the chasuble was the vestment exclusively worn at the celebration of the Mass, as the pluvial, the liturgical caps, took its place at the other functions. Another, and new vestment is the surplice, which, appearing in the course of the eleventh century, began in steadily increasing measure to replace the alb. In the third period, above all, the pontifical dress received its definitive form. This was the natural result of the enormous advance in the secular importance of the bishops and of their position in public life, which occurred in the Carlovingian era. Vestments such as sandals and stockings became exclusively episcopal ornaments. New pontifical vestments were the gloves, the succinctorium, and the mitre, to which were added among the German bishops the rational, an imitation of the pallium.

When Amalarius wrote his treatise, "De officiis ecclesiasticis" at the beginning of the ninth century, eleven garments were included among liturgical vestments: amice, alb, cingulum, maniple, stole, tunic, dalmatic, chasuble, sandals, pontifical stockings, and the pallium. In the time of Innocent III the liturgical vestments numbered seventeen, the fanon, that is the papal amice, not being included among these. Protestants have claimed that the development of the priestly dress in the third period was due to the formulation of the dogma of Transubstantiation. However, this is entirely incorrect. As early as about 800, therefore, before the discussion concerning the Eucharist, the liturgical dress was complete in all its essential parts. The introduction of the pluvial, or cope, and the surplice arose from the desire to be more comfortable; but the development of the pontifical costume was based, as has been said, upon the important secular position which the bishops enjoyed from the Carlovingian era, which naturally brought about a corresponding enrichment of the pontifical dress. The doctrine of Transubstantiation exerted no influence upon the development of the liturgical vestments.

In the Greek Rite --the development of the liturgical dress in the other Oriental Rites cannot be traced in this period--only the pontifical dress was enriched. The new pontifical vestments were: the sakkos, still a patriarchal vestment; the epimanikien; the epigonation, in so far as this vestment had not already been introduced before the ninth century; the epigonation first had the form of a handkerchief and was called enchirion (hand-cloth, handkerchief), it was not named epigonation until the twelfth century.

In the fourth period, from the thirteenth century to the present time, the history of the liturgical vestments is almost entirely the history of their rubrical evolution, their adornment with embroidery and ornamental trimmings, and the nature of the material from which they are made. For the various particulars the reader is referred to what is said in the articles devoted to the various vestments. In general the tendency in the fourth period has been towards greater richness of material and ornamentation, but, at the same time, towards greater convenience, therefore, a constantly increasing shortening and fitting to the figure of the vestments, naturally impairing the form and æsthetic effect of the vestments. The mitre alone has been permitted to grow into a tower disproportionate in shape. Taking everything together, the development which liturgical vestments have experienced since the thirteenth century, and more especially since the sixteenth century, hardly appears to be a matter of satisfaction, notwithstanding all the richness and costliness of ornamentation, but rather a lamentable disfigurement caused by the taste of the time.

In the East there has been little or no development in the fourth period. The one vestment which has been added to the liturgical dress of the Greek Rite is the episcopal mitre.

Liturgical Vestments and Protestantism

As is known, all denominations of Protestantism rejected the doctrine of the sacrifice of the Mass and of the priesthood. It would therefore have been logical if all denominations had done away with liturgical vestments. For even though they are not in themselves essential to the Sacrifice of the Mass, being only something external, yet by their entire history they are connected most intimately with it.

Of all the Protestant denominations logical action was taken only be the Reformed Churches ( Calvinist and Zwinglian ), which did away entirely with the Mass and the Mass vestments, and substituted for these vestments in the church service a dress taken from secular life. On the other hand, the Lutherans did not show themselves so logical. It is true that, in agreement with their rejection of celibacy and the degrees of Holy orders, they rejected the cincture, the symbol of chastity, as well as the maniple and stole, the insignia of the higher orders, but they retained the alb or surplice and the chasuble for the celebration of Communion; and this was the case in Germany until the eighteenth century; in isolated cases the surplice is worn there even now; it is worn also in Scandinavia, where the bishops retained the cope, and in Denmark up to the present time. In England the first edition of the Boo of Common Prayer in 1549 still permitted the surplice, alb, chasuble, cappa, and tunic ; three years later, however on account of the greatly increased strength of Calvinism, the second edition of the Prayer Book only allowed the rochet and surplice. It is true that the third edition, of 1559, issued during the reign of Elizabeth, restored the force of the regulations of the first edition, but only in theory. In practice the regulations of the second edition prevailed. Further, the attempt of the bishops at the Convocation of Canterbury to save at least the cappa and surplice had no permanent success on account of the domination of Puritanical opinions. Not even the surplice, the minimum of liturgical dress, remained in universal use. A movement for the revival of the old liturgical vestments began in England with the appearance of Ritualism. Although the ecclesiastical authorities fought the revival with determination, yet is has continually advanced until now there are at least 2000 Anglican churches where the old liturgical vestments have been reintroduced.

Blessing of the Liturgical Vestments

Not all the vestes sacrae necessarily require a blessing. This is strictly commanded only for the amice, alb, maniple, stole, chasuble, and perhaps also the cincture. The blessing of the liturgical vestments is a prerogative of the bishop ; others can bless them only when specially empowered to do so. Vestments that have been blessed lose the blessing when the form is essentially altered, when they are much worn, and are therefore unworthy of the holy service, finally, when very greatly repaired.

