Skip to content

Emanationism

The doctrine that emanation (Latin emanare , "to flow from") is the mode by which all things are derived from the First Reality, or Principle.

I

The term emanation , being itself a metaphor, has been, and is still, used in many senses, and frequently by writers who are not emanationists. Others, without using die word, really hold the doctrine of emanation. Furthermore, emanationism is always interwoven with different opinions on various subjects; to separate it from these so as to assign its fundamental elements is more or less arbitrary. Taking emanationism in the sense commonly received today, it is not primarily a theological, but rather a cosmogonic system, not a direct answer to the question of the nature of God , but to that of the mode of origin of things from God. In general it holds that all things proceed from the same Divine substance, some immediately, others mediately. All beings form a series the beginning of which is God. The second reality is an emanation from the first, the third from the second, and so on. At every step the derived being is less perfect than its source; but, by giving rise to other beings, the source itself loses none of its perfections. The first source, then, from which everything flows, remains unchanged; its perfection is neither exhausted nor lessened.

Emanationism is frequently referred to as a form of pantheism ; but while this latter is primarily a system of reality, identifying all things as modes or appearances of the one substance, emanationism is concerned chiefly with the mode of derivation. Nor does it necessarily affirm the substantial identity of all things; it may assert the distinct, though dependent, substantiality of emanated realities. It is true that emanation is conceived by some in a pantheistic sense, as an immanent process, an expansion of the Divine substance within itself. But by many it is understood as implying a separation of the derived beings from their source. Hence, not only some forms of pantheism are not emanationistic, but also many emanationists — with more or less consistency — reject pantheism. For those who admit that matter is eternal and exists independently of God, God cannot be more than an architect, who arranges pre-existing materials. In the doctrine of complete emanationism, all things, from the highest spiritual substances to the lowest forms of matter, come from God as their first origin, matter being the last and therefore most imperfect emanation. Some views, however, combine the theory of the eternity of matter with the theory of emanation.

The doctrine of creation teaches that all things are distinct from God, but that God is their efficient cause. God does not produce things from His own substance nor from any pre-existing reality, but by an act of His will brings them out of nothing. According to emanationism, on the contrary, the Divine substance is the reality from which all things are derived, not by any voluntary determination, but by a necessity of nature. And God does not produce all things immediately; the lower are more distant, and are separated from Him by necessary intermediaries. (It may be noted, however, that sometimes the word emanation is used in a broader sense including also creation . Thus St. Thomas: "Quæritur de modo emanationis rerum a primo principio qui dicitur creatio". Summa, I, Q. xlv, a. 1.)

Evolution implies the change of one thing into something else, whereas a reality from which another emanates remains identical with itself. The process of evolution — at least in its totality — is generally considered as an ascent, a movement upwards towards a greater perfection. Emanation is a descent; it begins with the infinitely perfect, and at every step the emanating beings are less pure, less perfect, less divine. The Infinite is postulated as a starting-point, instead of being the goal which the universe is ever striving to realize. Some comparisons used by emanationists, though only metaphors, and consequently misleading if taken literally, may give a clearer idea of the system. Things proceed from God as water from a spring or an overflowing vessel; as the stem, branches, leaves, etc., from the roots; as the web from the spider; as light or heat from the sun or a fire; as the doctrine from the teacher. It is easy to see that all such comparisons are deficient in many points. They are intended simply to illustrate that which is above human comprehension.

II

Vague indications of emanationism are found in ancient mythologies and religions, especially those of India, Egypt, and Persia. Thus in the Upanishads things are said to issue from their eternal principle as the web from the spider, the plant from the earth, the hair from the skin. But, while these and other comparisons and expressions may be interpreted in the sense of emanationism, they are not sufficiently explicit to serve as a basis for the assertion that such systems of philosophy or religion are emanationistic. Philo's teaching on this point is not much clearer. His thought was influenced by two distinct currents: Greek philosophy, especially Platonism, and Judaism. In his endeavour to reconcile them, he sometimes falls into inconsistencies, and his real position is doubtful. According to him, God, infinitely perfect, cannot act on the world immediately, but only through powers or forces ( pneuma ) which are not identical with Him, but proceed from Him. The primitive Divine force is the Logos. Whether the Logos is a substance or only an attribute, remains an obscure point. From the Logos the Spirit ( pneuma ) proceeds. It is the soul, or vivifying principle, of the world. Sometimes God is looked upon as the efficient and active cause of the world, sometimes also as immanent, as the one and the whole ( eis kai to pan autos estin ).

