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North Carolina

One of the original thirteen States of the United States, is situated between 33° 53' and 36° 33' N. lat. and 75° 25' and 84° 30' W. long. It is bounded on the north by Virginia, east and south-east by the Atlantic Ocean, south by South Carolina and Georgia, and west and north-west by Tennessee. Its extreme length from east to west is 503 miles, with an extreme breadth of 187 miles, and an average breadth of about 100 miles. Its area is 52,250 square miles, of which 3670 is water. Originally it included the present State of Tennessee , ceded to the United States in 1790. In 1784-8 the people of that section made an unsuccessful effort to set up an independent state named Franklin, with John Sevier as governor. It is divided into ninety-eight counties and has (1910) ten Congressional districts, with a population of 2,206,287. The capital is Raleigh, situated nearly in the geographical centre of the state; the principal cities are Wilmington, Charlotte, Asheville, Greensboro and Winston.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

North Carolina has a remarkable variety of topography, soil, climate and production and falls naturally into three divisions. The eastern or Tidewater section begins at the ocean and extends north-westwardly to the foot of the hills; the land is level with sluggish streams and many marshes and swamps, including part of the great Dismal Swamp. It is the home of the long leaf pine, with its products of pitch, tar, and turpentine, long a source of wealth. The principal productions are cotton, corn, and rice; while "truck gardening" has recently grown into an important industry. The fisheries are also valuable. The central or Piedmont section, comprising nearly half the state and extending westward to the eastern foot of the Blue Ridge, is more or less hilly, but the rich intervening valleys produce practically all the general crops, including cotton and tobacco, with fruits of all kinds. The soil, though not naturally rich, is capable of a high degree of cultivation. The westward section, which runs to the Tennessee line, is mostly mountainous, with rich valleys and sheltered coves. Its principal productions are those of the central section, modified somewhat by its greater elevation. It contains some lofty peaks, Mount Mitchell being the highest peak east of the Rocky Mountains. The state is well watered, having numerous rivers, which, though not generally navigable, in their rapid descent furnish enormous water-power; much of which has been recently developed. They may be divided into three classes, those flowing indirectly into the Mississippi, those flowing into the Great Pedee and the Santee, and those flowing into the Atlantic. The coast line, nearly four hundred miles long, includes Capes Fear, Lookout, and Hatteras; and, at varying distances from the ocean, run a series of sounds, chief of which are Currituck, Albemarle, and Pamlico. There are good harbours at Edenton, New Bern, Washington, Beaufort, and Wilmington, including Southport. The climate is generally equable, and North Carolina produces nearly all the crops grown in the United States with the exception of sub-tropical cane and fruits. Four of the wine grapes, the Catawba, Isabella, Lincoln, and Scuppernong, originated here. It has also large areas of valuable timber of great variety. With a few rare exceptions all the known minerals are found in the state. In 1905, taking the fourteen leading industries, including about 90 per cent of the total, there were 3272 manufacturing establishments, with a capital of $141,639,000, producing yearly products of the value of $142,520,776. The principal manufactured product was cotton, in which North Carolina ranked third among all the States, and tobacco, in which she ranked second.

RAILROADS AND BANKS

There are in operation within the State 4387 miles of railroads, besides 911 miles of sidings, with a total valuation of $86,347,553, but capitalized for a much larger amount. The state has 321 banks organized under the state law ; with an aggregate capital stock of $7,692,767; and 69 national banks with a capital of $6,760,000. The entire recognized state debt is $6,880,950, the greater part of which could be paid by the sale of certain railroad stock held by the state.

HISTORY

North Carolina was originally inhabited by various tribes of Indians, the three principal ones being the Tuscaroras in the east, the Catawbas in the centre, and the Cherokees in the west. A small body of Cherokees is still located in the mountain section. In 1584 Queen Elizabeth granted to Sir Walter Raleigh the right to discover and hold any lands not inhabited by Christian people. This charter constitutes the first step in the work of English colonization in America. Five voyages were made under it, but without success in establishing a permanent settlement. In 1663 Charles II granted to Sir George Carteret and seven others a stretch of land on the Atlantic coast, lying between Virginia and Florida, and running west to the South Seas. The grantees were created "absolute lords proprietors" of the province of Carolina, with full powers to make and execute such laws as they deemed proper. This grant was enlarged in 1665 both as to territory and jurisdiction, and in 1669 the lords proprietors promulgated the "Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina", framed by John Locke, the philosopher, but they proved too theoretical for practical operation. The lords proprietors made every effort to colonize their province, which already contained one or two small settlements and for which they appointed governors at various times, frequently with local councils. Albemarle, the name originally given to what now constitutes North Carolina, was augmented by settlements from Virginia, New England, and Bermuda. In 1674 the population was about four thousand. In 1729, Carolina became a royal province, the king having purchased from the proprietors seven-eighths of their domain. Carteret, subsequently Earl Granville, surrendered his right of jurisdiction, but retained in severalty his share of the land. It gained considerable accessions in population by a colony of Swiss at New Bern, of Scotch Highlanders on Cape Fear; of Moravians at Salem, and of Scotch-Irish and Pennsylvania Dutch, who settled in different parts of the state. For many years, however, there has been very little immigration and the population is now essentially homogeneous.