On account of the lack of positive information, it cannot be even approximately settled as to the time at which the blessing of liturgical vestments was introduced. The first certain statements concerning the blessing of liturgical vestments are made by the pseudo-Isidore and Benedict Levita, both belonging to the middle of the ninth century, but the oldest known formula of blessing, which is in the Pontifical of Reims, belongs to the end of the ninth century, for the benedictory prayers the Pontifical of Egbert of York are an interpolation of the tenth century. From the twelfth century and especially in the later Middle Ages, the forms of blessing were very numerous. The blessing of the vestments was probably always the prerogative of the bishop, though this is not expressly mentioned before Gilbert of Limerick in the early part of the twelfth century. In the Oriental Rites the blessing of the liturgical vestments is also customary; it is given by the bishop, but in case of necessity the priest can perform the ceremony. The benedictory prayers in the Greek Rite are very similar to those in the Latin Rite. It is perhaps even more difficult to determine the time when the blessing of the vestments in the Oriental Rites began than to settle its date in Western Europe.

Symbolism

It has been said at times that mystical considerations were the cause of the introduction of liturgical vestments and consequently of their existence. But this is absolutely wrong. These mystical considerations did not create the priestly dress; they are, rather, the result of the appearance of these vestments and of the defining of the individual ones.

The omophorion and orarion were the first to receive symbolical interpretation, which was given by Isidore of Pelusium (died about 440); the earliest symbolism of the entire priestly dress of the Greek Rite is found in the Historia ekklneiastike , probably of the eighth century. This work was the basis of the symbolical interpretation of the sacred vestments among the Greek liturgists until the late Middle Ages. In Western Europe the first attempt to give a symbolical meaning to the vestments of the Mass is found in what is called the Gallican explanation of the Mass. However, it was not until the ninth century that a more complete symbolism of the priestly dress was attempted in Gaul. The mystical interpretation became from this time a permanent theme for the writers on the liturgy, both in the Middle Ages and in modern times. In the symbolical interpretation of the sacred vestments, Amalarius of Metz became especially important. Even in his lifetime Amalarius aroused much opposition on account of his symbolism, which, it must be acknowledged, was not seldom peculiar, labored, and arbitrary. In the end, however, his mystical interpretations, which in reality contained many beautiful and edifying thoughts were greatly admired and were a model for liturgists until far into the thirteenth century. Various traces of the influence of Amalarius's interpretations are evident even in the late Middle Ages. A symbolism, however, appeared even as early as the ninth century in certain liturgical prayers, the prayers that are spoken when putting on the sacred vestments, and the words pronounced by the bishop at an ordination, when he gives the garments to the newly ordained. It should, however, be said that up to the twelfth century these prayers appear only occasionally in the Sacramentaries, Missals, and Pontificals, but after this they soon appeared more frequently in those books. It is a striking fact that the symbolism of these prayers often pursues its own course without regard to the interpretations of the liturgists. It was not until towards the end of the Middle Ages that a greater agreement arose between the symbolism of the liturgists and what might be called the official symbolism of the Church expressed in the prayers in question; this official symbolism, moreover, differed greatly at different periods and in different places.

Characterization of the Symbolism

This is not the place to enter into the details of the many interpretations which the various liturgical vestments have received and which, notwithstanding the chaff, contain much pure wheat. (For such detailed presentation cf. Braun, "Geschichte der liturg. Gewandung", pp. 701 sqq.) It must suffice here to give them a general characterization.

The symbolism customary among the liturgists from the ninth to the eleventh century is a moral symbolism, that is the liturgical vestments were made to symbolize the official and priestly virtues of their wearers. In the twelfth century there were added to this the typico-dogmatic symbolism, in which the vestments were expounded in reference to Christ Whose representative is the priest, and soon they symbolized Christ's Incarnation, the two Natures of Christ, the unity and relation to each other of these natures before long, the virtues of Christ, His teaching, and soon, lately, His relations to the Church.

Curious to say the vestments were not made to symbolize Christ's Passion and Death. This last symbolism, which may be called typico-representative, first appeared in the course of the thirteenth century, and quickly became very popular, because it was the most easily expressed and consequently most easily understood by the people. The people interpreted the vestments as symbolizing the instruments of Christ's Passion, as the cloth with which Christ's head was covered ( amice ), the robe put on him in mockery ( alb ), the fetters ( cincture, maniple ), etc., and the priest who was clothed with these was regarded as typifying the suffering Saviour.

A fourth method of interpretation may be called the allegorical . This method of interpretation looks upon the priest at the altar as the warrior of God, who fights with the foe of the God of the people, and regards his vestments as his weapons in this spiritual struggle. The first traces of this symbolism are found in the ninth and tenth centuries, but are not seen in a developed form until the twelfth century. However this last method of symbolism was never very widespread. As early as the Middle Ages the moral symbolism was customary in the putting on of the vestments, and in the prayers of the ordination service. The typical reference to Christ was always foreign to them.

Up to the fifteenth century it was customary among the Greek liturgists to make use, almost exclusively, of typical symbolism. It was not until later that they employed moral symbolism; this symbolism apparently arose while putting on the vestments, a custom of prayer that had in the meantime come into use. In these prayers the liturgical vestments symbolize the virtues of their wearers.

More Volume: V 294

Click/Touch the sub-volume below to view encyclopedia articles within the sub-volume.

1

Vácz, Diocese of

(VÄCZ or VACIENSIS). Located in Hungary ; suffragan of Gran ; probably founded by King ...

× Close

2

Vénard, Théophane

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

Véron, François

French controversialist, b. at Paris about 1575; d. at Charenton, 1625. After brilliant studies ...

× Close

1

Völuspá

"The wisdom of the prophetess ", the most famous mythological poem of the "Elder Edda", relates ...

× Close

Va 77

Vaast, Abbey of Saint

Situated at Arras, the ancient capital of Artois, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France ; founded ...

Vacancy

The state of being vacant, free, unoccupied: a term applied to an office or position devoid of an ...

Vadstena, Abbey of

Motherhouse of the Brigittine Order, situated on Lake Wetter, in the Diocese of Linköping, ...

Vaga

A titular see of Numidia, frequently mentioned by historians and ancient geographers. Before ...