The first clear and systematic expression of emanationism is found in the Alexandrian school of Neo-Platonism. According to Plotinus, the most important representative of this school, the first principle of all things is the One. Absolute unity and simplicity is the best expression by which God can be designated. The One is a totally indetermined essence, for any attribute or determination would introduce both limitation and multiplicity. Even intelligence and will cannot belong to this Primal Reality, for they imply the duality of subject and object, and duality presupposes a higher unity. The One, however, is also described as the First, the Good, the Light, the Universal Cause. From the One all things proceed; not by creation, which would be an act of the will, and therefore incompatible with unity; nor by a spreading of the Divine substance as pantheism teaches, since this would do away with the essential oneness. The One is not all things, but before all things. Emanation is the process by which all things are derived from the One. The infinite goodness and perfection "overflows", and, while remaining within itself and losing nothing of its own perfection, it generates other beings, sending them forth from its own superabundance. Or again, as brightness is produced by the rays of the sun so everything is a radiation ( perilampsis ) from the Infinite Light. The various emanations form a series every successive step of which is an image of the preceding one, though inferior to it. The first reality that emanates from the One is the Nous , a pure intelligence, an immanent and changeless thought, putting forth no activity outside of itself. The Nous is an image of the One, and, coming to recognize itself as an image, introduces the first duality, that of subject and object. The Nous includes in itself the intellectual world, or world of ideas, the kosmos nontos of Plato. From the Nous emanates the Soul of the world, which forms the transition between the world of ideas and the world of the senses. It is intelligent and, in this respect, similar to the ideal world. But it also tends to realize the ideas in the material world. The World-Soul generates particular souls, or rather plastic forces, which are the "forms" of all things. Finally, the soul and its particular forces beget matter, which is of itself indetermined and becomes determined by its union with the form. With a few variations in the details, the same essential doctrine of emanation is taught by Iamblichus and Proclus. With Plotinus, Iamblichus identifies the One with the Good, but assumes an absolutely first One, anterior to the One, and utterly ineffable. From it emanates the One; from the One, the intelligible world ( ideas ); and from the intelligible world, the intellectual world (thinking beings). According to Proclus, from the One come the unities ( enades ), which alone are related to the world. From the unities emanate the triads of the intelligible essences (being), the intelligible-intellectual essences (life), and the intellectual essences (thought). These again are further differentiated. Matter comes directly from one of the intelligible triads.

Gnostics teach that from God, the Father, emanated numberless Divine, supra-mundane Æons, less and less perfect, which, taken all together, constitute the fullness ( pleroma ) of Divine life. Wisdom, the last of these, produced an inferior wisdom named Achamoth, and also the psychical and material worlds. To denote the mode according to which an inferior is derived from a superior degree, Basilides uses the term aporroia ("flowing from", "efflux"), and Valentinus, the term probole (throwing forth, projection). The Fathers of the Church and Christian writers, especially when they treat of the divine exemplarism or of the relations of the three Divine Persons in the Trinity, and even when they speak of the origin of the world, may use expressions that remind one of the theory of emanation. But such expressions must be interpreted according to the doctrine of creation to which they adhere. Pseudo-Dionysius follows Plotinus and the later Neo-Platonists, especially Proclus, frequently borrowing their terminology. Yet he endeavours to adapt their views to the teachings of Christianity. God is primarily goodness and love, and other beings are emanations from His goodness, as light is an emanation from the sun. John Scotus Eriugena takes his doctrine from Pseudo-Dionysius and interprets it in the sense of pantheistic emanationism. There is only one Being who, by a series of substantial emanations, produces all things. Nature has four divisions, or rather there are four stages of the one nature :

  • The nature which creates, but is not created, i.e. God in His primordial, incomprehensible reality, unknown and unknowable for all beings, even for Himself. God alone truly is, and He is the essence of all things.
  • The created and creating nature, i.e. God considered as containing the ideas, prototypes, or, to use Eriugena's expression, the primordial causes of things. It is the ideal world.
  • The nature which is created, but does not create, is the world of things existing in time and space. All flow, proceed, or emanate from the first principle of being. Creation is a "procession". Creatures and God are one and the same reality. In creatures God manifests Himself. Hence the name theophania which Eriugena gives to this process.
  • Nature, which neither creates nor is created, i.e. God as the term towards which everything ultimately returns.
  • Arabian philosophy — not to speak here of the various forms of Arabian mysticism — is in many points influenced by Neo-Platonism, and generally holds some form of emanationism, the emanation of the different spheres to which all things celestial and terrestrial belong. According to Alfarabi, from the First Being, conceived as intelligent (in this Alfarabi departs from Plotinus), the intellect emanates; from the intellect, the cosmic soul ; and from the cosmic soul, matter. Avicenna teaches that matter is eternal and uncreated. From the First Cause comes the intelligentia prima , from which follows a series of processions and emanations of the various celestial spheres down to our own earthly sphere. For Averroes the intellect is not individual, but identical with the universal spirit, which is an emanation from God. Interesting is a comparison found in one of the later mystics, Ibn Arabi. Water that flows from a vessel becomes separated from it; hence this comparison is defective, for things that issue from God are not separated from Him. Emanation is illustrated by the comparison with a mirror, which receives the features of a man, although the man and his features remain united.

    In Jewish philosophy, influences of Neo-Platonism are apparent in Avicebron and Maimonides. In the Cabbala the famous doctrine of the Sephiroth is essentially a doctrine of emanations. It was developed and systematized especially in the thirteenth century. The Sephiroth are the necessary intermediaries between God and the universe, between the intellectual and the material world. They are divided into three groups, the first group of three forming the world of thought, the second group, also of three, the world of soul, and the last group, of four, the world of matter.

    III

    Philosophically the discussion of emanationism supposes the discussion of the whole problem of the nature of God, especially of His simplicity and infinity. The doctrine of the Catholic Church is contained in the definition of the dogma of the creatio ex nihilo by the Fourth Lateran Council and, especially, the Council of the Vatican. The latter expressly condemns emanationism (I. De Deo rerum omnium creatore, can. iv), and anathematizes those "asserting that finite things, both corporeal and spiritual, or at least spiritual, have "emanated from the Divine substance.

    More Volume: E 411

    Click/Touch the sub-volume below to view encyclopedia articles within the sub-volume.

    Ea 11

    Eadmer

    Precentor of Canterbury and historian, born 1064 (?); died 1124 (?). Brought up at Christ ...

    Eanbald I

    The first Archbishop of York by that name (not to be confused with Eanbald II ). Date of birth ...