The people of North Carolina were among the earliest and most active promoters of the Revolution. The Stamp Tax was bietterly resentedy; a provincial congress, held at New Bern, elected delegates to the first Continental Congress in September, 1774, and joined in the declaration of Colonial rights. As early as 20 May, 1775, a committee of citizens met in Charlotte and issued the "Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence", formally renouncing allegiance tot he British Crown. In December, 1776, the provincial congress at Halifax adopted a State constitution which immediately went into effect, with Richard Caswell as governor. The delegates from this state signed the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. In 1786 the General Assembly elected delegates to the Federal Constitutional Convention and its delegates present signed the Constitution; but the General Assembly did not ratify it until 21 November, 1789, after the Federal Government had been organized and gone into operation. During the Revolution the state furnished the Continental army with 22,910 men. Important battles were fought at Guilford Court House (between Green and Cornwallis, 15 March, 1781), Alamance, Moore's Creek, Ramsour's Mill, and King's Mountain on the state line. There was a predominant Union sentiment in North Carolina in the early part of 1861; and at an election held 28 February, the people voted against calling a convention for the purpose of secession; but after the firing on Fort Sumter and the actual beginning of the war, a convention, called by the Legislature without submission to the people, met on 20 May, 1861, passed an ordinance of secession, and ratified the Confederate Constitution. Fort Fisher was the only important battle fought in the state. The State sent 125,000 soldiers into the Civil War; the largest number sent by any southern state. In 1865 a provisional government was organized by President Johnson, and later the state came under the Reconstruction Act passed by Congress, 2 March, 1867. On 11 July, 1868, the state government was restored by proclamation of the president.

The Constitution of 1776 had some remarkable provisions. It allowed free negroes to vote because they were "freemen", all slaves, of course, being disfranchised because in law they were considered chattels. Any freeman could vote for the members of the House of Commons; but must own fifty acres of land to vote for a senator, who must himself own at least three hundred acres, and a member at least one hundred acres. The governor must own a freehold of five thousand dollars in value. The borough towns of Edenton, New Bern, Wilmington, Salisbury, Hillsboro, and Halifax were each allowed a separate member in the House of Commons apart from the counties. It declared: That all men have a natural and inalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience "; but that no person who denied the truth of the Protestant religion should hold any civil office of trust or profit. No clergyman or preacher of any denomination should be a member of eityher house of the Legislature while continuing in the exercise of his pastoral functions. All of these provisions except the delclaration of religious freedom, have since been abandoned. The Convention of 1835 adopted many amendments, ratified in 1836; among others, all persons of negro blood to the fourth generation were disfranchised; and the Protestant qualification for office omitted. The Constitution of 1868 restored negro suffrage, but in 1900 amendments, adopted by the Legislature and ratified by the people, provided that every qualified voter should have paid his poll tax and be able to read and write any section of the Constitution; fut that any person entitled to vote on or prior to 1 January, 1867, or his lineal descendant, might register on a permanent roll until 1 November, 1908. This is called the "Grandfather Clause".

EDUCATION

In early times there were no schools ; private teachers furnishing the only means of education. beginning about 1760, several private classical schools were established in different parts of the state, the most prominent being Queen's College at Charlotte, subsequently called Liberty Hall. The State University was opened for students in February, 1795; but want of means and a scattered population prevented any public school system until long after the Revolution. The Civil War seriously interfered with all forms of education ; but the entire educational system is now in a high state of efficiency. The following are under State control, but receive aid from tuition fees and donations : the State University, situated in Chapel Hill, endowment, $250,000; total income, $160,000; annual State appropriation, $75,000; faculty, 101; students, 821; the North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College for women at Greensboro, founded in 1891, buildings, 13; annual State appropriation, $37,000; annual Federal appropriation, $49,450; faculty, 63; students, 613; North Carolina College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts at West Raleigh, opened in 1889, annual State appropriation, $36,000; annual Federal appropriation, $49,450; faculty, 42; students, 446; the Agricultural and Mechanical College for the coloured race at Greensboro, annual State appropriation, $10,000; annual Federal appropriation, $11,550; faculty, 14; students, 173. A training school for white teachers has just been established at Greenville. There are three State Normal Schools for the coloured race. The official reports of public schools for the year 1908-0 show a total school population of whites, 490,710; coloured, 236,855; schoolhouses, 7670; white teachers, 8129; coloured teachers, 2828; total available fund, $3,419,103. There are a large nubmer of flourishing denominational colleges both for men and women, several of which belong to the coloured race. Among the State institutions are: a large central penitentiary, three hospitals for insane, three schools for deaf, dumb, and blind, and a tuberculosis sanitarium.

RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS

Under the lords proprietors, there was much religious discrimination and even persecution ; but there was little under the Crown except as to holding office and celebrating the rite of matrimony. The disqualification for office involved in denying the truth of the Protestant religion remained in the Constitution until the Convention of 1835. In 1833 William Gaston, a Catholic of great ability and noble character, was elected associate justice of the Supreme Court for life. Regarding the religious disqualification as legally and morally invalid, he promptly took his seat without opposition. While still remaining on the bench, he was elected a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1835, and attended its session. His great speech against any religious discrimination was conclusive, and the obnoxious clause was stricken out of the Constitution. Since then there has been no legal discrimination against Catholics. All persons denying the existence of Almighty God have been disqualified from holding office under every constitution. The preamble to the present Constitution recognizes the dependence of the people upon Almighty God, and their gratitude to Him for the existence of their civil, political and religious liberties. The Legislature is opened with prayer. The law requires the observance of Sunday, and punishes any disturbance of religious congregations. The following are legal holidays: 1 January; 19 January (Lee's birthday); 22 February; 12 April (anniversary of Halifax Resolution); 10 May (Confederate Decoration Day); 20 May (anniversary Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence); 4 July; 1st Monday in September (Labour Day); general election day in November; Thanksgiving; and Christmas. Neither Sundays nor holidays are regarded as diei non except in certain limited cases. Religious bodies may become incorporated either under the general law or by special act. If not specifically incorporated they are regarded as quasi corporations, and may exercise many corporate powers. The Protestant Episcopalbishop has been created a corporation sole by special act of the Legislature.

All real and personal property used exclusively for religious, charitable, or educational purposes, as also property whose income is so used, is exempt from taxation. Ministers of the Gospel are exempt from jury duty and their private libraries from taxation. The only privileged communications recognized are those between lawyers and their clients, and physicians and their patients. There is no statute allowing this exemption to priests, and therefore they stand as at common law ; but there is no recorded instance in which they have ever been asked to reveal the secrets of the confessional.

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE

Originally in this colony legally valid marriages could be solemnized only by ministers of the Church of England, of whom there were few, nearly all in the eastern part of the colony. In 1715 this power was conferred upon the governor; in 1741 upon justices of the peace; in 1766 upon ministers of the Presbyterian Church, and finally in 1778 upon the ministers of all denominations. The ceremony can now be performed by an ordained minister of any religious denomination or a justice of the peace; and the peculiar marriage custom of the Friends is recognized as valid. Males under sixteen and females under fourteen are legally incapable of marriage, and all marriages of those related by consanguinity closer than the degree of first cousin and between whites and negroes or Indians are void. A marriage license is required, and the Registrar is forbidden by law to issue licenses for the marriage of any one under eighteen years of age without written consent of the parent or one standing in loco parentis . Absolute divorce ( a vinculo ) may be granted for the following causes: pre-existing natural and continued impotence of either party; if they shall have lived separate and apart continuously for ten years, and have no children; adultery by the wife, or pregnancy at the time of marriage unknown to husband and not by him; continued fornication and adultery by the hiusband. Either party may remarry, but no alimony is allowed. Divorce a mensa et toro may be granted with alimony for the following causes: if either party shall abandon his or her family, or turn the other out of doors, or shall by cruel and barbarous treatment endanger the life of the other, or shall offer such indignities to the person of the other as to make his or her life intolerable, or shall become an habitual drunkard. Upon such a divorce parties cannot remarry.

Bequests for charitable purposes must be clearly defined, as the cy-prè doctrine is not recognized; and there must be some one capable of taking the bequest. Whether a bequest for Masses would be specifically enforced by the courts, has not been decided; but it is not probable that it would be interfered with, as the courts have never invoked the doctrine of Superstitious Uses. Cemeteries are provided and protected by law. In administering oaths, the party sworn must "lay his hand upon the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God "; but those having conscientious scruples may appeal to God with uplifted hand; and " Quakers, Moravians, Dunkers, and Mennonites " may affirm.

PROHIBITION

For many years prohibition sentiment has been growing until it culminated, in 1908, in the passage by the General Assembly of an act making it unlawful to make or sell any spiritous, vinous, fermented or malt liquors within the state, except for sacramental purposes, or by a registered pharmacist on a physician's prescription. Native cider may be sold without restriction; and native wines at the place of manufacture in sealed or crated packages containing not less than two and a half gallons each, which must not be opened on the premises.

Religious Statistics (From the Census of Religious Bodies, 1906) Denominations No of Organizations No. of Members No. of Church Edifices Value of Church Prop. All denominations
Baptist, white
Baptist, col.
Christian
Congregationalists
Disciples
Friends
Lutheran
Methodist, white
Methodist, col.
Presbyter. and Refor.
Protestant Episcopal
Roman Catholic
All other 8592
2397
1358
192
54
130
63
179
2141
954
655
258
31
180 824,385
235,540
165,503 15,909
2,699
13,637
6,752
17,740
191,760 85,522
60,555
13,890
3,981
10,897 8188
2305
1192
188
47
128
63
173
2065
925
656
261
35
150 $14,053,505
3,056,889
1,266,227
194,315
42,361
151,605
90,525
445,525
3,523,354
1,366,238
2,247,923
987,925
375,360
305,258 In the above, the Catholic population was reduced by deducting 15 per cent for children under nine years of age.