Vaillant de Gueslis, François

Jesuit missionary, born at Orlxans, 20 July, 1646; died at Moulins, 24 Sept., 1718. He entered ...

Vaison, Ancient Diocese of

(VASIONENSIS.) This was suppressed by the Concordat of 1801 , and its territory is now ...

Valdés, Alfonso de

Spanish Humanist and chancellor of the Emperor Charles V, born at Cuenca in Castile about 1500; ...

Valence, Diocese of

(VALENTINENSIS). See also UNIVERSITY OF VALENCE. Comprises the present Department of Drome. ...

Valence, University of

See also DIOCESE OF VALENCE . Erected 26 July, 1452, by letters patent from the Dauphin Louis, ...

Valencia

(VALENTINA). Archdiocese located in Spain ; comprises the civil Provinces of Valencia, ...

Valencia, University of

At the request of Jaime I the Conqueror, Innocent IV in 1246, authorized by a Bull the ...

Valens, Flavius

Emperor of the East, b. in Pannonia (now Hungary ) c. 328; d. near Adrianople, in Thrace, ...

Valentine, Pope

Date of birth unknown; died about October, 827. Valentine was by birth was Roman, belonging to the ...

Valentine, Saint

At least three different Saint Valentines, all of them martyrs, are mentioned in the early ...

Valentinian I

(FLAVIUS VALENTINIANUS). Emperor of the West, 364-75. Born at Cibalis (probably Mikanovici), ...

Valentinian II

(FLAVIUS VALENTINIANUS) Reigned 375-392; born in Gaul, about 371, murdered at Vienne, ...

Valentinian III

Reigned 425-55, b. at Ravenna, 3 July, 419; d. at Rome, 16 March, 455; son of Constantius III ...

Valentinus and Valentinians

Valentinus, the best known and most influential of the Gnostic heretics, was born according to ...

Valerian

(Publius Aurelius Licinius Valerianus). Roman emperor (253-60). Member of a distinguished ...

Validation of Marriage

Validation of marriage may be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises ...

Vallée-Poussin, Charles-Louis-Joseph-Xavier de la

Professor of geology and mineralogy at the Catholic University of Louvain (1863), doctor honoris ...

Valla, Lorenzo

(DELLA VALLE). Humanist and philosopher, b. at Rome, 1405; d. there, 1 Aug., 1457. His ...

Valladolid, Archdiocese of

(VALLISOLETANA). Bounded on the north by Palencia, east by Burgos and Segovia, south by ...

Valladolid, University of

The name of the founder and the date of foundation of the University of Valladolid are not known ...

Vallarsi, Dominic

An Italian priest, born at Verona, 13 November, 1702; died there, 14 August, 1771. He studied ...

Valle, Pietro della

Italian traveller in the Orient, b. at Rome, 2 April, 1586; d. there, 21 April, 1652. He ...

Valleyfield, Diocese of

(CAMPIVALLENSIS.) Valleyfield is a thriving city of about 10,000 inhabitants, situated at the ...

Vallgornera, Thomas de

Dominican theologian and ascetical writer, renowned for his learning and piety, born in ...

Valliscaulian Order

("Vallis Caulium", or "Val-des-Choux", the name of the first monastery of that order, in Burgundy ...

Vallo and Capaccio

(CAPUTAQUENSIS ET VALLENSIS) Suffragan diocese of Salerno. Capaccio is a city in the ...

Vallumbrosan Order

The name is derived from the motherhouse, Vallombrosa (Latin Vallis umbrosa, shady valley), ...

Valois, Henri

(HENRICUS VALESIUS). Philologist, b. at Paris, 10 Sept., 1603; d. at Paris, 7 May, 1676. He ...

Valona

Titular see, suffragan of Dyrrachium, in Epirus Nova. The ancient name was Aulon, mentioned for ...

Valroger, Hyacinthe de

French Oratorian, born at Caen, 6 January, 1814; died 10 October, 1876. He first studied ...

Valva and Sulmona, Dioceses of

(VALVEN. ET SULMONEN.) Located in Italy ; united aeque principaliter . Valva, a medieval ...

Valverde, Vincent de

Born at Oropesa, Spain towards the close of the fifteenth century; d. at the Island of ...

Van Beethoven, Ludwig

Born at Bonn, probably on 16 December, 1770; died at Vienna, 26 March, 1827. The date of his ...

Van Beneden, Pierre-Joseph

Born at Mechlin, Belgium, 19 Dec., 1809; died at Louvain, 8 Jan., 1894. Educated for the ...

Van Buren, William Home

Distinguished American surgeon, b. at Philadelphia, 5 April, 1819; d. at New York, 25 March, 1883. ...

Van Cleef, Jan

A Flemish painter, b. in Guelderland in 1646, d. at Ghent, 18 December, 1716. He was a pupil of ...

Van Cleef, Joost

(JOSSE VAN CLEVE). The "Madman", a Flemish painter born in Antwerp c. 1520, died c. 1556. ...

Van Cleef, Martin

A Flemish painter, born at Antwerp in 1520; died in 1570; was the son of the painter William ...

Van de Velde, Peter

(PEDRO CAMPAÑA). Painter, b. at Brussels, 1503; d. in that city in 1580. This artist ...

Van De Vyver, Augustine

Sixth Bishop of Richmond, Virginia ; b. at Haesdonck, East Flanders, Belgium, 1 Dec., 1844; ...

Van den Broek, Theodore J.

Priest and missionary, b. at Amsterdam, Holland, 5 Nov., 1783; d. at Little Chute, Wisconsin, 5 ...

Van der Bundere, Joannes

(VAN DEN BUNDERE). A Flemish theologian and controversialist, born of distinguished parents ...

Van der Sandt, Maximilian

(SANDAUS). Born at Amsterdam, 17 April, 1578; d. at Cologne, 21 June, 1656. He entered the ...