    Eanbald II

    Date of birth unknown; died 810 or 812. He received his education in the famous School of York ...

    East Indies, Patriarchate of the

    In consequence of an agreement between the Holy See and the Portuguese Government in 1886, ...

    Easter

    The English term, according to the Ven. Bede (De temporum ratione, I, v), relates to Estre, a ...

    Easter Controversy

    Ecclesiastical history preserves the memory of three distinct phases of the dispute regarding ...

    Eastern Churches

    I. DEFINITION OF AN EASTERN CHURCH An accident of political development has made it possible to ...

    Eastern Schism

    From the time of Diotrephes ( 3 John 1:9-10 ) there have been continual schisms, of which the ...

    Easterwine

    (Or Eosterwini). Abbot of Wearmouth, was the nephew of St. Benedict Biscop ; born 650, died ...

    Easton, Adam

    Cardinal, born at Easton in Norfolk; died at Rome, 15 September (according to others, 20 ...

    Eata, Saint

    Second Bishop of Hexham ; date of birth unknown; died 26 October, 686. Whether this ...

    × Close

    Eb 7

    Ebbo

    (EBO) Archbishop of Reims, b. towards the end of the eighth century; d. 20 March, 851. Though ...

    Ebendorfer, Thomas

    German chronicler, professor, and statesman, b. 12 August, 1385, at Haselbach, in Upper Austria ...

    Eberhard of Ratisbon

    (Or Salzburg; also called Eberhardus Altahensis). A German chronicler who flourished about the ...

    Eberhard, Matthias

    Bishop of Trier, b. 15 Nov., 1815, at Trier (Germany), d. there 30 May, 1876. After ...

    Ebermann, Veit

    (Or Ebermann). Theologian and controversialist, born 25 May, 1597, at Rendweisdorff, in ...

    Ebionites

    By this name were designated one or more early Christian sects infected with Judaistic errors. ...

    Ebner

    The name of two German mystics, whom historical research has shown to have been in no wise ...

    × Close

    Ec 27

    Ecclesiastes

    (Septuagint èkklesiastés , in St. Jerome also C ONCIONATOR, "Preacher"). ...

    Ecclesiastical Addresses

    It is from Italy that we derive rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ...

    Ecclesiastical Architecture

    The best definition of architecture that has ever been given is likewise the shortest. It is "the ...

    Ecclesiastical Archives

    Ecclesiastical archives may be described as a collection of documents, records, muniments, and ...

    Ecclesiastical Art

    Before speaking in detail of the developments of Christian art from the beginning down to the ...

    Ecclesiastical Buildings

    This term comprehends all constructions erected for the celebration of liturgical acts, whatever ...

    Ecclesiastical Forum

    That the Church of Christ has judicial and coercive power is plain from the constitution given ...

    Ecclesiasticus

    (Abbrev. Ecclus.; also known as the Book of Sirach.) The longest of the deuterocanonical books ...

    Eccleston, Samuel

    Fifth Archbishop of Baltimore, U.S.A. born near Chestertown, Maryland, 27 June, 1801; died at ...

    Eccleston, Thomas of

    Thirteenth-century Friar Minor and chronicler, dates of birth and death unknown. He styles ...

    Echard, Jacques

    Historian of the Dominicans, born at Rouen, France, 22 September, 1644; died at Paris, 15 ...

    Echave, Baltasar de

    Painter, born at Zumaya, Guipuzcoa, Spain, in the latter part of the sixteenth century; died in ...

    Echinus

    A titular see of Thessaly, Greece. Echinus, ( Echinos , also Echinous ) was situated on the ...

    Echter von Mespelbrunn, Julius

    Prince- Bishop of Würzburg, b. 18 March, 1545, in the Castle of Mespelbrunn, Spessart ...

    Echternach, Abbey of

    (Also EPTERNACH, Latin EPTERNACENSIS). A Benedictine monastery in the town of that name, in ...

    Eck, Johann

    Theologian and principal adversary of Luther, b. 15 Nov., 1486, at Eck in Swabia; d. 10 Feb., ...

    Eckart, Anselm

    Missionary, born at Bingen, Germany, 4 August, 1721; died at the College of Polstok, Polish ...

    Eckebert

    (Ekbert, Egbert) Abbot of Schönau, born in the early part of the twelfth century of a ...

    Eckhart, Johann Georg von

    (Called Eccard before he was ennobled) German historian, b. at Duingen in the principality of ...

    Eckhart, Meister

    ( Also spelled Eckard, Eccard. Meister means "the Master"). Dominican preacher, theologian ...

    Eckhel, Joseph Hilarius

    German numismatist, b. 13 January, 1737, at Enzesfeld near Pottenstein, in Lower Austria, where ...

    Eclecticism

    (Greek ek, legein ; Latin eligere , to select) A philosophical term meaning either a ...

    Economics

    S CIENCE OF P OLITICAL E CONOMY (E CONOMICS ). I. DEFINITIONS Political economy (Greek, ...

    Ecstasy

    Supernatural ecstasy may be defined as a state which, while it lasts, includes two elements: ...

    Ecuador

    R EPUBLIC OF E CUADOR (L A R EPÚBLICA DEL E CUADOR ). An independent state of ...

    Ecumenical Councils

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: Definition Classification ...

    Ecumenism

    The Catholic Church is by far the largest, the most widespread, and the most ancient of ...

    × Close

    Ed 23

    Edda

    A title applied to two different collections of old Norse literature, the poetical or "Elder Edda" ...