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF NORTH CAROLINA

Canonically established and separated from the Diocese of Charleston, South Carolina by Bull, 3 March, 1868, with James (now Cardinal ) Gibbons as first vicar. It comprised the entire state until 1910, when eight counties were attached to Belmont Abbey. The latest statistics, for the entire state, show secular priests , 17; religious, 16; churches, 15; missions, 34; stations, 47; chapels, 5; Catholics, 5870. The Apostolate Company, a corporation of secular priests at Nazareth, maintains a boys' orphanage and industrial school, and publishes "Truth", a monthly periodical. There is a girls' school and sanatorium at Asheville, and hospitals at Charlotte ( Sisters of Mercy ) and Greensboro (Sisters of Charity). There are parochial schools at Asheville, Charlotte, Salisbury, Durham, Newton Grove, Raleigh, and Wilmington. The vicariate is subject to the Propaganda, and its present vicar is the Abbot Ordinary of Belmont.

Belmont Cathedral Abbey

By Bull of Pius X, 8 June, 1900, the Counties of Gaston, Lincoln, Cleveland, Rutherford, Polk, Burke, McDowell, and Catawby were cut off from the vicariate to form the diocese of the Cathedral Abbey at Belmont, canonically erected by Mgr. Diomede Falconio, Apostolic Delegate in the United States on 18 October, 1910. The vicariate remains under the administration of the abbot ordinary at Belmont until a diocese can be formed in the state. Belmont Abbey, situated in Gaston County, was erected into an abbey by Papal Brief dated 19 December, 1884, its first abbot being Rt. Rev. Leo Haid. He was born at Latrobe, Pennsylvania, 15 July, 1849, ordained priest in 1872, and served as chaplain and professor in St. Vincent's Abbey until 1885. Appointed Vicar Apostolic of North Carolina in 1887, he was consecrated titular Bishop of Messene 1 July, 1888. The abbey itself has many extra-territorial dependencies, i.e. military colleges in Savannah, Georgia and Richmond, Virginia, and parishes in both of these cities, besides various missions in the state itself; and forms legal corporations in Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia. To it also is attached a college for secular education and a seminary for the secular and regular clergy. To the abbey proper belong 32 priests, 2 deacons, 6 clerics in minor orders, and 37 lay brothers. At Belmont is also a college for the higher education of women under the Sisters of Mercy, with 60 pupils, an orphanage for girls and a preparatory school for little boys.

Prominent Catholics

Though there are few Catholics in the state, an unusual proportion have occupied prominent official positions. Thomas Burke was governor, and William Gaston, M.E. Manly, and R.M. Douglas were associate justices of the Supreme Court. R.R. Heath, W.A. Moore and W.S. O'B. Robinson were Superior Court judges, and R.D. Douglas attorney general. Prominent benefactors were Dr. D. O'Donaghue, Lawrence Brown, and Raphael Guasterino. Mrs. Francis C. Tiernan (Christian Reid) is a native of North Carolina.

More Volume: N 287

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Ne 66

Neale, Leonard

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Nero, the last Roman emperor (reigned 54-68) of the Julian-Claudian line, was the son of Domitius ...

Nerses I-IV

Armenian patriarchs. Nerses I Surnamed "the Great". Died 373. Born of the royal stock, he ...

Nerses of Lambron

Born 1153 at Lambron, Cilicia; died 1198; son of Oschin II, prince of Lambron and nephew of the ...

Nestorius and Nestorianism

I. THE HERESIARCH Nestorius, who gave his name to the Nestorian heresy, was born at Germanicia, ...

Netherlands, The

( German Niederlande ; French Pays Bas ). The Netherlands, or Low Countries, as organized by ...

Netter, Thomas

Theologian and controversialist, b. at Saffron Waldon, Essex, England, about 1375; d. at Rouen, ...

Neugart, Trudpert

Benedictine historian, born at Villingen, Baden, 23 February, 1742; died at St Paul's ...

Neum

(Latin, neuma, pneuma, or neupma, from Greek pneûma, a nod). A term in medieval ...

Neumann, Johann Balthasar

Born 1687 at Eger; died 1753 at Würzburg, master of the rococo style and one of the ...

Neumayr, Franz

Preacher, writer on theological, controversial and ascetical subjects, and author of many ...

Neusohl

Diocese of Neusohl (Hung. Beszterczebànya; Lat. Neosoliensis), founded in 1776 by Maria ...

Neutra

(Nitria; Nyitha) -- Diocese of Neutra (Nitriensis). Diocese in Western Hungary, a suffragan of ...

Nevada

A Western state of the United States , bounded on the North by Oregon and Idaho, on the East ...

Neve

Titular see of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Two of its bishops are known: Petronius, who ...

Nevers

(Nivernum) Diocese ; includes the Department of Nièvre, in France. Suppressed by the ...

Neville

(1) Edmund Neville ( alias Sales), a Jesuit, born at Hopcut, Lancashire, 1605; died in ...

