Boniface VIII The wishes of Pope Boniface VIII were to maintain peace in Europe and to free the Holy Land from the Turks. His was not a successful papacy. Born Benedetto Gaetani c. 1235, he was a lawyer, a papal notary, and a cardinal before he advised Celestine V to resign in 1294. Boniface was then elected to the see of Rome and his reign was characterized by conflict with Philip IV of France. Boniface believed strongly in the supreme power of the papacy, a principle expounded in his bull, Unam Sanctam, a popular Medićval document. Philip believed that he held sovereignty over all in his kingdom, including the clery. In 1297, the pope and the king reached an understanding: Boniface canonized Louis IX of France and Philip could tax the clergy in an emergency without consulting the pope. In 1302, Philip demanded that Boniface resign because his birth was illegitimate; because he was a heretic; and because he had engaged in sexual misconduct. Boniface was about to excommunicate Philip when the king's troops captured the pope at Agnani. Freed by the citizens, Boniface returned to Rome in September, 1303, and died there a month later.
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St. Stephen the Great (977-1038), was the son of the Magyar chieftain Geza, Stephen succeeded him as leader in 997. Already raised a Christian, in 996 he wed the daughter of Duke Henry II of Bavaria ... continue readingMore Saint of the Day
What we know of St. Elizabeth comes from the Gospel, the book of Luke, in particular. In Luke, Elizabeth, a daughter of the line of Aaron, and the wife of Zacharias, was "righteous before God" and was "blameless" but childless. Elizabeth is also a cousin to the Virgin ... continue readingMore Female Saints
Saint Michael the Archangel isn't a saint, but rather he is an angel, and the leader of all angels and of the army of God. This is what the title "Archangel" means, that he is above all the others in rank. St. Michael has four main responsibilities or offices, as we ... continue reading
St. Gabriel is an angel who serves as a messenger for God to certain people. He is one of the three archangels. Gabriel is mentioned in both the Old and the New Testaments of the Bible. First, in the Old Testament, Gabriel appears to the prophet Daniel to explain his ... continue reading
It is uncertain when Saint George was born and historians continue to debate to this day. However, his death date is estimated to be April 23 303 A.D. The first piece of evidence of George's existance appeared within the works of the Bollandists Daniel Papebroch, Jean ... continue reading
When Hortense decided to marry Laurent Cousin in Pibrac, France, it was not out of love for his infant daughter. Germaine was everything Hortense despised. Weak and ill, the girl had also been born with a right hand that was deformed and paralyzed. Hortense replaced ... continue reading
By Deacon Frederick Bartels
Why is the Assumption important? First, lets look at what this dogma is all about. On 1 November, 1950, Pope Pius XII issued the Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus in which he proclaimed the dogma of the Assumption: "Mary, the immaculate perpetually Virgin ... continue readingMore Christian Saints & Heroes
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