    Edelinck

    The family name of four engravers. Gerard Edelinck Born in Antwerp c. 1640; died in ...

    Eden, Garden of

    ( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

    Edesius and Frumentius

    Tyrian Greeks of the fourth century, probably brothers, who introduced Christianity into ...

    Edessa

    A titular archiepiscopal see in that part of Mesopotamia formerly known as Osrhoene. The name ...

    Edgeworth, Henry Essex

    Better known as L' ABBÉ E DGEWORTH DE F IRMONT Confessor of Louis XVI, and ...

    Edinburgh

    Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, though not its largest city, derives its name from the time ...

    Editions of the Bible

    In the present article we understand by editions of the Bible the printed reproductions of its ...

    Edmund Arrowsmith, Venerable

    English martyr, born in 1585 at Haddock; executed at Lancaster, 23 August, 1628. He is of great ...

    Edmund Campion, Saint

    English Jesuit and martyr ; he was the son and namesake of a Catholic bookseller, and was born ...

    Edmund Rich, Saint

    Archbishop of Canterbury, England, born 20 November, c. 1180, at Abingdon, six miles from ...

    Edmund the Martyr, Saint

    King of East Anglia, born about 840; died at Hoxne, Suffolk, 20 November, 870. The earliest and ...

    Edmund, Congregation of Saint

    Founded in 1843, by Jean-Baptiste Muard, at Pontigny, France, for the work of popular missions. ...

    Education

    IN GENERAL In the broadest sense, education includes all those experiences by which intelligence ...

    Education of the Blind

    Although the education of the blind as a class dates back no further than the year 1784, ...

    Education of the Deaf

    Education essentially includes the process of encouraging, strengthening, and guiding the ...

    Educational Association, The Catholic

    The Catholic Educational Association is a voluntary organization composed of Catholic educators ...

    Edward III

    King of England (1312-77), eldest son of Edward II and Isabella, daughter of Philip IV of ...

    Edward Powell, Blessed

    With Blessed Thomas Abel there suffered Edward Powell, priest and martyr, b. in Wales about ...

    Edward the Confessor, Saint

    King of England, born in 1003; died 5 January, 1066. He was the son of Ethelred II and Emma, ...

    Edward the Martyr, Saint

    King of England, son to Edgar the Peaceful, and uncle to St. Edward the Confessor ; b. about ...

    Edwin, Saint

    (Æduini.) The first Christian King of Northumbria, born about 585, son of Ælla, ...

    Edwy

    (Or Eadwig.) King of the English, eldest son of Edmund and St. Aelfgifu, born about 940; died ...

    × Close

    Eg 15

    Egan, Boetius

    Archbishop of Tuam, born near Tuam, Ireland, 1734; died near Tuam, 1798. He belonged to a ...

    Egan, Michael

    First bishop of Philadelphia, U.S.A. b. in Ireland, most probably in Galway, in 1761; d. at ...

    Egbert

    (ECGBERHT or ECGBRYHT) Frequently though incorrectly called "First King of England ", died ...

    Egbert, Archbishop of Trier

    Died 8 or 9 December, 993. He belonged to the family of the Counts of Holland. His parents, ...

    Egbert, Archbishop of York

    Archbishop of York, England, son of Eata, brother of the Northumbrian King Eadbert and cousin ...

    Egbert, Saint

    A Northumbrian monk, born of noble parentage c. 639; d. 729. In his youth he went for the sake ...

    Egfrid

    (Also known as ECFRID, ECHGFRID, EGFERD). King of Northumbria, b. 650; d. 685. He ascended the ...

    Eginhard

    (Less correctly EGINHARD), historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the ...

    Egloffstein, Frederick W. von

    Born at Aldorf, near Nuremberg, Bavaria, 18 May, 1824; died in New York, 1885. He served in the ...

    Egmont, Lamoral, Count of

    Born at the Château de La Hamaide, in Hainault, 18 Nov., 1522; beheaded at Brussels, 5 ...

    Egoism

    ( Latin ego, I, self), the designation given to those ethical systems which hold self-love to ...

    Eguiara y Eguren, Juan José

    Born in Mexico towards the close of the seventeenth century; died 29 January, 1763. He received ...

    Egwin, Saint

    Third Bishop of Worcester ; date of birth unknown; d. (according to Mabillon ) 20 December, ...

    Egypt

    This subject will be treated under the following main divisions: I. General Description; II. ...

    Egyptian Church Ordinance

    The Egyptian Church Ordinance is an early Christian collection of thirty-one canons regulating ...

    × Close

    Ei 8

    Eichendorff, Josef Karl Benedikt

    JOSEF KARL BENEDIKT, FREIHERR VON EICHENDORFF. "The last champion of romanticism", b. 10 March, ...

    Eichstätt

    DIOCESE OF EICHSTÄTT (EYSTADIUM) [EYSTETTENSIS or AYSTETTENSIS] The Diocese of ...

    Eimhin, Saint

    Abbot and Bishop of Ros-mic-Truin ( Ireland ), probably in the sixth century. He came of the ...

    Einhard

    (Less correctly EGINHARD), historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the ...

    Einsiedeln, Abbey of

    A Benedictine monastery in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland, dedicated to Our Lady of the ...

    Eisengrein, Martin

    A learned Catholic theologian and polemical writer, born of Protestant parents at Stuttgart, 28 ...

    Eithene, Saint

    Styled "daughter of Baite", with her sister Sodelbia; commemorated in the Irish calendars under ...

    Eithne, Saint

    St. Eithne, styled "of the golden hair", is commemorated in the Irish martyrologies under the 11th ...