Van der Weyden, Rogier

Painter, b. at Tournai, 1399 or 1400; d. at Brussels, 1464. His original name was De la Pasture, ...

Van Eyck, Hubert and Jan

Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and ...

Vancouver

(VANCOUVERIENSIS). Archdiocese ; includes that part of the mainland of the Province of British ...

Vandal, Albert

French writer, b. at Paris, 7 July, 1853; d. there, 30 Aug., 1910. His father was director ...

Vandals

A Germanic people belonging to the family of East Germans. According to Tacitus, they were ...

Vane, Thomas

The place and time of his birth and death are not known; but he was educated at Christ's ...

Vannes, Diocese of

(VENETENSIS). Comprises the Department of Morbihan, and was re-established by the Concordat ...

Vanni, Andrea

Painter and statesman, b. at Siena, 1320; d. 1414. He entered politics after the democratic ...

Vanni, Francesco

Painter, b. at Siena, 1565; d. there, 1609. Vanni was one of the better class of artists of the ...

Varani, Blessed Baptista

(Varano). An ascetical writer, b. at Camerino, in the Camerino, belonged to an illustrious ...

Vargas y Mexia, Francisco de

Spanish diplomat and ecclesiastical writer, b. at Madrid, date unknown; d. At the ...

Vargas, Luis de

Painter, b. at Seville, in 1502; d. there in 1568. He has two claims upon our attention; he was ...

Vasari, Giorgio

Painter, architect, and writer, b. at Arezzo, 1511; d. at Florence, 1574. Although an artist of ...

Vase, Altar

Vase to hold flowers for the decoration of the altar. The Cæremoniale Episcoporum (I, xii, ...

Vasquez, Gabriel

Theologian, b. at Villaescusa de Haro, near Belmonte, Cuenca, 1549 or 1551; d. at Alcalá, ...

Vatable, François

(Or better WATEBLED, the name is also written GASTEBLED or OUATEBLE). French Hellenist and ...

Vatican as a Scientific Institution, The

Regarded from the point of view of scientific productivity, the Vatican is the busiest ...

Vatican Council

The Vatican Council, the twentieth and up to now [1912] the last ecumenical council, opened on 8 ...

Vatican Observatory

The Vatican Observatory now bears the official title, "Specola Astronomica Vaticana". To ...

Vatican, The

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Introduction; II. Architectural ...

Vaticanus, Codex

(CODEX B), a Greek manuscript, the most important of all the manuscripts of Holy Scripture . ...

Vaudreuil

Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil Governor of Canada, born in Languedoc, France, in the ...

Vaughan, Herbert

Cardinal, and third Archbishop of Westminster ; b. at Gloucester, 15 April, 1832; d. at St. ...

Vaughan, Roger William

(B EDE ). Second Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Courtfield, Herefordshire, 9 January, 1834; ...

Vauquelin, Louis-Nicolas

Born at Saint-André d'Hebertot, Normandy, 16 May, 1763; died 14 Nov., 1829. In youth as ...

Vaux, Laurence

(V OSE ). Canon regular, author of a catechism, martyr in prison, b. at Blackrod, ...

Vaux-de-Cernay

A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in the Diocese of Versailles, Seine-et-Oise, in what was ...

Vavasour, Thomas

English Catholic physician, pensioner of St. John's College, Cambridge, b. about 1536-7; d. at ...

Vavasseur, François

Humanist and controversialist, b. at Paray-le-Monial, 8 Dec., 1605; d. at Paris, 16 Dec., ...

Vaz, Blessed Joseph

A Goanese priest, Apostle of Ceylon [ Sri Lanka ], b. at Goa, 21 April, 1651; d. at Kandy, 16 ...

× Close

Ve 75

Vecchietta, Lorenzo di Pietro

Painter, sculptor, goldsmith, and architect, b. at Castiglione di Val d'Orcia, 1412; d. there, ...

Vedas

The sacred books of ancient India. The Sanskrit word veda means "knowledge", more particularly ...

Vega, Andreas de

Theologian and Franciscan Observantine, b. at Segovia in Old Castile, Spain, at unknown date ...

Veghe, Johannes

German preacher and religious writer, b. at Münster in Westphalia about 1435; d. there, 21 ...

Vegio, Maffeo

(MAPHEUS VEGIUS.) Churchman, humanist, poet, and educator, b. at Lodi, Italy, 1406; d. at ...

Veglia, Diocese of

(VEGIENSIS ET ARBENSIS). In Austria, suffragan of Görz-Gradisca. Parallel to the Dinaric ...

Vehe, Michael

Born at Bieberach near Wimpfen; died at Halle, April, 1559. He joined the Dominicans at Wimpfen, ...

Veil, Humeral

This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...

Veil, Religious

In ancient Rome a red veil, or a veil with red stripes, distinguished newly-married women from ...

Veit, Philipp

Painter, b. at Berlin, 13 Feb., 1793; d. at Mainz, 18 Dec., 1877. Veit was a grandson of the ...

Veith, Johann Emanuel

Preacher, b. of Jewish parents at Kuttenplan, Bohemia, 1787; d. at Vienna, 6 Nov., 1876. In ...

Velazquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y

Spanish painter, b. at Seville 5 June, 1599 (the certificate of baptism is dated 6 June); d. at ...

Venezuela

A republic formed out of the provinces which, under Spanish rule, constituted the captaincy ...

Veni Creator Spiritus

The "most famous of hymns " (Frere), is assigned in the Roman Breviary to Vespers (I and II) ...

Veni Sancte Spiritus Et Emitte Coelitus

The sequence for Pentecost (the "Golden Sequence "). It is sung at Mass from Whitsunday until ...

Veni Sancte Spiritus Reple

A prose invocation of the Holy Ghost . The Alleluia following the Epistle of Whitsunday ...

