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Francisco Suárez

Doctor Eximius , a pious and eminent theologian, as Paul V called him, born at Granada, 5 January, 1548; died at Lisbon, 25 September, 1617. He entered the Society of Jesus at Salamanca, 16 June, 1564; in that city he studied philosophy and theology from 1565 to 1570, and was ordained in 1572. He taught philosophy at Avila and at Segovia (1571), and later, theology at Avila and Segovia (1575), Valladolid (1576), Rome (1580-85); Alcalá (1585-92), Salamanca (1592-97), and Coimbra (1597-1616). All his biographers say that he was an excellent religious, practicing mortification, laborious, modest, and given to prayer. He enjoyed such fame for wisdom that Gregory XIII attended his first lecture in Rome ; Paul V invited him to refute the errors of King James of England, and wished to retain him near his person, to profit by his knowledge ; Philip II sent him to the University of Coimbra to give prestige to that institution, and when Francisco Suárez visited the University of Barcelona, the doctors of the university went out to meet him, with the insignia of their faculties. His writings are characterized by depth, penetration and clearness of expression, and they bear witness to their author's exceptional knowledge of the Fathers, and of heretical as well as of ecclesiastical writers. Bossuet said that the writings of Francisco Suárez contained the whole of Scholastic philosophy ; Werner (Franz Francisco Suárez, p. 90) affirms that if Francisco Suárez be not the first theologian of his age, he is, beyond all doubt, among the first; Grotius (Ep. 154, J. Cordesio) recognizes in him one of the greatest of theologians and a profound philosopher, and Mackintosh considers him one of the founders of international law.

In Scholasticism, he founded a school of his own, "Suarism", the chief characteristic principles of which are:

  • the principle of individuation by the proper concrete entity of beings;
  • the pure potentiality of matter;
  • the singular as the object of direct intellectual cognition;
  • a nonconceptual distinction between the essence and the existence of created beings;
  • the possibility of spiritual substance only numerically distinct from one another;
  • ambition for the hypostatic union as the sin of the fallen angels ;
  • the Incarnation of the Word, even if Adam had not sinned ;
  • the solemnity of the vow only in ecclesiastical law;
  • the system of Congruism that modifies Molinism by the introduction of subjective circumstances, as well as of place and of time, propitious to the action of efficacious grace, and with predestination ante praevisa merita ;
  • possibility of holding one and the same truth by both science and faith ;
  • belief in Divine authority contained in an act of faith ;
  • production of the body and blood of Christ by transubstantiation as constituting the Eucharistic sacrifice ;
  • the final grace of the Blessed Virgin Mary superior to that of the angels and saints combined.
  • "Suárez classes" were established in several universities --Valladolid, Salamanca (1720), Alcalá (1734)--and various Scholastic authors wrote their works ad mentem Sáii . Charles III suppressed those classes throughout his dominions by a royal decree of 12 August, 1768, and prohibited the use of Jesuit authors, and therefore of Francisco Suárez, in teaching. It is obvious, says Cardinal Gonzalez, that, in so many volumes written by Francisco Suárez, there are to be found some matters of little utility, or the practical or scientific importance of which are not in proportion to the time and space that Francisco Suárez devotes to them. He is also charged with being somewhat diffuse. His book "De Defensione Fidei" was burned at London by royal command, and was prohibited by the Parliament of Paris (1614) on the ground that it contained doctrines that were contrary to the power of sovereigns.