    × Close

    Ek 2

    Ekkehard

    Name of five monks of the (Swiss) Abbey of St. Gall from the tenth to the thirteenth century. ...

    Ekkehard of Aura

    (URAUGIENSIS) Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1050; d. after 1125. Very little is ...

    × Close

    El 46

    El Cid

    (Rodrigo, or Ruy, Diaz, Count of Bivar). The great popular hero of the chivalrous age of ...

    El Greco

    One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

    Elaea

    A titular see of Asia Minor. Elaea, said to have been founded by Menestheus, was situated at a ...

    Elba

    Elba, the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, is today a part of the Italian province of ...

    Elbel, Benjamin

    A first-class authority in moral theology , b. at Friedberg, Bavaria, in 1690; d. at ...

    Elcesaites

    (Or H ELKESAITES ). A sect of Gnostic Ebionites, whose religion was a wild medley of ...

    Elder, George

    Educator, b. 11 August, 1793, in Kentucky, U.S.A.; d. 28 Sept., 1838, at Bardstown. His parents, ...

    Elder, William Henry

    Third Bishop of Natchez, Mississippi, U.S.A. and second Archbishop of Cincinnati, b. in ...

    Eleazar

    ( Hebrew al‘wr , God's help). 1. Eleazar, son of Aaron Elizabeth, daughter of Aminadab ...

    Elect

    Denotes in general one chosen or taken by preference from among two or more; as a theological ...

    Election

    ( Latin electio , from eligere , to choose from) This subject will be treated under the ...

    Election, Papal

    For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

    Eleutherius, Pope Saint

    Pope (c. 174-189). The Liber Pontificalis says that he was a native of Nicopolis, Greece. From ...

    Eleutherius, Saint

    ( French ELEUTHERE). Bishop of Tournai at the beginning of the sixth century. Historically ...

    Eleutheropolis

    A titular see in Palaestina Prima. The former name of this city seems to have been Beth Gabra, ...

    Elevation, The

    What we now know as par excellence the Elevation of the Mass is a rite of comparatively ...

    Elhuyar y de Suvisa, Fausto de

    A distinguished mineralogist and chemist, born at Logroño, Castile, 11 October, 1755; ...

    Eli

    Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...

    Elias

    Elias (Hebrew 'Eliahu , "Yahveh is God "; also called Elijah). The loftiest and most ...

    Elias of Cortona

    Minister General of the Friars Minor , b., it is said, at Bevilia near Assisi, c. 1180; d. at ...

    Elias of Jerusalem

    Died 518; one of the two Catholic bishops (with Flavian of Antioch) who resisted the attempt of ...

    Elie de Beaumont, Jean-Baptiste-Armand-Louis-Léonce

    Geologist, b. at Canon (Dép. Calvados), near Caen, France, 25 Sept., 1798; d. at Canon, 21 ...

    Eligius, Saint

    ( French Eloi). Bishop of Noyon-Tournai, born at Chaptelat near Limoges, France, c. 590, of ...

    Elijah

    Elias (Hebrew 'Eliahu , "Yahveh is God "; also called Elijah). The loftiest and most ...

    Elined, Saint

    Virgin and martyr, flourished c. 490. According to Bishop Challoner (Britannia Saneta, London, ...

    Eliseus

    (E LISHA ; Hebrew ’lysh‘, God is salvation ). A Prophet of Israel. After ...

    Elishé

    A famous Armenian historian of the fifth century, place and date of birth unknown, d. 480. ...

    Elisha

    (E LISHA ; Hebrew ’lysh‘, God is salvation ). A Prophet of Israel. After ...

    Eliud, Saint

    (Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

    Elizabeth

    (" God is an oath " -- Exodus 6:23 ). Zachary's wife and John the Baptist's mother; was ...

    Elizabeth Ann Seton, Saint

    Foundress and first superior of the Sisters of Charity in the United States ; born in New York ...

    Elizabeth Associations

    ( Elisabethenvereine .) Charitable associations of women in Germany which aim for the ...

    Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint

    Also called St. Elizabeth of Thuringia, born in Hungary, probably at Pressburg, 1207; died at ...

    Elizabeth of Portugal, Saint

    Queen (sometimes known as the PEACEMAKER); born in 1271; died in 1336. She was named after her ...

    Elizabeth of Reute, Saint

    Member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born 25 November, 1386, at Waldsee in Swabia, of John ...

    Elizabeth of Schönau, Saint

    Born about 1129; d. 18 June, 1165.-Feast 18 June. She was born of an obscure family, entered the ...

    Elizabeth, Sisters of Saint

    Generally styled "Grey Nuns ". They sprang from an association of young ladies established by ...

    Ellis, Philip Michael

    First Vicar Apostolic of the Western District, England, subsequently Bishop of Segni, ...

    Ellwangen Abbey

    The earliest Benedictine monastery established in the Duchy of Wurtemberg, situated in the ...

    Elohim

    See also GOD. ( Septuagint, theos ; Vulgate, Deus ). Elohim is the common name for ...

    Elphege, Saint

    (Or ALPHEGE). Born 954; died 1012; also called Godwine, martyred Archbishop of Canterbury, ...

    Elphin

    D IOCESE OF E LPHIN (E LPHINIUM ) Suffragan of Tuam, Ireland, a see founded by St. ...

    Elusa

    A titular see of Palaestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra. This city is called Chellous in the ...

    Elvira, Council of

    Held early in the fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain, a city now in ruins not far ...