Venice

Venice, the capital of a province in Northern Italy, is formed of a group of 117 small islands ...

Venosa

(VENUSIN.) Diocese in Southern Italy. The city is situated on a high precipitous hill, one of ...

Ventimiglia

(VENTIMILIENSIS) Located in the Province of Porto Maurizio, northern Italy. The city is ...

Ventura di Raulica, Gioacchino

Italian pulpit orator, patriot, phyilosopher, b. at Palermo, 8 Dec., 1792; d. at Versailles, 2 ...

Venturino of Bergamo

Preacher, b. at Bergamo, 9 April, 1304; d. at Smyrna, 28 March, 1346. He received the habit of ...

Venusti, Raffaele

(VENOSTA.) Born at Tirano, Valtellina, northern Italy, about the end of the fifteenth ...

Vera Cruz

(VERAE CRUCIS or JALAPENSIS). Diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the Archbishopric ...

Verapoly, Archdiocese of

(VERAPOLITANA.) Located on the Malabar Coast, India, having the Diocese of Quilon as ...

Verbiest, Ferdinand

Missionary and astronomer, b. at Pitthem near Coutrai, Also spelled "Kortrijk" Belgium, 9 ...

Verbum Supernum Prodiens

The first line of two hymns celebrating respectively the Nativity of Christ and the Institution ...

Vercelli

(VERCELLENSIS). Archdiocese in the Province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy. The city of Vercelli ...

Vercellone, Carlo

Biblical scholar, born at Biella, Milan ; died at Rome, 19 January, 1869. He entered the Order ...

Verdaguer, Jacinto

Poet, b. at Riudeperas, Province of Barcelona, Spain, 17 April, 1845; d. at Vallvidrera, ...

Verdi, Giuseppe

Composer, b. at Le Roncole, Parma, Italy, 10 October, 1813; d. at S. Agata, near Busseto, 27 ...

Verdun, Diocese of

(VIRODUNENSIS.) Comprises the Department of the Meuse. Suppressed by the Concordat of 1802, ...

Verecundus

sentence --> Bishop of Junca, in the African Province of Byzacena, in the middle of the ...

Vergani, Paolo

Italian political economist, b. in Piedmont, 1753; d. in Paris, about 1820. As a student, he ...

Vergerio, Pier Paolo, the Elder

Humanist, statesman, and canonist, b. at Capodistria, 23 July, 1370; d. at Budapest, 8 July, 1444 ...

Vergil, Polydore

Born at Ubino about 1470; died there probably in 1555. Having studied at Bologna and Padua, he ...

Vergilius of Salzburg, Saint

Irish missionary and astronomer, of the eighth century. Vergilius (or Virgilius, in Irish ...

Vering, Friedrich Heinrich

A German canonist, b. at Liesborn in Westphalia, 9 March, 1833; d. at Prague, 30 March, 1896. ...

Vermont

One of the New England states, extends from the line of Massachusetts, on the south 42° 44' N. ...

Verna, La

An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre ...

Vernazza, Tommasina

Born at Genoa, 1497; died there, 1587. Her father, Ettore Vernazza, was a patrician, founder of ...

Verne, Jules

Novelist, b. at Nantes, France, 1828; d. at Amiens, 1905. His first literary venture was a ...

Vernier, Pierre

Inventor of the instrument which bears his name, b. at Ornans, Franche-Comte, c. 1580; d. there, ...

Veroli, Diocese of

(VERULANA). Located in the Province of Rome. The city of Veroli (Verulae) is situated on the ...

Verona

(VERONENSIS.) Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The city, situated on both branches of ...

Veronica Giuliani, Saint

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...

Veronica, Saint

In several regions of Christendom there is honored under this name a pious matron of ...

Verot, Augustin

Third Bishop of Savannah, first of St. Augustine, b. at Le Puy, France, May, 1804; d. at St. ...

Verrazano, Giovanni da

Navigator, b. about 1485, of good family, at Val di Greve, near Florence ; executed at Puerto ...

Verreau, Hospice-Anthelme

A French-Canadian priest, educator, and historian, b. at l'Islet, P.Q., 6 Sept., 1828, of Germain ...

Verri, Count Pietro

Economist, b. at Milan, Dec., 1728; d. there, 29 June, 1797. After studying at Monza, Rome, and ...

Verrocchio, Andrea del

Born at Florence, 1435; d. at Venice, 1488. He was called Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' ...

Versailles

(VERSALIENSIS). Diocese ; includes the Department of Seine-et-Oise, France. Created in ...

Versions of the Bible

Synopsis GREEK : Septuagint; Aquila; Theodotion; Symmachus; other versions. VERSIONS FROM THE ...

Versions of the Bible, Coptic

DIALECTS The Coptic language is now recognized in four principal dialects, Bohairic (formerly ...

Verstegan, Richard

( Alias ROWLANDS). Publisher and antiquarian, born at London, about 1548; died at Antwerp ...

Vertin, John

Third Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A. b. at Doblice, Diocese of Laibach (Carniolia), Austria, 17 ...

Vertot, Réné-Aubert, Sieur de

French historian, b. at Benetot, Normandy, 25 Nov., 1655; d. in Paris, 15 June, 1735. He was for ...

Veruela

A celebrated Cistercian monastery and church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. It is situated ...

Vesalius, Andreas

(WESALIUS.) The reorganizer of the study of anatomy ; b. at Brussels, 31 Dec., 1514; d. in a ...

Vespasian

(TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS). Roman Emperor, b. at Reate (now Rieti ), the ancient capital of ...

Vespasiano da Bisticci

( Or FIORENTINO.) Florentine humanist and librarian, b. in 1421; d. in 1498. He was ...

Vespers

This subject will be treated under the following headings: I. Vespers in the sixth century; II. ...

