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University of Padua

The University of Padua dates, according to some anonymous chronicles (Muratori, "Rer. Ital. Script.", VIII, 371, 421, 459, 736), from 1222, when a part of the Studium of Bologna including professors and students withdrew to Padua. The opinion that Frederick II transferred the Studium of Bologna to Padua in 1241 is groundless. But even before this emigration there were professors of law at Padua, as Gerardus Pomadellus (c. 1165), afterwards Bishop of Padua ; furthermore, his predecessor, Bishop Carzo, was called sacrorum canonum doctor . The contract proposed by the commune of Vercelli to the Rectors of the students of Padua in 1228 shows that besides both laws and dialectics, medicine and grammar were taught there. The students were divided into four nationalities: French, Italian, German, and Provencal. This contract stipulated that all or part of the university (14 professors and sufficient students to occupy 500 houses) should be transferred to Vercelli for at least eight years. The university, however, was not suspended on that account, as is evident from the Life of St. Antonio. But the tyranny of Ezzelino (1237-56) caused its decadence. From 1260 it revived under the commune which established the rights of the professors and students, and the salaries (300 lire for legists and 200 for canonists); the examinations were held before the bishop, who also granted teachers' licenses. In 1274 Padua had the decrees of the Council of Lyons, equal with the Universities of Paris and Bologna. In 1282, on account of certain communal laws against the clergy and the university, Nicholas IV threatened to deprive Padua of its Studium, but the commune relented, and the Studium acquired great renown, rivalling Bologna, especially in jurisprudence. From the beginning of the fourteenth century the school of medicine was also famous. The professors in this faculty introduced Averroism in philosophy. The theological faculty was instituted by Urban V in 1363. In the same year the Collegium Tornacense was founded, the first of its kind in Padua. There were other institutes from 1390, as the college of St. Marco for six medical students, the college of Cardinal Pileo (1420) for twenty (afterwards twelve) students.

The professors of this first period included the jurisconsults, Alberto Galeotto, Guido Suzzara, Jacopo d'Arena, Riccardo Malombra, Albrado Ponte, Rolando Piazzola, Jacopo Belvisio, Bartol Saliceti, and the celebrated Baldo; the canonists, Ruffino and Jacopo da Piacenza, Lapoda Castiglionchio, and the canonist and theologian, Francesco Zabarella, afterwards cardinal ; in medicine, Bruno da Longoburgo, Pietro d'Albano, Dino del Garbo, Jacopo and Giovanni Dondi (also excellent mechanicians), Marcilio, Giovanni and Guglielmo Santa Sofia, Jacopo da Forlè, and Biagio Pelacani. Philosophy was often taught, as elsewhere, by professors of medicine, mostly averroists, like Petrus Aponensis and Mundinus. The most distinguished philosophers who were not physicians were Pier Paolo Vergerio (1349-1414), afterwards Bishop of Capo d'Istria, a learned humanist and a student of antiquity; the Franciscan Antonio Trombetta, a famous Scotist. From the fifteenth century there were in theology and metaphysics two courses, one Thomistic, with professors preferably Dominican, and the other Scotist, with professors chiefly from the Friars Minor. Famous in the beginning of the sixteenth century were the controversies between the averroist philosopher, Achillini, and the Alexandrist, Pietro Pomponazzi. The doctrines of the latter (who had gone to Bologna), especially on the soul were opposed, among others, by Agostino Nifo, another professor of Philosophy at Padua. The humanist Girolamo Fracastoro taught philosophy there.