New Abbey

The Abbey of Sweetheart, named New Abbey Pow, or New Abbey, in order to distinguish it, from ...

New Caledonia

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC New Caledonia, one of the largest islands of Oceania, lies about 900 miles ...

New Guinea

The second largest island and one of the least known countries of the world, lies immediately ...

New Hampshire

The most northerly of the thirteen original states of the United States, lying between 70°37' ...

New Jersey

One of the original thirteen states of the American Union. It ratified the Federal Constitution ...

New Mexico

A territory of the United States now (Jan., 1911) awaiting only the completion of its ...

New Norcia

A Benedictine abbey in Western Australia, founded on 1 March, 1846, by a Spanish Benedictine, ...

New Orleans

ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW ORLEANS (NOVÆ AURELIÆ). Erected 25 April, 1793, as the Diocese of ...

New Pomerania

New Pomerania, the largest island of the Bismarck Archipelago, is separated from New Guinea by ...

New Testament

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

New Testament, Canon of the

The Catholic New Testament, as defined by the Council of Trent, does not differ, as regards the ...

New Year's Day

The word year is etymologically the same as hour (Skeat), and signifies a going, movement ...

New York (Archdiocese)

ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW YORK (NEO-EBORACENSIS). See erected 8 April, 1808; made archiepiscopal 19 ...

New York (State)

One of the thirteen colonies of Great Britain, which on 4 July, 1776, adopted the Declaration of ...

New Zealand

New Zealand—formerly described as a colony—has, since September, 1907, by royal ...

Newark

(NOVARCENSIS) Diocese created in 1853, suffragan of New York and comprising Hudson, Passaic, ...

Newbattle

( Neubotle , i.e. new dwelling). Newbattle, in the ancient Diocese of St. Andrews, about ...

Newdigate, Blessed Sebastian

Executed at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. A younger son of John Newdigate of Harefield Place, Middlesex, ...

Newfoundland

A British colony of North America (area 42,734 square miles), bounded on the north by the Strait ...

Newhouse, Abbey of

The Abbey of Newhouse, near Brockelsby, Lincoln, the first Premonstratensian abbey in England, ...

Newman, John Henry

(1801-1890) Cardinal-Deacon of St. George in Velabro, divine, philosopher, man of letters, ...

Newport (England)

(NEOPORTENSIS) This diocese takes its name from Newport, a town of about 70,000 inhabitants, ...

Newton, John

A soldier and engineer, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 24 August, 1823; died in New York City, 1 May, ...

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Ni 70

Niagara University

Niagara University, situated near Niagara Falls, New York, is conducted by the Vincentians. It ...

Nicéron, Jean-Pierre

A French lexicographer, born in Paris, 11 March, 1685, died there, 8 July, 1738. After his ...

Nicaea

Titular see of Bithynia Secunda, situated on Lake Ascanius, in a fertile plain, but very ...

Nicaea, First Council of

First Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 325 on the occasion of the heresy of ...

Nicaea, Second Council of

Seventh Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 787. (For an account of the ...

Nicaragua

(REPUBLIC AND DIOCESE OF NICARAGUA; DE NICARAGUA) The diocese, suffragan of Guatemala, is ...

Nicastro

(NEOCASTRENSIS). A city of the Province of Catanzaro, in Calabria, southern Italy, situated ...

Niccola Pisano

Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...

Nice

(NICIENSIS) Nice comprises the Department of Alpes-Maritimes. It was re-established by the ...

Nicene Creed

As approved in amplified form at the Council of Constantinople (381), it is the profession of the ...

Nicephorus, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople, 806-815, b. about 758; d. 2 June, 829. This champion of the orthodox ...

Nicetas

(NICETA) A Bishop of Remesiana (Romatiana) in what is now Servia, born about 335; died ...

Nicetius, Saint

A Bishop of Trier, born in the latter part of the fifth century, exact date unknown; died in ...

Niche

A recess for the reception of a statue, so designed as to give it emphasis, frame it effectively, ...

Nicholas Garlick, Venerable

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...

Nicholas I, Saint, Pope

Born at Rome, date unknown; died 13 November, 867. One of the great popes of the Middle ...

Nicholas II, Pope

(GERHARD OF BURGUNDY) Nicholas was born at Chevron, in what is now Savoy ; elected at Siena, ...

Nicholas III, Pope

(GIOVANNI GAETANI ORSINI) Born at Rome, c. 1216; elected at Viterbo, 25 November, 1277; died ...

Nicholas IV, Pope

(GIROLAMO MASCI) Born at Ascoli in the Rome, 4 April, 1292. He was of humble extraction, ...

Nicholas Justiniani

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...

Nicholas of Cusa

German cardinal, philosopher, and administrator, b. at Cues on the Moselle, in the Archdiocese ...

Nicholas of Flüe, Blessed

(D E R UPE ). Born 21 March, 1417, on the Flüeli, a fertile plateau near Sachseln, ...