    WORKS

    Suárez published his first work, "De Deo Incarnato", at Alcalá, in 1590; he published twelve other volumes, the last of which, "De Defensio Fidei," written against the King of England, was published at Coimbra, in 1613. After his death the Jesuits of Portugal published ten other volumes of his work, between 1619 and 1655. Of all of these works, two different editions were made; the first, at Venice, 23 volumes in folio (1740-1757); and the second in Paris (Vives), 28 volumes (1856-1861). In 1859 Mgr Manlou published another volume in folio, containing six short treatises that had not been previously published. Father De Scorraille (Etudes, Vol. LXIV, pp. 151-175) gave an account of the manuscripts of Francisco Suárez, noting the fact that they were numerous and that he himself possessed seventy-five of them. Many of these and others besides were found by Father Rivière. The works of Francisco Suárez were held in the highest esteem in his day, as is shown by the numerous partial editions that were made of them (Lyons, Salamanca, Madrid, Coimbra, Mayence, Cologne, Paris, Evora, Genoa ), as also by the fact, related by his biographies, that one of the wings of the old college of the Jesuits at Salamanca was restored with the product of the sale of his metaphysical works. A compendium of the theology of Francisco Suárez was published by Father Noel, S.J. (Madrid, 1732); a short epitome of this theological disputes, by the Portuguese Father Francis Soárez, S.J. (Lisbon, 1626), and a compendium of the metaphysics, by Father Gregorio Iturria, S.J. (Madrid, 1901).

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    Fi 52

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    Fisherman, The Ring of the

    The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...

    Fitter, Daniel

    Born in Worcestershire, England, 1628; died at St. Thomas' Priory, near Stafford, 6 Feb., 1700. ...

    Fitton, James

    Missionary, b. at Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. , 10 April, 1805; d. there, 15 Sept., 1881. His ...

    Fitz-Simons, Thomas

    American merchant, b. in Ireland, 1741; d. at Philadelphia, U.S.A. 26 Aug., 1811. There is no ...

    Fitzalan, Henry

    Twelfth Earl of Arundel, b. about 1511; d. in London, 24 Feb., 1580 (O.S. 1579). Son of William, ...

    FitzGibbon, Catherine

    (Catherine FitzGibbon.) Born in London, England, 12 May, 1823; died in New York, 14 August, ...

    Fitzherbert, Anthony, Sir

    Judge, b. in 1470; d. 27 May, 1538. He was the sixth son of Ralph Fitzherbert of Norbury, ...

    Fitzherbert, Maria Anne

    Wife of King George IV; b. 26 July, 1756 (place uncertain); d. at Brighton, England, 29 March, ...

    Fitzherbert, Thomas

    Born 1552, at Swynnerton, Staffs, England ; died 17 Aug., 1640, at Rome. His father having died ...

    Fitzpatrick, William John

    Historian, b. in Dublin, Ireland, 31 Aug., 1830; d. there 24 Dec., 1895. The son of a rich ...

    Fitzralph, Richard

    Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dundalk, Ireland, about 1295; d. at Avignon, 16 Dec., 1360. He ...

    Fitzsimon, Henry

    (Fitz Simon). Jesuit, b. 1566 (or 1569), in Dublin, Ireland ; d. 29 Nov., 1643 (or 1645), ...

    Fixlmillner, Placidus

    Astronomer, b. at Achleuthen near Kremsmünster, Austria, in 1721; d. at Kremsmünster, ...

    Fizeau, Armand-Hippolyte-Louis

    Physicist, b. at Paris, 23 Sept., 1819; d. at Nanteuil, Seine-et-Marne, 18 Sept., 1896. His ...

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    Fl 39

    Fléchier, Esprit

    Bishop; b. at Pernes, France, 1632; died at Montpellier, 1710; member of the Academy, and ...

    Flórez, Enrique

    Spanish theologian, archeologist, and historian; born at Valladolid, 14 February, 1701; died at ...

    Flabellum

    The flabellum, in liturgical use, is a fan made of leather, silk, parchment, or feathers ...

    Flaccilla, Ælia

    ( Plakilla ) Empress, wife of Theodosius the Great , died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like ...

    Flagellants

    A fanatical and heretical sect that flourished in the thirteenth and succeeding centuries, Their ...

    Flagellation

    The history of the whip, rod, and stick, as instruments of punishment and of voluntary penance, ...

    Flaget, Benedict Joseph

    First Bishop of Bardstown (subsequently of Louisville ), Kentucky, U.S.A. b. at Contournat, ...

    Flanagan, Thomas Canon

    Born in England in 1814, though Irish by descent; died at Kidderminster, 21 July, 1865. He was ...

    Flanders

    (Flemish VLAENDEREN; German FLANDEREN; French FLANDRE). Designated in the eighth century a ...