    Ely

    ANCIENT DIOCESE OF ELY (ELIENSIS; ELIA OR ELYS). Ancient diocese in England. The earliest ...

    Elzéar of Sabran

    Baron of Ansouis, Count of Ariano, born in the castle of Saint-Jean de Robians, in Provence, ...

    × Close

    Em 19

    Emanationism

    The doctrine that emanation (Latin emanare , "to flow from") is the mode by which all things ...

    Emancipation, Ecclesiastical

    In ancient Rome emancipation was a process of law by which a slave released from the ...

    Ember Days

    Ember days (corruption from Lat. Quatuor Tempora , four times) are the days at the beginning of ...

    Embolism

    (Greek: embolismos , from the verb, emballein , "to throw in") Embolism is an insertion, ...

    Embroidery

    ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY That in Christian worship embroidery was used from early times to ...

    Emerentiana, Saint

    Virgin and martyr, d. at Rome in the third century. The old Itineraries to the graves of the ...

    Emery, Jacques-André

    Superior of the Society of St-Sulpice during the French Revolution , b. 26 Aug., 1732, at Gex; ...

    Emesa

    A titular see of Phœnicia Secunda, suffragan of Damascus, and the seat of two Uniat ...

    Emigrant Aid Societies

    Records of the early immigration to the North American colonies are indefinite and ...

    Emiliana and Trasilla, Saints

    Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

    Emiliani, Saint Jerome

    Founder of the Order of Somascha; b. at Venice, 1481; d. at Somascha, 8 Feb., 1537; feast, 20 ...

    Emmanuel

    Emmanual ( Septuagint Emmanouel ; A.V., Immanuel ) signifies " God with us" ( Matthew 1:23 ), ...

    Emmaus

    A titular see in Pa1æstina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. It is mentioned for the ...

    Emmeram, Saint

    Bishop of Poitiers and missionary to Bavaria, b. at Poitiers in the first half of the seventh ...

    Emmeram, Saint, Abbey of

    A Benedictine monastery at Ratisbon (Regensburg), named after its traditional founder, the ...

    Emmerich, Anne Catherine

    An Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic, born 8 September, 1774, at Flamsche, near ...

    Empiricism

    (Lat. empirismus, the standpoint of a system based on experience). Primarily, and in its ...

    Ems, Congress of

    The Congress of Ems was a meeting of the representatives of the German Archbishops Friedrich ...

    Emser, Hieronymus

    The most ardent literary opponent of Luther, born of a prominent family at Ulm, 20 March, 1477; ...

    × Close

    En 34

    Encina, Juan de la

    (JUAN DE LA ENZINA). Spanish dramatic poet, called by Ticknor the father of the Spanish ...

    Enciso, Diego Ximenez de

    Dramatic poet, b. in Andalusia, Spain, c. 1585; date of death unknown. All trace of him is lost ...

    Enciso, Martín Fernández de

    Navigator and geographer, b. at Seville, Spain, c. 1470; d. probably about 1528 at Seville. It ...

    Encolpion

    (Greek egkolpion , that which is worn on the breast). The name given in early Christian ...

    Encratites

    [ ’Egkrateîs (Irenæus) ’Egkratetai (Clement of Alexandria, ...

    Encyclical

    ( Latin Litterœ Encyclicœ ) According to its etymology, an encyclical (from the ...

    Encyclopedia

    An abridgment of human knowledge in general or a considerable department thereof, treated from a ...

    Encyclopedists

    (1) The writers of the eighteenth century who edited or contributed articles to the ...

    Endlicher, Stephan Ladislaus

    Austrian botanist (botanical abbreviation, Endl. ), linguist, and historian, b. at Pressburg, ...

    Endowment

    ( German Stiftung , French fondation , Italian fondazione , Latin fundatio ) An ...

    Energy, The Law of Conservation of

    Amongst the gravest objections raised by the progress of modern science against Theism, the ...

    Engaddi

    ( Septuagint usually ’Eggadí ; Hebrew ‘En Gédhi, "Fountain of the ...

    Engel, Ludwig

    Canonist, b. at Castle Wagrein, Austria ; d. at Grillenberg, 22 April 1694. He became a ...

    Engelberg, Abbey of

    A Benedictine monastery in Switzerland, formerly in the Diocese of Constance, but now in that ...

    Engelbert

    Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Admont in Styria, b. of noble parents at Volkersdorf ...

    Engelbert of Cologne, Saint

    Archbishop of that city (1216-1225); b. at Berg, about 1185; d. near Schwelm, 7 November, 1225. ...

    Engelbrechtsen, Cornelis

    (Also called ENGELBERTS and ENGELBRECHT, and now more usually spelt ENGELBRECHTSZ). Dutch ...

    England (1066-1558)

    This term England is here restricted to one constituent, the largest and most populous, of the ...

    England (After 1558)

    The Protestant Reformation is the great dividing line in the history of England, as of Europe ...

    England (Before 1066)

    I. ANGLO-SAXON OCCUPATION OF BRITAIN The word Anglo-Saxon is used as a collective name for ...

    England, John

    First Bishop of Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.; b. 23 September, 1786, in Cork, Ireland ...

    Englefield, Sir Henry Charles, Bart.

    Antiquary and scientist, b. 1752; d. 21 March, 1822. He was the eldest son of Sir Henry ...

    English College, The, in Rome

    I. FOUNDATION Some historians (e.g., Dodd, II, 168, following Polydore Vergil, Harpsfield, ...

    English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729)

    Though the resistance of the English as a people to the Reformation compares very badly with the ...