Among the professors of letters were: Rolandino, historian of Padua (thirteenth century), and Giovanni da Ravenna, friend of Petrarch ; the humanists Gosparino Barzizi, Francisco Filelfo, Vittorino da Feltre, a distinguished pedagogical writer and educator, Lauro Quirino; the Greeks Demetrio Chalcocondylas, Alessandro Zenos, Nicolas Leonicos, Marino Becichem, Romolo Amasacus, and Nicolo Caliachius; Giovanni Fascolus, Francesco Robortellos, the historian Sigonius, the great French Latinist Marc. Ant. Mauretus, Justus Lipsius, and the great Latin lexicographers of the eighteenth century, Jacopus Faciolatus, and Egidio Forcellini. Astronomy, or astrology, was taught already in the fourteenth century. The most noted professors were in the fifteenth century, Georg Pearbach, and his disciple Johann Müller, called Regiomontanus; in the sixteenth century, Giovanni Battista Capuano and Galileo Galilei, who also taught mechanics and other physical sciences. Chief among the theologians was the French Dominican Hyacinthe Serry (1698), who introduced there the new method of basing theology more on Scriptural and patristic arguments than on philosophical speculations, in which he encountered much opposition from the Conventual Fra Nicola Buico. Among the jurisconsults, after the closing of the university (1509-17), were the canonist Menochius, Alciatus, Lancelotti, and Pancirolo, famous also for his knowledge of Roman antiquities.

A characteristic of the University of Padua, even in the eighteenth century, was its internationalism, as seen from the list of professors about Facciolati; it was attended especially by Germans. When Venice passed under Austrian domination (1814) the university was transformed, like that of Pavia. At present it has the ordinary four faculties, besides a school of applied engineering and a school of pharmacy and obstetrics. Various astronomical institutes, bacteriological, physiological, hygienic, and pathological; chemical, physical and geodetic laboratories; an anthropological museum; a botanical garden; and an astronomical observatory complete the equipment of the university. It has 128 chairs, 68 professors, 20 paid, and 107 private, tutors. In 1906, there was established near the university an institution for the education of Catholic young men. University education in Italy is strictly governmental, and without it all professional possibilities are closed to young men. At some seats of learning, Catholic Clubs were started to help them against the peril to their faith and morals, but they failed. The small Pensionata, situated in the neighborhood of Padua, between the Basilica and the church of Sta. Juliana, was transformed into a large establishment. The students attend a weekly conference which treats of points of faith affecting modern conditions of life and science.

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Ub 8

Ubaghs, Casimir

Born at Bergélez-Fauquemont, 26 November, 1800; died at Louvain, 15 February, 1875, was for ...

Ubaldus, Saint

Confessor, Bishop of Gubbio, born of noble parents at Gubbio, Umbria, Italy, towards the ...

Ubanghi

(UPPER FRENCH CONGO.) Vicariate Apostolic ; formerly part of the Vicariate of French Congo, ...

Ubanghi, Belgian

In Belgian Congo, separated on 7 April, 1911, from the Vicariate of the Belgian Congo and ...

Ubanghi-Chari

Prefecture Apostolic in Equatorial Africa, lies west of the Bahr-el-Ghazal territory and south ...

Uberaba

(DE UBERABA.) Suffragan diocese of Marianna, in Brazil, created by the Consistorial ...

Ubertino of Casale

Leader of the Spirituals, born at Casale of Vercelli, 1259; died about 1330. He assumed the ...

Ubiquitarians

Also called Ubiquists , a Protestant sect started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 ...

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Uc 2

Ucayali

(SAN FRANCISCO DE UCAYALI.) Prefecture Apostolic in Peru. At the request of the Peruvian ...

Uccello

Painter, born at Florence, 1397; died there, 1475. His real name was Paolo di Dono, but from his ...

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Ud 1

Udine

(UTINENSIS) The city of Udine, the capital of a province and archdiocese in Friuli, northern ...

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Ug 2

Ugento

(UXENTIN) The city of Ugento, with its small harbour, is situated in the Province of Leece, in ...

Ughelli, Ferdinando

Historian, born at Florence, 21 March, 1595; died 19 May, 1670. Having entered the Cistercian ...

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Uh 1

Uhtred

(Also spelled: Uhtred or Owtred ), an English Benedictine theologian and writer, born at ...

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Uj 1

Ujejski, Cornelius

Polish poet, born at Beremiany, Galicia, 1823; died at Cholojewie, 1897. His father was a ...

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Ul 12

Ulenberg, Kaspar

Convert, theological writer and translator of the Bible , born at Lippstadt on the Lippe, ...