Nicholas of Gorran

(Or GORRAIN) Medieval preacher, and scriptural commentator; b. in 1232 at Gorron, France ; ...

Nicholas of Lyra

( Doctor planus et utilis ) Exegete, b. at Lyra in Normandy, 1270; d. at Paris, 1340. The ...

Nicholas of Myra, Saint

( Also called NICHOLAS OF BARI). Bishop of Myra in Lycia; died 6 December, 345 or 352. ...

Nicholas of Osimo

(AUXIMANUS). A celebrated preacher and author, b. at Osimo, Italy, in the second half of the ...

Nicholas of Strasburg

Mystic ; flourished early in the fourteenth century. Educated at Paris, he was later on lector ...

Nicholas of Tolentino, Saint

Born at Sant' Angelo, near Fermo, in the Hermits of St. Augustine -- a star above him or on his ...

Nicholas Owen, Saint

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...

Nicholas Pieck, Saint

(Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...

Nicholas V, Pope

(TOMMASO PARENTUCELLI) A name never to be mentioned without reverence by every lover of ...

Nichols, Venerable George

(Or NICOLLS). English martyr, born at Oxford about 1550; executed at Oxford, 19 October, ...

Nicholson, Francis

A controversial writer; b. at Manchester, 1650 ( baptized 27 Oct.); d. at Lisbon, 13 Aug., 1731. ...

Nicodemus

A prominent Jew of the time of Christ, mentioned only in the Fourth Gospel . The name is of ...

Nicodemus, Gospel of

(Or the Gospel of Nicodemus.) This work does not assume to have written by Pilate, but to have ...

Nicolò de' Tudeschi

("abbas modernus" or "recentior", "abbas Panormitanus" or "Siculus") A Benedictine canonist, ...

Nicolaï, Jean

Celebrated Dominican theologian and controversialist, b. in 1594 at Mouzay in the Diocese of ...

Nicolaites

(Also called Nicolaitans), a sect mentioned in the Apocalypse (ii,6,15) as existing in ...

Nicolas, Armella

Popularly known as "La bonne Armelle", a saintly French serving-maid held in high veneration among ...

Nicolas, Auguste

French apologist, b. at Bordeaux, 6 Jan., 1807; d. at Versailles 18 Jan., 1888. He first studied ...

Nicolaus Germanus

(Often called "Donis" from a misapprehension of the title "Donnus" or "Donus" an abbreviated form ...

Nicole, Pierre

Theologian and controversialist, b. 19 October, 1625, at Chartres, d. 16 November, 1695, at ...

Nicolet

(NICOLETANA) Diocese in the Province of Quebec, Canada, suffragan of Quebec. It comprises the ...

Nicomedes, Saint

Martyr of unknown era, whose feast is observed 15 September. The Roman Martyrologium and the ...

Nicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I ...

Nicopolis

A titular see, suffragan of Sebasteia, in Armenia Prima. Founded by Pompey after his decisive ...

Nicopolis

(NICOPOLITANA) Diocese in Bulgaria. The city of Nicopolis (Thrace or Moesia), situated at the ...

Nicopolis

A titular see and metropolis in ancient Epirus. Augustus founded the city (B.C. 31) on a ...

Nicosia

A city of the Province of Catania, in Sicily situated at a height of about 2800 feet above the ...

Nicosia

Titular archdiocese in the Province of Cyprus. It is now agreed (Oberhummer' "Aus Cypern" in ...

Nicotera and Tropea

(NICOTERENSIS ET TROPEIENSIS) Suffragan diocese of Reggio di Calabria. Nicotera, the ancient ...

Nider, John

Theologian, b. 1380 in Swabia; d. 13 August, 1438, at Colmar. He entered the Order of Preachers ...

Nieremberg y Otin, Juan Eusebio

Noted theologian and polygraphist, b. of German parents at Madrid, 1595; d. there, 1658. ...

Niessenberger, Hans

An architect of the latter part of the Middle Ages, whose name is mentioned with comparative ...

Niger, Peter George

(NIGRI, German SCHWARTZ) Dominican theologian, preacher and controversialist, b. 1434 at ...

Nigeria

A colony of British East Africa extending from the Gulf of Guinea to Lake Chad (from 4° 30' ...

Nihilism

The term was first used by Turgeniev in his novel, "Fathers and Sons" (in "Russkij Vestnik", Feb., ...

Nihus, Barthold

Convert and controversialist, b. at Holtorf in Hanover, 7 February, 1590 (according to other ...

Nikolaus von Dinkelsbühl

Theologian, b. c. 1360, at Dinkelsbühl; d. 17 March, 1433, at Mariazell in Styria. He ...

Nikon

Patriarch of Moscow (1652-1658; d. 1681). He was of peasant origin, born in the district of ...

Nilles, Nikolaus

Born 21 June, 1828, of a wealthy peasant family of Rippweiler, Luxemburg ; died 31 January, ...

Nilopolis

A titular see and a suffragan of Oxyrynchos, in Egypt. According to Ptolemy (IV, v, 26) the ...

Nilus the Younger

Of Rossano, in Calabria; born in 910, died 27 December, 1005. For a time he was married (or ...