    English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the

    On 29 September, 1850, by the Bull "Universalis Ecclesiae", Pius IX restored the Catholic ...

    English Literature

    It is not unfitting to compare English Literature to a great tree whose far spreading and ever ...

    English Revolution of 1688

    James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...

    Ennodius, Magnus Felix

    Rhetorician and bishop, b. probably at Arles, in Southern Gaul, in 474; d. at Pavia, Italy, 17 ...

    Enoch

    (Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...

    Enoch, Book of

    The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...

    Ensingen, Ulrich

    (ULRICH ENSINGER) Belonged to a family of architects who came from Einsingen near Ulm, ...

    Entablature

    A superstructure which lies horizontally upon the columns in classic architecture. It is divided ...

    Enthronization

    (From Greek ’enthronízein , to place on a throne). This word has been employed ...

    Envy

    Jealousy is here taken to be synonymous with envy. It is defined to be a sorrow which one ...

    × Close

    Eo 1

    Eoghan, Saints

    (1) EOGHAN OF ARDSTRAW was a native of Leinster, and, after presiding over the Abbey of ...

    × Close

    Ep 26

    Epée, Charles-Michel de l'

    A philanthropic priest and inventor of the sign alphabet for the instruction of the deaf and ...

    Epact

    (Greek épaktai hemérai; Latin dies adjecti ). The surplus days of the ...

    Eparchy

    ( eparchia ). Originally the name of one of the divisions of the Roman Empire. Diocletian ...

    Eperies

    DIOCESE OF EPERIES (EPERIENSIS RUTHENORUM). Diocese of the Greek Ruthenian Rite, suffragan to ...

    Ephesians, Epistle to the

    This article will be treated under the following heads: I. Analysis of the Epistle; II. ...

    Ephesus

    A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century ...

    Ephesus, Council of

    The third ecumenical council, held in 431. THE OCCASION AND PREPARATION FOR THE COUNCIL The ...

    Ephesus, Robber Council of

    (L ATROCINIUM ). The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of ...

    Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of

    The story is one of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after ...

    Ephod

    ( Hebrew aphwd or aphd ; Greek ’ís, ’ephód, ...

    Ephraem, Saint

    (EPHREM, EPHRAIM). Born at Nisibis, then under Roman rule, early in the fourth century; died ...

    Ephraemi Rescriptus, Codex

    (Symbol C). The last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible, ...

    Ephraim of Antioch

    ( Ephraimios ). One of the defenders of the Faith of Chalcedon (451) against the ...

    Epicureanism

    This term has two distinct, though cognate, meanings. In its popular sense, the word stands for a ...

    Epiklesis

    Epiklesis ( Latin invocatio ) is the name of a prayer that occurs in all Eastern liturgies ...

    Epimachus and Gordianus, Saints

    Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...

    Epiphania

    A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, in Asia Minor, suffragan of Anazarbus. This city is ...

    Epiphanius

    Surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, or in modern terms, THE PHILOLOGIST, a translator of various Greek works in ...

    Epiphanius of Constantinople

    Died 535. Epiphanius succeeded John II (518-20) as Patriarch of Constantinople. It was the time ...

    Epiphanius of Salamis

    Born at Besanduk, near Eleutheropolis, in Judea, after 310; died in 403. While very young he ...

    Epiphany

    Known also under the following names: (1) ta epiphania , or he epiphanios , sc. hemera ...

    Episcopal Subsidies

    ( Latin subsidia , tribute, pecuniary aid, subvention) Since the faithful are obliged to ...

    Episcopalians

    The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

    Epistemology

    ( Epistéme , knowledge, science, and lógos , speech, thought, discourse). ...

    Epistle (in Scripture)

    Lat. epistola ; Greek ’epistolé ; in Hebrew, at first only the general term ...

    Epping, Joseph

    German astronomer and Assyriologist, b. at Neuenkirchen near Rhine in Westphalia, 1 Dec., 1835; ...

    × Close

    Er 24

    Erasmus, Desiderius

    The most brilliant and most important leader of German humanism, b. at Rotterdam, Holland, 28 ...

    Erastus and Erastianism

    The name "Erastianism" is often used in a somewhat loose sense as denoting an undue subservience ...

    Erbermann, Veit

    (Or Ebermann). Theologian and controversialist, born 25 May, 1597, at Rendweisdorff, in ...

    Ercilla y Zúñiga, Alonso de

    Spanish soldier and poet, born in Madrid, 7 August, 1533; died in the same city, 29 November, ...

    Erconwald, Saint

    Bishop of London, died about 690. He belonged to the princely family of the East Anglian Offa, ...

    Erdeswicke, Sampson

    Antiquarian, date of birth unknown; died 1603. He was born at Sandon in Staffordshire, his ...

    Erdington Abbey

    Erdington Abbey, situated in a suburb of Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, belongs to the ...

    Erhard of Ratisbon, Saint

    Bishop of that city in the seventh century, probably identical with an Abbot Erhard of ...

    Erie

    DIOCESE OF ERIE (ERIENSIS). Established 1853; it embraces the thirteen counties of ...

    Erin, The Twelve Apostles of

    By this designation are meant twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the ...

    Eriugena, John Scotus

    An Irish teacher, theologian, philosopher, and poet, who lived in the ninth century. NAME ...

    Ermland

    Ermland, or Ermeland (Varmiensis, Warmia), a district of East Prussia and an exempt bishopric. ...

    Ernakulam, Vicariate Apostolic of

    In May, 1887, the churches of Syrian Rite in Malabar were separated from those of the Latin ...