Ulfilas

(Also: Ulphilas ), apostle of the Goths, missionary, translator of the Bible , and inventor ...

Ullathorne, William Bernard

English Benedictine monk and bishop, b. at Pocklington, Yorkshire, 7 May, 1806; d. at Oscott, ...

Ullerston, Richard

Born in the Duchy of Lancaster, England ; d. in August or September, 1423. Having been ordained ...

Ulloa, Antoine de

Naval officer and scientist, born at Seville, Spain, 12 Jan., 1716; died near Cadiz, Spain, 5 ...

Ulloa, Francisco de

Died 1540. It is not known when he came to Mexico nor if he accompanied Hernan Cortés in ...

Ulrich of Bamberg

(Udalricus Babenbergensis), a cleric of the cathedral church of Bamberg, of whom nothing more ...

Ulrich of Richenthal

Chronicler of the Council of Constance , date of birth unknown; died about 1438. Ulrich was ...

Ulrich of Zell

(Wulderic; called also of Cluny, and of Ratisbon ), born at Ratisbon, at the beginning of 1029; ...

Ulrich, Saint

Bishop of Augsburg, born at Kyburg, Zurich, Switzerland, in 890; died at Augsburg, 4 July, ...

Ultan of Ardbracca

St. Ultan of Ardbraccan, Ireland, was the maternal uncle of St. Brigid, and collected a life of ...

Ultramontanism

A term used to denote integral and active Catholicism, because it recognizes as its spiritual ...

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Un 22

Unam Sanctam

(Latin the One Holy , i.e. Church ), the Bull on papal supremacy issued 18 November, 1302, ...

Unclean and Clean

The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral, cleanness and uncleanness ...

Unction, Extreme

A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...

Ungava

A Canadian territory lying north of the Province of Quebec, detached (1876) from the Great ...

Uniformity Acts

These statutes, passed at different times, were vain efforts to secure uniformity in public ...

Unigenitus

A celebrated Apostolic Constitution of Clement XI, condemning 101 propositions of Pasquier ...

Union of Brest

Brest -- in Russian, Brest-Litovski; in Polish, Brzesc; in the old chronicles, called Brestii, or ...

Union of Christendom

The Catholic Church is by far the largest, the most widespread, and the most ancient of ...

Unions of Prayer

A tendency to form unions of prayer among the faithful has recently manifested itself in the ...

Unitarians

A Liberal Protestant sect which holds as it distinctive tenet the belief in a uni-personal ...

Unitas Fratrum

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...

United States of America, The

BOUNDARIES AND AREA On the east the boundary is formed by the St. Croix River and an arbitrary ...

Unitive Way

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

Unity

The marks of the Church are certain unmistakeable signs, or distinctive characteristics which ...

Universalists

A Liberal Protestant sect -- found chiefly in North America -- whose distinctive tenet is the ...

Universals

The name refers on the one hand to the inclination towards uniformity ( uni-versus ) existing in ...

Universe

Universe (or "world") is here taken in the astronomical sense, in its narrower or wider ...

Universe, Relation of God to the

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...

Universities

The principal Catholic foundations have been treated in special articles; here the general ...

University College (Dublin)

A constitutional college of the National University of Ireland. By its charter, granted 2 Dec., ...

Unjust Aggressor

According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, ...

Unyanyembe

Vicariate apostolic in German East Africa, separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Nyanza ...

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Up 4

Upper Nile

Vicariate apostolic ; separated from the mission of Nyanza, 6 July, 1894, comprises the eastern ...

Upper Rhine

Ecclesiastical province; includes the Archdiocese of Freiburg and the suffragan Dioceses of ...

Upsala, Ancient See of

When St. Ansgar, the Apostle of the North, went to Sweden in 829 the Swedes were still heathen ...

Upsala, University of

The oldest and most celebrated university of Sweden. Even today the arrangement of its ...

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Ur 26

Uranopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ancyra in Galatia Prima. It is vainly sought in any ...

Urban I, Pope Saint

Reigned 222-30, date of birth unknown; died 23 May, 230. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," ...