Nilus, Saint

( Neilos ) Nilus the elder, of Sinai (died c. 430), was one of the many disciples and ...

Nimbus

(Latin, related to Nebula, nephele , properly vapour, cloud), in art and archaeology signifies ...

Nimrod

Also N IMROD ( nmrd of uncertain signification, Septuagint Nebród ). The name of ...

Ninian, Saint

(NINIAS, NINUS, DINAN, RINGAN, RINGEN) Bishop and confessor ; date of birth unknown; died ...

Nirschl, Joseph

Theologian and writer, b. at Durchfurth, Lower Bavaria, 24 February, 1823; d. at ...

Nisibis

A titular Archdiocese of Mesopotamia, situated on the Mygdonius at the foot of Mt. Masius. It is ...

Nithard

Frankish historian, son of Angilbert and Bertha, daughter of Charlemagne ; died about 843 or ...

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No 65

Noah

[Hebrew Nôah , "rest"; Greek Noah ; Latin Noah ]. The ninth patriarch of the ...

Noah's Ark

The Hebrew name to designate Noah's Ark, the one which occurs again in the history of Moses' ...

Noailles, Louis-Antoine de

Cardinal and bishop, b. at the Château of Teyssiére in Auvergne, France, 27 May, ...

Nobili, Robert de'

Born at Montepulciano, Tuscany, September, 1577; died at Mylapore, India, in 1656. He entered the ...

Noble, Daniel

Physician, b. 14 Jan., 1810; d. at Manchester, 12 Jan, 1885. He was the son of Mary Dewhurst and ...

Nocera

DIOCESE OF NOCERA (NUCERINENSIS) Diocese in Perugia, Umbria, Italy, near the sources of the ...

Nocera dei Pagani

(NUCERIN PAGANORUM; dei Pagani ="of the Pagans") Diocese in Salermo, Italy, at the foot of ...

Nocturns

( Nocturni or Nocturna ). A very old term applied to night Offices. Tertullian speaks of ...

Nogaret, Guillaume de

Born about the middle of the thirteenth century at St. Felix-en-Lauragais; died 1314; he was one ...

Nola

(NOLANA) Diocese ; suffragan of Naples. The city of Nola in the Italian Province of Caserta, ...

Nola, Giovanni Marliano da

Sculptor and architect, b., it is said, of a leather merchant named Giuseppe, at Nola, near ...

Nolasco, Saint Peter

Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...

Nollet, Jean-Antoine

Physicist, b. at Pimpré, Oise, France, 19 November, 1700; d. at Paris, 25 April, 1770. His ...

Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism

These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the ...

Nomination

The various methods of designating persons for ecclesiastical benefices or offices have been ...

Nomocanon

(From the Greek nomos , law, and kanon , a rule) A collection of ecclesiastical law, the ...

Non Expedit

("It is not expedient"). Words with which the Holy See enjoined upon Italian Catholics the ...

Non-Jurors

The name given to the Anglican Churchmen who in 1689 refused to take the oath of allegiance to ...

Nonantola

A former Benedictine monastery and prelature nullius , six miles north-east of Modena ...

Nonconformists

A name which, in its most general acceptation, denotes those refusing to conform with the ...

None

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Origin of None; II. None from the ...

Nonnotte, Claude-Adrien

Controversialist; b. in Besançon, 29 July, 1711; d. there, 3 September, 1793. At nineteen ...

Nonnus

Nonnus, of Panopolis in Upper Egypt (c. 400), the reputed author of two poems in hexameters; ...

Norbert, Saint

Born at Kanten on the left bank of the Rhine, near Wesel, c. 1080; died at Magdeburg, 6 June, ...

Norbertines

(C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...

Norcia

(NORSIN). A diocese and city in Perugia, Italy, often mentioned in Roman history. In the ...

Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of

(Since the Reformation) Under this title are accounts only of the prominent Catholic Dukes of ...

Noris, Henry

Cardinal, b. at Verona, 29 August, 1631, of English ancestry; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1704. He ...

Normandy

An ancient French province, from which five "departments" were formed in 1790: ...

Norris, Sylvester

( Alias SMITH, NEWTON). Controversial writer and English missionary priest ; b. 1570 or ...

Norsemen

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

North Carolina

One of the original thirteen States of the United States, is situated between 33° 53' and ...

North Dakota

One of the United States of America , originally included in the Louisiana Purchase. Little was ...

Northampton

(NORTANTONIENSIS) Diocese in England, comprises the Counties of Northampton, Bedford, ...

Northcote, James Spencer

Born at Feniton Court, Devonshire, 26 May, 1821; d. at Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, 3 March, ...

Northern Territory

(Prefecture Apostolic) The Northern Territory, formerly Alexander Land, is that part of ...

Northmen

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...

Norton, Christopher

Martyr ; executed at Tyburn, 27 May, 1570. His father was Richard Norton of Norton Conyers, ...

Norway

Norway, comprising the smaller division of the Scandinavian peninsula, is bounded on the east by ...