    Flandrin, Jean-Hippolyte

    French painter, b. at Lyons, 23 March, 1809; d. at Rome, 21 March, 1864. He came of a family of ...

    Flathead Indians

    A name used in both Americas, without special ethnologic significance, to designate tribes ...

    Flathers, Ven. Mathew

    ( Alias Major). An English priest and martyr ; b. probably c. 1580 at Weston, Yorkshire, ...

    Flavia Domitilla

    A Christian Roman matron of the imperial family who lived towards the close of the first ...

    Flavian, Saint

    Bishop of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; d. at Hypæpa in Lydia, August, 449. ...

    Flavias

    A titular see of Cilicia Secunda. Nothing is known of its ancient name and history, except that ...

    Flavigny, Abbey of

    A Benedictine abbey in the Diocese of Dijon, the department of Côte-d'Or, and ...

    Flaviopolis

    A titular see in the province of Honorias. The city, formerly called Cratia, originally belonged ...

    Flemael, Bertholet

    (The name was also spelled FLEMALLE and FLAMAEL). Painter, b. at Liège, Flanders, in ...

    Fleming, Patrick

    Franciscan friar b. at Lagan, Couny Louth, Ireland, 17 April, 1599; d. 7 November, 1631. His ...

    Fleming, Richard

    (FLEMMING, FLEMMYNGE). Bishop of Lincoln and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford; b. of a ...

    Fleming, Thomas

    Archbishop of Dublin, son of the Baron of Slane, b. in 1593; d. in 1665. He studied at thy ...

    Fletcher, John

    A missionary and theologian, b. at Ormskirk, England, of an old Catholic family ; educated at ...

    Flete, William

    An Augustinian hermit friar, a contemporary and great friend of St. Catherine of Siena ; the ...

    Fleuriot, Zénaide-Marie-Anne

    A French novelist, b. at Saint-Brieuc, 12 September, 1829; d. at Paris, 18 December, 1890. She ...

    Fleury, Abbey of

    ( More completely FLEURY-SAINT-BENOÎT) One of the oldest and most celebrated ...

    Fleury, André-Hercule de

    Born at Lodève, 26 June, 1653; died at Paris, 29 January, 1742. He was a ...

    Flodoard

    (Or FRODOARD) French historian and chronicler, b. at Epernay in 894; d. in 966. He was ...

    Flood of Noah

    Deluge is the name of a catastrophe fully described in Genesis 6:1 - 9:19 , and referred to in the ...

    Floreffe, Abbey of

    Pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Sambre, about seven miles southwest of Namur, ...

    Florence

    (Latin Florentia ; Italian Firenze ). ARCHDIOCESE OF FLORENCE (FLORENTINA). Located in ...

    Florence of Worcester

    English chronicler; all that is known of his personal history is that he was a monk of ...

    Florence, Council of

    The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council was, correctly speaking, the continuation of the Council of ...

    Florentina, Saint

    Virgin ; born towards the middle of the sixth century; died about 612. The family of St. ...

    Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris, Chevalier de

    Born at the château of Florian (Gard), 6 March, 1755; died at Sceaux, 13 September, 1794. An ...

    Florians, The

    (Floriacenses), an altogether independent order, and not, as some consider, a branch of the ...

    Florida

    The Peninsular or Everglade State, the most southern in the American Union and second largest east ...

    Florilegia

    Florilegia (Lat., florilegium, an anthology) are systematic collections of excerpts (more or ...

    Florus

    A deacon of Lyons, ecclesiastical writer in the first half of the ninth century. We have no ...

    Floyd, John

    English missionary, wrote under the names Flud, Daniel à Jesu, Hermannus Loemelius, George ...

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    Fo 64

    Fogaras

    ARCHDIOCESE OF FOGARAS (FOGARASIENSIS). Archdiocese in Hungary, of the Greek-Rumanian Rite. It ...

    Foggia

    DIOCESE OF FOGGIA (FODIANA). Diocese in the province of the same name in Apulia (Southern ...

    Foillan, Saint

    ( Irish FAELAN, FAOLAN, FOELAN, FOALAN.) Represented in iconography with a crown at his ...