Urban II, Pope Blessed

(Otho, Otto or Odo of Lagery), 1088-1099, born of a knightly family, at Châtillon-sur-Marne ...

Urban III, Pope

Reigned 1185-87, born at Milan ; died at Ferrara, 19 October, 1187. Uberto, of the noble ...

Urban IV, Pope

Reigned 1261-64 (Jacques Pantaléon), son of a French cobbler, born at Troyes, probably in ...

Urban V, Pope Blessed

Guillaume de Grimoard, born at Grisac in Languedoc, 1310; died at Avignon, 19 December, 1370. ...

Urban VI, Pope

Bartolomeo Prignano, the first Roman pope during the Western Schism, born at Naples, about ...

Urban VII, Pope

Giambattista Castagna, born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1521; elected pope, 15 September, 1590; died at ...

Urban VIII, Pope

Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence in April, 1568; elected pope, 6 August, 1623; died at Rome, 29 ...

Urbi et Orbi

The term Urbi et Orbi (which means "for the city and for the world") signifies that a papal ...

Urbino

(URBINATENSIS) Province of Pesaro and Urbino, Italy. The city of Urbino is situated on a ...

Urbs beata Jerusalem dicta pacis visio

The first line of a hymn of probably the seventh or eighth century, comprising eight stanzas ...

Urdaneta, Andrés

Augustinian, born at Villafranca, Guipúzcoa, Spain, 1498; died in the City of Mexico, ...

Urgel

(U RGELLENSIS ). Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; bounded on the N. by France ...

Urim and Thummim

The sacred lot by means of which the ancient Hebrews were wont to seek manifestations of the ...

Urmiah

A residential see in Chaldea, in the Province of Adherbaidjan, Persia. The primitive name of this ...

Urráburu, Juan José

Scholastic philosopher, born at Ceanuri, Biscay, 23 May, 1844; died at Burgos, 13 August, 1904. ...

Ursperger Chronicle

A history of the world in Latin that begins with the Assyrian King Ninius and extends to the year ...

Ursula of the Blessed Virgin, Society of the Sisters of Saint

Religious congregation of women founded in 1606 at Döle (then a Spanish possession), ...

Ursula, Saint, and the Eleven Thousand Virgins

The history of these celebrated virgins of Cologne rests on ten lines, and these are open to ...

Ursulines of Quebec, The

The Ursuline monastery of Quebec is the oldest institution of learning for women in North ...

Ursulines, The

A religious order founded by St. Angela de Merici for the sole purpose of educating young ...

Ursus, Saint

Patron of the principal church of Solothurn (Soleure) in Switzerland, honoured from very early ...

Urubamba

(MISIONES DE SANTO DOMINGO DE URUBAMBA Y MADRE DE DIOS) This prefecture apostolic was created ...

Uruguay

(REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY). The smallest independent state in South America, extending ...

Uruguayana

(URUGUAYANESIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Porto Alegre, Brazil. By a Decree dated 15 August, ...

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Us 4

Ushaw College

(College of St. Cuthbert) A combined college and seminary for the six dioceses that were ...

Usilla

A titular see of Byzacena in Africa. Nothing is known of the history of this city; it is ...

Usuard, Martyrology of

Usuard was a Benedictine monk of the Abbey of St-Germain-des-Prxs, Paris. He seems to have ...

Usury

In the article INTEREST we have reserved the question of the lawfulness of taking interest on ...

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Ut 8

Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris

The first line of a hymn in honour of St. John the Baptist. The Roman Breviary divides it ...

Utah

Utah, the thirty-second state admitted to the Union, takes its name from an Indian tribe known ...

Uthina

A titular see of Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Uthina is mentioned by Ptolemy ...

Utica

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis. The city was founded by Tyrian colonists at the mouth ...

Utilitarianism

( Latin utilis , useful). Utilitarianism is a modern form of the Hedonistic ethical theory ...

Utopia

(Greek ou no or not, and topos place), a term used to designate a visionary or an ideally ...

Utraquism

The principal dogma, and one of the four articles, of the Calixtines or Hussites . It was first ...

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