Norwich, Ancient Diocese of

(NORDOVICUM; NORVICUM). Though this see took its present name only in the eleventh century, ...

Notaries

( Latin notarius ). Persons appointed by competent authority to draw up official or authentic ...

Notburga

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...

Notburga, Saint

Patroness of servants and peasants, b. c. 1265 at Rattenberg on the Inn; d. c. 16 September, 1313. ...

Nothomb, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...

Notitia Dignitatum

(Register of Offices). The official handbook of the civil and military officials in the later ...

Notitia Provinciarum et Civitatum Africae

(List of the Provinces and Cities of Africa). A list of the bishops and their sees in the ...

Notitiae Episcopatuum

The name given to official documents that furnish for Eastern countries the list and hierarchical ...

Notker

Among the various monks of St. Gall who bore this name, the following are the most important: ...

Noto

(NETEN). Noto, the ancient Netum and after the Saracen conquest the capital of one of the ...

Notoriety, Notorious

( Latin Notorietas, notorium , from notus , known). Notoriety is the quality or the ...

Notre Dame de Montreal, Congregation of

Marguerite Bourgeoys, the foundress, was born at Troyes, France, 17 April, 1620. She was the ...

Notre Dame, School Sisters of

A religious community devoted to education. In the United Sates they have conducted parish ...

Notre Dame, Sisters of (of Cleveland, Ohio)

A branch of the congregation founded by Blessed Julie Billiart. In 1850, Father Elting of ...

Notre Dame, University of

(Full name is the University of Notre Dame du Lac ). Notre Dame is located in Northern ...

Notre-Dame de Namur, Institute of

Founded in 1803 at Amiens, France, by Bl. Julie Billiart (b. 1751 d. 1816) and ...

Notre-Dame de Sion, Congregation of

Religious institute of women, founded at Paris in May 1843, by Marie-Théodore and ...

Nottingham

(NOTTINGHAMIEN) One of the original twelve English dioceses created at the time of the ...

Nourrisson, Jean-Felix

Philosopher, b. at Thiers, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, 18 July, 1825; d. at Paris, 13 June, ...

Nova Scotia

I. GEOGRAPHY Nova Scotia is one of the maritime provinces of Canada. It forms part of what was ...

Novara

(NOVARIENSIS). A diocese and the capital of the province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy, noted ...

Novatianism

Novatian was a schismatic of the third century, and founder of the sect of the Novatians; he ...

Novatus, Saint

St. Novatus, who is mentioned on 20 June with his brother, the martyr Timotheus, was the son of ...

Novello, Blessed Agostino

(Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...

Novena

(From novem , nine.) A nine days' private or public devotion in the Catholic Church to ...

Novice

I. DEFINITION AND REQUIREMENTS The word novice , which among the Romans meant a newly acquired ...

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Nu 19

Nubia

Located in North-eastern Africa, extending from Sennar south to beyond Khartoum and including the ...

Nueva Cáceres

(NOVA CACERES) Diocese created in 1595 by Clement VIII ; it is one of the four suffragan ...

Nueva Pamplona

(NEO-PAMPILONENSIS). Diocese in Colombia, South America, founded in 1549 and a see erected by ...

Nueva Segovia

(NOVAE SEGOBIAE) Diocese in the Philippines, so called from Segovia, a town in Spain. The town ...

Nugent, Francis

Priest of the Franciscan Capuchin Order, founder of the Irish and the Rhenish Provinces of said ...

Nugent, James

Philanthropist, temperance advocate and social reformer b. 3 March, 1822 at Liverpool ; d. 27 ...

Numbers, Use of, in the Church

No attentive reader of the Old Testament can fail to notice that a certain sacredness seems to ...

Numismatics

(From the Greek nomisma , "legal currency") Numismatics is the science of coins and of ...

Nun of Kent

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...

Nunc Dimittis

(The Canticle of Simeon). Found in St. Luke's Gospel (2:29-32) , is the last in historical ...

Nuncio

An ordinary and permanent representative of the pope, vested with both political and ...

Nunez, Pedro

(Pedro Nonius). Mathematician and astronomer, b. at Alcacer-do-Sol, 1492; d. at Coimbra, ...

Nuns

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various ...

Nuptial Mass

"Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of ...

Nuremberg

(NÜRNBERG) The second largest city in Bavaria, situated in a plain on both sides of the ...

Nusco

(N USCANA ) Diocese in the province of Avellino, Italy, suffragan of Salerno ; dates from ...

Nussbaum, Johannn Nepomuk von

German surgeon, b. at Munich 2 Sept., 1829; d. there 31 Oct., 1890. He made his studies in the ...

Nutter, Robert, Ven.

English martyr ; b. at Burnley, Lancashire, c. 1550; executed at Lancaster, 26 July, 1600. He ...

Nuyens, Wilhelmus

Historian, b. 18 August, 1823, at Avenhorn in Holland ; d. 10 December, 1894, at Westwoud near ...

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Ny 4

Nyassa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...

Nympha, Tryphon, and Respicius

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

Nyssa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...

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