    Folengo, Teofilo

    An Italian poet, better known by his pseudonyrn MERLIN COCCALO or COCAI; b. at Mantua in 1496; ...

    Foley, Henry

    Born at Astley in Worcestershire, England, 9 Aug., 1811; died at Manresa House, Roehampton, 19 ...

    Foligno

    DIOCESE OF FOLIGNO (FULGINATENSIS). Diocese in the province of Perugia, Italy, immediately ...

    Foliot, Gilbert

    Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

    Folkestone Abbey

    Folkestone Abbey -- more correctly FOLKESTONE PRIORY -- is situated in the east division of ...

    Fonseca Soares, Antonio da

    (ANTONIO DAS CHAGAS). Friar Minor and ascetical writer; b. at Vidigueira, 25 June, 1631; d. at ...

    Fonseca, José Ribeiro da

    Friar Minor ; b. at Evora, 3 Dec., 1690; d. at Porto, 16 June, 1752. He was received into the ...

    Fonseca, Pedro Da

    A philosopher and theologian, born at Cortizada, Portugal, 1528; died at Lisbon, 4 Nov., 1599. ...

    Fontana, Carlo

    An architect and writer; b. at Bruciato, near Como, 1634; d. at Rome, 1714. There seems to be no ...

    Fontana, Domenico

    A Roman architect of the Late Renaissance, b. at Melide on the Lake of Lugano, 1543; d. at ...

    Fontana, Felice

    Italian naturalist and physiologist, b. at Pomarolo in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1730; d. at Florence, ...

    Fontbonne, Jeanne

    In religion Mother St. John, second foundress and superior-general of the Sisters of St. Joseph ...

    Fonte-Avellana

    A suppressed order of hermits, which takes its name from their first hermitage in the Apennines. ...

    Fontenelle, Abbey of

    (Or ABBEY OF SAINT WANDRILLE). A Benedictine monastery in Normandy ...

    Fontevrault, Order and Abbey of

    I. CHARACTER OF THE ORDER The monastery of Fontevrault was founded by Blessed Robert ...

    Fonts, Holy Water

    Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

    Fools, Feast of

    A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...

    Foppa, Ambrogio

    Generally known as CARADOSS0. Italian goldsmith, sculptor, and die sinker, b. at Mondonico in ...

    Forbes, John

    Capuchin, b. 1570; d. 1606. His father, John, eighth Lord Forbes, being a Protestant, and his ...

    Forbin-Janson, Comte de Charles-Auguste-Marie-Joseph

    A Bishop of Nancy and Toul, founder of the Association of the Holy Childhood , born in Paris, ...

    Forcellini, Egidio

    Latin lexicographer, b. at Fener, near Treviso, Italy, 26 Aug., 1688; d. at Padua, 4 April, ...

    Ford, Blessed Thomas

    Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

    Fordham University

    Fordham University developed out of Saint John's College, founded by Bishop Hughes upon the old ...

    Foreman, Andrew

    A Scottish prelate, of good border family ; b. at Hatton, near Berwick-on-Tweed; d. 1522. His ...

    Forer, Laurenz

    Controversialist, b. at Lucerne, 1580; d. at Ratisbon, 7 January, 1659. He entered the Society ...

    Foresters, Catholic Orders of

    I On 30 July, 1879, some members of the St. Vincent de Paul Society of Boston, Massachusetts, ...

    Forgery, Forger

    If we accept the definition usually given by canonists, forgery ( Latin falsum ) differs very ...

    Forli

    (FOROLIVIENSIS) Diocese in the province of Romagna (Central Italy ); suffragan of Ravenna. ...

    Form

    (Latin forma; Greek eidos, morphe, he kata ton logon ousia, to ti en einai : Aristotle) ...

    Formby, Henry

    Born 1816; died at Normanton Hall, Leicester, 12 March, 1884. His father, Henry Grenehalgh Formby, ...

    Formosus, Pope

    (891-896) The pontificate of this pope belongs to that era of strife for political supremacy ...

    Formularies

    (LIBRI FORMULARUM) Formularies are medieval collections of models for the execution of ...

    Forrest, William

    Priest and poet; dates of birth and death uncertain. Few personal details are known of him. He ...