Vespers, Music of

The texts (e.g. antiphons, psalms, hymn ) sung in Vespers vary according to the feast or the ...

Vespers, Sicilian

The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 ...

Vespucci, Amerigo

A famous Italian navigator, born at Florence, 9 March, 1451; died at Seville, 22 February, 1512. ...

Vessels, Altar

The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained. ...

Vestibule (in Architecture)

A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

Vestments

IN WESTERN EUROPE By liturgical vestments are meant the vestments that, according to the rules ...

Veszprém

(VESPRIMIENSIS.) Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Gran, one of the sees founded about 1009 by ...

Veto, The Royal

(In the appointment of Bishops in Ireland and England.) Although the penal laws enacted ...

Vetter, Conrad

Preacher and polemical writer, b. at Engen in the present Grand Duchy of Baden, 1547; d. at ...

Veuillot, Louis

Journalist and writer, b. at Boynes, Loiret, 11 Oct., 1813; d. in Paris, 7 April, 1883. He was ...

Vexiö, Ancient See of

(WEPIONENSIS.) The Ancient See of Vexiö, in Sweden, comprised the County of Kronoberg ...

Vexilla Regis Prodeunt

This "world-famous hymn, one of the grandest in the treasury of the Latin Church " (Neale), and ...

Vezzosi, Antonio Francesco

Member of the Theatine Congregation and biographical writer, born at Arezzo, Italy, 4 October, ...

× Close

Vi 116

Via Crucis

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Via Dolorosa

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...

Viader, José

Born at Gallimes, Catalonia, 27 August, 1765. He received the habit of St. Francis at Barcelona ...

Vianney, Saint Jean-Baptiste-Marie

Curé of Ars, born at Dardilly, near Lyons, France, on 8 May, 1786; died at Ars, 4 ...

Viaticum

Name Among the ancient Greeks the custom prevailed of giving a supper to those setting out on a ...

Viator, Clerics of Saint

St. Viator, lector of the cathedral at Lyons, France, lived in the fourth century and is the ...

Viborg, Ancient See of

(VIBERGAE, VIBERGENSIS.) The ancient See of Viborg, in Denmark, comprised the Province of ...

Vicar

( Latin vicarius , from vice , "instead of") In canon law, the representative of a person ...

Vicar Apostolic

(1) In the early ages of the Church, the popes committed to some residentiary bishops the ...

Vicar Capitular

The administrator of a vacant diocese, elected by a cathedral chapter. On the death of a ...

Vicar of Christ

(Latin Vicarius Christi ). A title of the pope implying his supreme and universal ...

Vicar-General

The highest official of a diocese after the ordinary. He is a cleric legitimately deputed to ...

Vicari, Hermann von

Archbishop of Freiburg in Baden, b. at Aulendorf in Wurtemberg, 13 May, 1773; d. at Freiburg, ...

Vicariate Apostolic (Updated List)

The following is an account of the newly-erected vicariates Apostolic and of those changed so ...

Vice

( Latin vitium , any sort of defect) is here regarded as a habit inclining one to sin. It is ...

Vicelinus, Saint

Bishop of Oldenburg, apostle of Holstein, b. at Hameln about 1086; d. 12 Dec., 1154. Orphaned ...

Vicente, Gil

Portuguese dramatist, b. about 1470; he was living in 1536. He took up the study of law but ...

Vicenza, Diocese of

(VICENTINA). The city is the capital of a province in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The ...

Vich, Diocese of

(Vicensis, Ausonensis). Suffragan of Tarragona, bounded on the north by Gerona, on the east ...

Vico, Francescoe de

Astronomer, b. at Macerata, States of the Church, 19 May, 1805; d. at London, England, 15 Nov., ...

Victimae Paschali Laudes Immolent Christiani

The first stanza of the Easter sequence. Medieval missals placed it on various days within the ...

Victor

Bishop of Tunnunum (Tonnenna, Tunnuna) in Northern Africa and zealous supporter of the Three ...

Victor I, Pope Saint

(189-198 or 199), date of birth unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" makes him a native of Africa ...

Victor II, Pope

(GEBHARD, COUNT OF CALW, TOLLENSTEIN, AND HIRSCHBERG.) Born about 1018; died at Arezzo, 28 ...

Victor III, Pope Blessed

(DAUFERIUS or DAUFAR). Born in 1026 or 1027 of a non-regnant branch of the Lombard dukes of ...

Victor IV

Two antipopes of this name. I. Cardinal Gregory Conti, elected in opposition to Innocent II ...

Victor of Capua

A sixth-century bishop about whose life nothing is known except what is found in his epitaph ...

Victor Vitensis

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...

Victoria

(VICTORIEN. IN INS. VANCOUVER.) Diocese in southwestern British Columbia, of which province it ...

Victoria Nyanza, Northern

The Mission of Victoria Nyanza, founded in 1878 by the White Fathers of Cardinal Lavigerie, was ...

Victoria Nyanza, Southern

Vicariate apostolic erected from the mission of Nyanza, 13 June, 1894, lies north of the ...

Victorinus, Caius Marius

(Called also VICTORINUS MARIUS, or MARIUS FABIUS VICTORINUS, and frequently referred to as ...

Victorinus, Saint

An ecclesiastical writer who flourished about 270, and who suffered martyrdom probably in 303, ...

Vida, Marco Girolamo

Italian Humanist, b. at Cremona about 1490; d. in 1566. He came to Rome under Julius II ; a ...

Vieira, Antonio

Missionary, diplomat, orator, b. at Lisbon, 6 February, 1608; d. at Bahia, Brazil, 18 July, 1697. ...

Viel, Nicholas

Died 1625, the first victim of apostolic zeal on the shores of the St. Lawrence. After ...

Vienna

Vienna -- the capital of Austria-Hungary, the residence of the emperor, and the seat of a Latin ...