    Forster, Fobrenius

    Prince-Abbot of St. Emmeram at Ratisbon, b. 30 Aug., 1709, at Königsfeld in Upper Bavaria ...

    Forster, Thomas Ignatius Maria

    Astronomer and naturalist, b. at London, 9 Nov., 1789; d. at Brussels, 2 Feb., 1860. His literary ...

    Fort Augustus Abbey

    St. Benedict's Abbey, at Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire, is at present the only monastery for ...

    Fort Wayne

    DIOCESE OF (WAYNE CASTRENSIS). The Diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, U.S.A. established in ...

    Fortaleza, Diocese of

    (FORTALEXIENSIS) The Diocese of Fortaleza is co-extensive with the State of Ceará in ...

    Fortescue, Blessed Adrian

    Knight of St. John, martyr, b. about 1476, executed 10 July, 1539. He belonged to the Salden ...

    Fortitude

    (1) Manliness is etymologically what is meant by the Latin word virtus and by the Greek andreia ...

    Fortunato of Brescia

    Morphologist and Minorite of the Reform of Lombardy ; b. at Brescia, 1701; d. at Madrid, ...

    Fortunatus

    Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus A Christian poet of the sixth century, b. ...

    Forty Hours' Devotion

    Also called Quarant' Ore or written in one word Quarantore , is a devotion in which continuous ...

    Forty Martyrs

    A party of soldiers who suffered a cruel death for their faith, near Sebaste, in Lesser Armenia, ...

    Forum, Ecclesiastical

    That the Church of Christ has judicial and coercive power is plain from the constitution given ...

    Fossano

    DIOCESE OF FOSSANO (FOSSANENSIS). Fossano is a town in the province of Cuneo, in Piedmont, ...

    Fossombrone

    DIOCESE OF FOSSOMBRONE (FOROSEMPRONIENSIS). Diocese in the province of Pesaro, Italy, a ...

    Fossors

    (Latin fossores , fossarii from fodere , to dig). Grave diggers in the Roman ...

    Foster, John Gray

    Soldier, convert, b. at Whitfield, New Hampshire, U.S.A. 27 May, 1823; d. at Nashua, New ...

    Fothad, Saint

    Surnamed NA CANOINE ("of the Canon"). A monk of Fahan-Mura, County Doneval, Ireland, at the ...

    Fouard, Constant

    An ecclesiastical writer b. at Elbeuf, near Rouen, 6 Aug. 1837; his early life was a ...

    Foucault, Jean-Bertrand-Léon

    A physicist and mechanician, b. at Paris, 19 Sept., 1819; d. there 11 Feb., 1868. He received ...

    Foulque de Neuilly

    A popular Crusade preacher, d. March, 1202. At the end of the twelfth century he was ...

    Foundation

    ( Latin fundatio; German Stiftung ) An ecclesiastical foundation is the making over of ...

    Foundling Asylums

    Under this title are comprised all institutions which take charge of infants whose parents or ...

    Fountains Abbey

    A monastery of the Cistercian Order situated on the banks of the Skell about two and a half ...

    Fouquet, Jehan

    (Or J EAN F OUQUET ) French painter and miniaturist, b. at Tours, c. 1415; d. about 1480. ...

    Four Crowned Martyrs

    The old guidebooks to the tombs of the Roman martyrs make mention, in connection with the ...

    Four Masters, Annals of the

    The most extensive of all the compilations of the ancient annals of Ireland. They commence, ...

    Fowler, John

    Scholar and printer, b. at Bristol, England, 1537; d. at Namur, Flanders, 13 Feb., 1578-9. He ...

    Foxe's Book of Martyrs

    John Foxe was born at Boston in Lincolnshire, England, in 1516, and was educated at Magdalen ...

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    Fr 82

    Fréchette, Louis-Honoré

    Born at Notre-Dame de Lévis, P.Q., Canada, 16 November, 1839; died 30 May, 1908. He ...

    Fréjus

    DIOCESE OF FRÉJUS (FORUM JULII). Suffragan of Aix ; comprises the whole department of ...

    Fra Angelico

    A famous painter of the Florentine school, born near Castello di Vicchio in the province of ...

    Fractio Panis

    (BREAKING OF BREAD.) The name given to a fresco in the so-called "Capella Greca" in the ...

    France

    The fifth in size (usually reckoned the fourth) of the great divisions of Europe. DESCRIPTIVE ...

    Frances d'Amboise, Blessed

    Duchess of Brittany, afterwards Carmelite nun, b. 1427; d. at Nantes, 4 Nov., 1485. The daughter ...

    Frances of Rome, Saint

    (Bussa di Leoni.) One of the greatest mystics of the fifteenth century; born at Rome, of a noble ...

    Franceschini, Marc' Antonio

    Italian painter ; b. at Bologna, 1648; d. there c. 1729; best known for the decorative works he ...

    Franchi, Ausonio

    The pseudonym of CRISTOFORO BONAVINO, philosopher ; b. 24 February, 1821, at Pegli, province of ...

    Francia

    (FRANCESCO RAIBOLINI) A famous Bolognese goldsmith, engraver, and artist, b. about 1450; d. in ...

    Francis Borgia, Saint

    (Spanish F RANCISCO DE B ORJA Y A RAGON ) Francis Borgia, born 28 October, 1510, was the ...

    Francis Caracciolo, Saint

    Co-founder with John Augustine Adorno of the Conregation of the Minor Clerks Regular ; b. in Villa ...

    Francis de Geronimo, Saint

    (Girolamo, Hieronymo). Born 17 December, 1642; died 11 May, 1716. His birthplace was ...

    Francis de Sales, Saint

    Bishop of Geneva, Doctor of the Universal Church ; born at Thorens, in the Duchy of Savoy, 21 ...

    Francis I

    King of France ; b. at Cognac, 12 September, 1494; d. at Rambouillet, 31 March, 1547. He was the ...

    Francis Ingleby, Venerable

    English martyr, born about 1551; suffered at York on Friday, 3 June, 1586 (old style). According ...

    Francis of Assisi, Saint

    Founder of the Franciscan Order, born at Assisi in Umbria, in 1181 or 1182 -- the exact year ...

    Francis of Fabriano, Blessed

    Priest of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. 2 Sept., 1251; d. 22 April, 1322. His birth and ...

    Francis of Paula, Saint

    Founder of the Order of Minims; b. in 1416, at Paula, in Calabria, Italy ; d. 2 April, 1507, at ...

    Francis of Vittoria

    A Spanish theologian ; b. about 1480, at Vittoria, province of Avila, in Old Castile ; d. 12 ...

    Francis Regis Clet, Blessed

    A Lazarist missionary in China ; b. 1748, martyred, 18 Feb., 1820. His father was a merchant ...

    Francis Solanus, Saint

    South American missionary of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. at Montilla, in the Diocese of ...

    Francis Xavier, Saint

    Born in the Castle of Xavier near Sanguesa, in Navarre, 7 April, 1506; died on the Island of ...

    Francis, Rule of Saint

    As known, St. Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule. Here only the ...

    Franciscan Crown

    ( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...

    Franciscan Order

    A term commonly used to designate the members of the various foundations of religious, whether men ...

    Franck, Kasper

    A theologian and controversialist; b. at Ortrand, Saxony, 2 Nov., 1543; d. at Ingolstadt, 12 ...

    Franco, Giovanni Battista

    (Frequently known as IL SEMOLIE) Italian historical painter and etcher, b. at Udine in ...

    Frank, Michael Sigismund

    Catholic artist and rediscoverer of the lost art of glass-painting; b. 1 June, 1770, at ...

    Frankenberg

    JOHANN HEINRICH, GRAF VON FRANKENBERG. Archbishop of Mechlin (Malines), Primate of ...

    Frankfort, Council of

    Convened in the summer of 794, by the grace of God, authority of the pope, and command of ...

    Frankfort-on-the-Main

    Frankfort-on-the-Main, formerly the scene of the election and coronation of the German emperors, ...

    Franks, The

    The Franks were a confederation formed in Western Germany of a certain number of ancient ...

    Franzelin, Johann Baptist

    Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Aldein, in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1816; d. at Rome, 11 Dec., ...