Vienna, University of

Foundation of the University Next to the University of Prague that of Vienna is the oldest ...

Vienne, Council of

Pope Clement V, by the Bull "Regnans in coelis" of 12 Aug., 1308, called a general council to ...

Vierthaler, Franz Michael

A distinguished Austrian pedagogue, b. at Mauerkirchen, Upper Austria, 25 September, 1758; d. ...

Vieta, François

(VIÈTE.) Father of modern algebra, b. at Fontenay-le-Comte (Poitou), 1540; d. in ...

Viger, Denis-Benjamin

French-Canadian statesman and writer, b. at Montreal, 19 Aug., 1774; d. 1861. After studying ...

Viger, Jacques

French-Canadian antiquarian and archaeologist, b. at Montreal, 7 May, 1787; d. 12 Dec., 1858. ...

Vigevano

(VIGLEVANENSIS.) Diocese in Lombardy, Province of Pavia. The city is a great agricultural ...

Vigilius

Bishop of Tapsus, in the African Province of Byzacena. Mentioned in the "Notitia" appended to ...

Vigilius, Pope

Reigned 537-55, date of birth unknown; died at Syracuse, 7 June 555. He belonged to a ...

Vigilius, Saint

Bishop of Trent, martyr, patron of Trent and of Tyrol, b. c. 353; d. 26 June, 405; feast 26 ...

Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi da

A theoretical and practical architect of the Transition Period between the Renaissance and ...

Vigor, Simon

French bishop and controversialist, b. at Evreux, Normandy, about 1515; d. at Carcassonne, 1 ...

Vikings

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

Villalpandus, Juan Bautista

Born at Cordova, Spain, in 1552; entered the Society of Jesus in 1575; died on 22 May, 1608. His ...

Villani, Giovanni

Florentine historian, b. about 1276; d. of the plague in 1348. Descended from a wealthy family ...

Villanovanus, Arnaldus

(ARNALDUS OF VILLANUEVA, or VILLENEUVE, or BACHUONE). Celebrated in his day as a physician, ...

Villefranche, Jacques-Melchior

Publicist, b. at Couzon-sur-Saone, 17 Dec., 1829; d. at Bourg, 10 May, 1904. After excellent ...

Villehardouin, Geoffroi de

Maréchal de Champagne, warrior, and first historian in the French language, b. about 1150; ...

Villeneuve-Barcement, Jean-Paul-Alban

Vicomte de, b. at Saint-Auban, Var, 8 Aug., 1784; d. at Paris, 8 June, 1850. After having taken ...

Villermé, Louis-René

French economist, b. at Paris, 10 March, 1782; d. there, 16 Nov., 1863. He was devoted to ...

Villers, Cistercian Abbey of

Situated on the confines of Villers and Tilly, Duchy of Brabant, present Diocese of Namur ...

Vilna

(VILENSIS). Vilna, the capital of Lithuania, is situated at the junction of the Rivers ...

Vincent de Paul, Saint

Born at Pouy, Gascony, France, in 1580, though some authorities have said 1576; died at Paris, ...

Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint

A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and ...

Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint (New York)

(Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of ...

Vincent de Paul, Society of Saint

An international association of Catholic laymen engaging systematically in personal service of ...

Vincent Ferrer, Saint

Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...

Vincent Kadlubek, Blessed

(KADLUBO, KADLUBKO). Bishop of Cracow, chronicler, b. at Karnow, Duchy of Sandomir, Poland, ...

Vincent of Beauvais

Priest and encyclopedist. Little is known of his personal history. The years of his birth and ...

Vincent of Lérins, Saint

Feast on 24 May, an ecclesiastical writer in Southern Gaul in the fifth century. His work is ...

Vincent, Saint

(MALDEGARIUS). Founder and abbot of the monasteries of Hautmont and Soignies, b. of a noble ...

Vincent, Saint

Deacon of Saragossa, and martyr under Diocletian, 304; mentioned in the Roman Martyrology, 22 ...

Vincentians

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

Vincenzo de Vit

Latinist, b. at Mestrina, near Padua, 10 July, 1810; d. at Domo d'Ossola, 17 Aug., 1892. He made ...

Vinci, Leonardo di Ser Piero da

(LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...

Vindicianus, Saint

Bishop of Cambrai - Arras, b. if tradition is to be believed, perhaps at Beaulaincourt, near ...

Vineam Domini

An Apostolic Constitution issued by Clement XI against the Jansenists on 16 July, 1705. It ...

Violence

Violence ( Latin vis ), an impulse from without tending to force one without any concurrence on ...

Viotti, Giovanni Battista

Founder of the modern school of violinist, b. at Fontanetto, Piedmont, 23 May, 173; d. 3 ...

Viraggio, Jacopo di

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Virgilius, Saint

(VIRGILE). Archbishop of Arles, died c. 610. According to a life written in the eighth ...

Virgin Birth of Christ

The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, ...

Virgin Mary, Devotion to the

Down to the Council of Nicaea Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be ...

Virgin Mary, Name of

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. The Hebrew ...

Virgin Mary, The

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...

Virginia

Surnamed "The Old Dominion", "The Mother of States and of Statesmen", one of the thirteen original ...

Virginity

Morally, virginity signifies the reverence for bodily integrity which is suggested by a virtuous ...

Virtue

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Definitions; II. Subjects; III. ...

Virtue, Heroic

The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

Vischer, Peter

Sculptor and metal founder, b. at Nuremberg about 1460; d. in 1529. His father Hermann, who ...

Visdelou, Claude de

Born at the Château de Bienassis, Pléneuf, Brittany, 122 Aug., 1656; died at ...

Visigoths

One of the two principal branches of the Goths. Until 375 their history is combined with that of ...

Visions

This article will deal not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to ...