    Frascati

    DIOCESE OF FRASCATI (TUSCULANA). One of the six suburbicarian (i.e. neighbouring) dioceses ...

    Frassen, Claude

    A celebrated Scotist theologian and philosopher of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. near ...

    Fraternal Correction

    Fraternal correction is here taken to mean the admonishing of one's neighbor by a private ...

    Fraticelli

    (Or F RATRICELLI ) A name given to various heretical sects which appeared in the fourteenth ...

    Fraud

    In the common acceptation of the word, an act or course of deception deliberately practised with ...

    Fraunhofer, Joseph von

    Optician, b. at Straubing, Bavaria, 6 March, 1787; d. at Munich, 7 June, 1826. He was the tenth ...

    Frayssinous, Denis de

    1765-1841, Bishop of Hermopolis in partibus infidelium , is celebrated chiefly for his ...

    Fredegarius

    The name used since the sixteenth designate the supposed author of an anonymous historical ...

    Fredegis of Tours

    (Fridugisus or Fredegisus). A ninth-century monk, teacher, and writer. Fredegis was an ...

    Frederick I (Barbarossa)

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick of Swabia (d. 1147) and Judith, daughter of Henry ...

    Frederick II

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily; born 26 Dec., 1194; died ...

    Fredoli, Berenger

    Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati ; b. at Vérune, France, c. ú d. at Avignon, 11 June, ...

    Free Church of Scotland

    (Known since 1900 as the UNITED FREE CHURCH) An ecclesiastical organization in Scotland ...

    Free Will

    RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...

    Free-Thinkers

    Those who, abandoning the religious truths and moral dictates of the Christian Revelation, and ...

    Freeman, Ven. William

    A priest and martyr, b. at Manthorp near York, c. 1558; d. at Warwick, 13 August, 1595. His ...

    Freemasonry

    The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...

    Fregoso, Federigo

    Cardinal ; b. at Genoa, about 1480; d. 22 July, 1541; belonged to the Fregosi, one of the four ...

    Freiburg

    City, archdiocese, and university in the Archduchy of Baden, Germany . THE CITY Freiburg in ...

    Fremin, James

    Jesuit missionary to the American Indians ; b. at Reims, 12 March, 1628; d. at Quebec, 2 July, ...

    French Academy, The

    The French Academy was founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635. For several years a number of ...

    French Catholics in the United States

    The first Bishop of Burlington, the Right Reverend Louis de Goesbriand, in a letter dated 11 ...

    French Concordat of 1801, The

    This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope ...

    French Literature

    Origin and Foundations of the French Language When the Romans became masters of Gaul, they imposed ...

    French Revolution

    The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...

    French, Nicholas

    Bishop of Ferns, Ireland, b. at Ballytory, Co. Wexford, in 1604, his parents being John ...

    Freppel, Charles-Emile

    Born at Ober-Ehnheim, Alsace, 1 June, 1827; died at Paris, 22 Dec., 1891. He was Bishop of ...

    Frequent Communion

    Without specifying how often the faithful should communicate, Christ simply bids us eat His Flesh ...

    Fresnel, Augustin-Jean

    Physicist; b. at Broglie near Bernay, Normandy, 10 May, 1788; d. at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, ...

    Friar

    [From Lat. frater , through O. Fr. fredre, frere, M. E. frere; It. frate (as prefix ...

    Friars Minor, Order of

    (Also known as FRANCISCANS.) This subject may be conveniently considered under the following ...

    Fribourg, University of

    From the sixteenth century, the foundation of a Catholic university in Switzerland had often ...

    Fridelli, Xavier Ehrenbert

    (Properly FRIEDEL.) Jesuit missioner and cartographer, b. at Linz, Austria, 11 March, 1673; ...

    Frideswide, Saint

    (FRIDESWIDA, FREDESWIDA, French FRÉVISSE, Old English FRIS). Virgin, patroness of ...

    Fridolin, Saint

    Missionary, founder of the Monastery of Säckingen, Baden (sixth century). In accordance with ...

    Friedrich von Hausen

    (HUSEN) Medieval German poet, one of the earliest of the minnesingers; date of birth ...