Visit ad Limina

(Sc. Apostolorum ) The visit ad limina means, technically, the obligation incumbent on ...

Visitation Convent, Georgetown

Located in the District of Columbia , United States of America . This convent was founded by ...

Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

I. THE EVENT Assuming that the Annunciation and the Incarnation took place about the vernal ...

Visitation Order

The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and ...

Visitation, Canonical

The act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or ...

Visitors Apostolic

Officials whom canonists commonly class with papal legates. Visitors differ from other Apostolic ...

Visits to the Blessed Sacrament

By this devotional practice, which is of comparatively modern development, the presence of ...

Vitalian, Pope Saint

(Reigned 657-72). Date of birth unknown; d. 27 January, 672. Nothing is known of Vitalian's ...

Vitalini, Bonifazio

(DE VITALINIS). Jurist, b. at Mantua, Italy, about 1320; d. at Avignon after 1388. After ...

Vitalis and Agricola, Saints

Martyred at Bologna about 304 during Diocletian's persecution. Agricola, who was beloved for ...

Vitalis of Savigny, Saint

Founder of the monastery and Congregation of Savigny (1112), b. at Tierceville near Bayeaux ...

Vitalis, Saint

Martyr. His legend, which is of little historical value, relates that he was martyred by order ...

Vitelleschi, Muzio

Born at Rome 2 Dec., 1563; died there 9 Feb., 1645. He belonged to a distinguished family but ...

Vitellius, Lucius

Proclaimed Roman Emperor by the soldiers at Cologne during the civil war of A.D. 69; d. at Rome, ...

Vitensis, Victor

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...

Viterbo and Toscanella

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Vitoria

(VICTORIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Burgos, in Spain, bounded on the north by the Bay of ...

Vittorino da Feltre

(VITTORINO DE' RAMBALDONI). Humanist educator, b. at Feltre, 1397; d. at Mantua, 1446. He was ...

Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia, Saints

According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian ; feast, 15 June. The earliest testimony for ...

Viva, Domenico

Writer, b. at Lecce, 19 Oct., 1648; d. 5 July, 1726. He entered the Society of Jesus 12 May, ...

Vivarini

A family of Italian painters. Alvise Vivarini Born in 1446 or 1447; died in 1502. He was the ...

Vives, Juan Luis

Spanish humanist and philosopher, b. at Valencia, 6 March, 1492; d. at Bruges, 6 May, 1540. ...

Viviers

(VIVARIUM). Diocese ; includes the Department of Ardèche, France. It was suppressed ...

Vivisection

Defined literally the word vivisection signifies the dissection of living creatures; ordinarily it ...

Vizagapatam, Diocese of

Located in the east of India, suffragan to Madras. It is bounded on the north by the River ...

Vizeu

(VISENSIS). Diocese in north central Portugal. The bishopric dates from the sixth century and ...

× Close

Vl 1

Vladimir the Great, Saint

(VLADIMIR or VOLODOMIR). Grand Duke of Kieff and All Russia, grandson of St. Olga, and the ...

× Close

Vo 18

Vocation, Ecclesiastical and Religious

An ecclesiastical or religious vocation is the special gift of those who, in the Church of God, ...

Vogüé, Eugène-Melchior, Vicomte de

Critic, novelist, and historian, born at Nice, 25 February, 1848; died in Paris, 24 February, ...

Vogler, George Joseph

Theorist, composer and organist, b. at Würzburg, 15 June 1749, d. at Darmstadt, 6 May, ...

Volk, Wilhelm

(Pseudonym, LUDWIG CLARUS). Born at Halberstadt 25 Jan., 1804; died at Erfurt 17 March, 1869. ...

Volksverein

(PEOPLE'S UNION) FOR CATHOLIC GERMANY. A large and important organization of German Catholics ...

Volta, Alessandro

Physicist, b. at Como, 18 Feb., 1745; d. there, 5 March, 1827. As his parents were not in ...

Volterra

(VOLTARRANENSIS). Diocese in Tuscany. The city stands on a rocky mountain 1770 feet above the ...

Volterra, Daniele da

(RICCIARELLI). Italian painter, b. at Volterra, 1509; d. in Rome, 1566. Ricciarelli was called ...

Voluntarism

Voluntarism ( Latin voluntas , will) in the modern metaphysical sense is a theory which ...

Voluntary

Wilful, proceeding from the will. It is requisite that the thing be an effect of the will ...

Voluntary Association, Right of

I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

Von Gagern, Max, Freiherr

Born at Weilburg (in Nassau), Germany, 25 March, 1810; died at Vienna, 17 October, 1889. He was ...

Vondel, Joost van Den

Netherland poet and convert, b. at Cologne, 17 Nov., 1587, of parents whose residence was ...

Voragine, Jacopo de

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...

Votive Mass

( Missa votiva ) A Mass offered for a votum , a special intention. So we frequently find ...

Votive Offerings

The general name given to those things vowed or dedicated to God, or a saint, and in ...

Votive Offices

A votive office is one not entered in the general calendar, but adopted with a view to satisfying ...

Vows

I. GENERAL VIEW A vow is defined as a promise made to God. The promise is binding, and so differs ...

× Close

Vr 2

Vrau, Philibert

"The holy man of Lille ", organizer of numerous Catholic activities; b. at Lille, 19 Nov., ...

Vrie, Theodoric

Historian of the Council of Constance . He describes himself as a brother of the Order of ...

× Close

Vu 1


Never Miss any Updates!

Stay up to date with the latest news, information, and special offers.

Catholic Online Logo

Copyright 2016 Catholic Online. All materials contained on this site, whether written, audible or visual are the exclusive property of Catholic Online and are protected under U.S. and International copyright laws, © Copyright 2016 Catholic Online. Any unauthorized use, without prior written consent of Catholic Online is strictly forbidden and prohibited.