    Friends of God

    ( German G OTTESFREUNDE ). An association of pious persons, both ecclesiastical and lay, ...

    Friends, Society of

    The official designation of an Anglo - American religious sect originally styling themselves ...

    Frigolet, Abbey of

    The monastery of St. Michael was founded, about 960, at Frigolet, by Conrad the Pacific, King ...

    Fringes (in Scripture)

    This word is used to denote a special kind of trimming, consisting of loose threads of wool, silk, ...

    Fritz, Samuel

    A Jesuit missionary of the eighteenth century noted for his exploration of the Amazon River and ...

    Froissart, Jean

    French historian and poet, b. at Valenciennes, about 1337, d. at sentence -->Chimay early ...

    Fromentin, Eugène

    French writer and artist; b. at La Rochelle, 24 October, 1820; d. at Saint-Maurice, near La ...

    Frontal, Altar

    The frontal ( antipendium, pallium altaris ) is an appendage which covers the entire front of ...

    Frontenac, Louis de Baude

    A governor of New France, b. at Paris, 1622; d. at Quebec, 28 Nov., 1698. His father was captain ...

    Frowin, Blessed

    Benedictine abbot, d. 11 March, 1178. Of the early life of Frowin nothing is known, save that he ...

    Fructuosus of Braga, Saint

    An Archbishop, d. 16 April, c. 665. He was the son of a Gothic general, and studied in Palencia. ...

    Fructuosus of Tarragona, Saint

    A bishop and martyr ; d. 21 January, 259. During the night of 16 January, he, together with ...

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    Fu 21

    Fuchs, Johann Nepomuk von

    A chemist and mineralogist, b. at Mattenzell, near Bremberg, Lower Bavaria, 15 May, 1774; d. at ...

    Fulbert of Chartres

    Bishop, b. between 952 and 962; d. 10 April, 1028 or 1029. Mabillon and others think that he was ...

    Fulcran, Saint

    Bishop of Lodève; d. 13 February, 1006. According to the biography which Bernard Guidonis, ...

    Fulda

    DIOCESE OF FULDA (FULDENSIS). This diocese of the German Empire takes its name from the ...

    Fulgentius Ferrandus

    A canonist and theologian of the African Church in the first half of the sixth century. He was ...

    Fulgentius, Saint

    A Bishop of Ecija (Astigi), in Spain, at the beginning of the seventh century. Like his brothers ...

    Fulgentius, Saint

    (FABIUS CLAUDIUS GORDIANUS FULGENTIUS). Born 468, died 533. Bishop of Ruspe in the province ...

    Fullerton, Lady Georgiana Charlotte

    Novelist; born 23 September, 1812, in Staffordshire, died 19 January, 1885, at Bournemouth. She ...

    Fullo, Peter

    Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

    Fumo, Bartolommeo

    A theologian, b. at Villon near Piacenza ; d. 1545. At an early age he entered the Dominican ...

    Funchal

    (FUNCHALENSIS.) Diocese in the Madeira Islands. Both in neo-Latin and in Portuguese the name ...

    Fundamental Articles

    This term was employed by Protestant theologians to distinguish the essential parts of the ...

    Funeral Dues

    The canonical perquisites of a parish priest receivable on the occasion of the funeral of any of ...

    Funeral Pall

    A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

    Funk, Franz Xaver von

    Church historian, b. in the small market town of Abtsgemünd in Würtemberg, 12 October, ...

    Furness Abbey

    Situated in the north of Lancashire about five miles from the town of Ulverston. Originally a ...

    Furni

    A titular see in Proconsular Africa, where two towns of this name are known to have existed. One ...

    Furniss, John

    A well-known children's missioner, born near Sheffield, England, 19 June, 1809; at Clapham, ...

    Fursey, Saint

    An Abbot of Lagny, near Paris, d. 16 Jan., about 650. He was the son of Fintan, son of Finloga, ...

    Fussola

    A titular see in Numidia. It was a fortified town, inhabited for the most part by Donatists ...

    Fust, John

    ( Or FAUST.) A partner of Gutenberg in promoting the art of printing, d. at Paris about ...

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