    Ernan, Saints

    Name of four Irish saints. O'Hanlon enumerates twenty-five saints bearing the name Ernan, ...

    Ernst of Hesse-Rheinfels

    Landgrave, b. 9 Dec., 1623, at Cassel; d. 12 May, 1693, at Cologne. He was the sixth son of ...

    Ernulf

    Architect, b. at Beauvais, France, in 1040; d. 1124. He studied under Lanfranc at the monastery ...

    Errington, William

    Priest, founder of Sedgley Park School, b. 17 July, 1716; d. 28 September, 1768. He was son of ...

    Error

    Error, reduplicatively regarded, is in one way or another the product of ignorance. But besides ...

    Erskine, Charles

    Cardinal, b. at Rome, 13 Feb., 1739; d. at Paris, 20 March, 1811. He was the son of Colin ...

    Erthal, Franz Ludwig von

    Prince- Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg, b. at Lohr on the Main, 16 September, 1730; d. at ...

    Erthal, Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr von

    Last Elector and Archbishop of Mainz, b. 3 Jan., 1719, at Mainz ; d. 25 July, 1802, at ...

    Erwin of Steinbach

    One of the architects of the Strasburg cathedral, date of birth unknown; d. at Strasburg, 17 ...

    Erythrae

    A titular see in Asia Minor. According to legend the city was founded by colonists from Crete. ...

    Erzerum (Theodosiopolis)

    DIOCESE OF ERZERUM (ERZERUMIENSIS ARMENIORUM). The native name, Garin (Gr. Karenitis ; ...

    × Close

    Es 11

    Esau

    ( ‘sw , hairy). The eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca, the twin-brother of Jacob. The ...

    Esch, Nicolaus van

    (ESCHIUS) A famous mystical theologian, b. in Oisterwijk near Hertogenbosch (Boisle-Duc), ...

    Eschatology

    That branch of systematic theology which deals with the doctrines of the last things ( ta ...

    Escobar y Mendoza, Antonio

    Born at Valladolid in 1589; died there, 4 July, 1669. In his sixteenth year he entered the ...

    Escobar, Marina de

    Mystic and foundress of a modified branch of the Brigittine Order b. at Valladolid, Spain, 8 ...

    Escorial, The

    A remarkable building in Spain situated on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama about ...

    Esdras

    (Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's ...

    Esglis, Louis-Philippe Mariauchau d'

    Eighth Bishop of Quebec, Canada ; born Quebec, 24 April, 1710; died 7 June, 1788. After ...

    Eskil

    Archbishop of Lund, Skåne, Sweden ; b. about 1100; d. at Clairvaux, 6 (7?) Sept., 1181; ...

    Eskimo

    A littoral race occupying the entire Arctic coast and outlying islands of America from below Cook ...

    Esnambuc, Pierre Belain, Sieur d'

    Captain in the French marine, b. 1565, at Allouville, near Yvetot (Seine-Inferieure); d. at St. ...

    × Close

    ES 1

    ESP

    ( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

    × Close

    Es 14

    Espejo, Antonio

    A Spanish explorer, whose fame rests upon a notable expedition which he conducted into New ...

    Espen, Zeger Bernhard van

    (also called ESPENIUS) A Belgian canonist, born at Louvain, 9 July, 1646; died at ...

    Espence, Claude D'

    (ESPENCÆUS) A French theologian, born in 1511 at Châlons-sur-Marne; died 5 Oct., ...

    Espinel, Vincent

    Poet and novelist; born at Ronda (Malaga), Spain, 1544; died at Madrid, 1634. He studied at ...

    Espinosa, Alonso De

    Spanish priest and historian of the sixteenth century. Little is known of his early life. He is ...

    Espousals

    An Espousal is a contract of future marriage between a man and a woman, who are thereby ...

    Espousals of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    (DESPONSATIO BEATÆ MARIÆ VIRGINIS) A feast of the Latin Church. It is certain ...

    Essence and Existence

    ( Latin essentia, existentia ) Since they are transcendentals, it is not possible to put ...

    Essenes

    One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century ...

    Est, Willem Hessels van

    (ESTIUS.) A famous commentator on the Pauline epistles, born at Gorcum, Holland, in 1542; ...

    Establishment, The

    (Or ESTABLISHED CHURCH) The union of Church and State setting up a definite and distinctive ...

    Estaing, Comte d'

    JEAN-BAPTISTE-CHARLES-HENRI-HECTOR, COMTE D'ESTAING (MARQUIS DE SAILLANS). A French admiral, ...

    Esther

    (From the Hebrew meaning star, happiness ); Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is ...

    Estiennot de la Serre, Claude

    Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, b. at Varennes, France, 1639; d. at Rome, 1699. ...

    × Close

    Et 11

    Eternity

    ( aeternum , originally aeviternum, aionion, aeon -- long). Eternity is defined by ...

    Ethelbert

    Archbishop of York, England, date of birth uncertain; d. 8 Nov., 781 or 782. The name also ...

    Ethelbert, Saint

    Date of birth unknown; d. 794; King of the East Angles, was, according to the "Speculum ...

    Ethelbert, Saint

    King of Kent; b. 552; d. 24 February, 616; son of Eormenric, through whom he was descended from ...

    Etheldreda, Saint

    Queen of Northumbria; born (probably) about 630; died at Ely, 23 June, 679. While still very young ...

    Ethelwold, Saint

    St. Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, was born there of good parentage in the early years of the ...

    Etherianus, Hugh and Leo

    Brothers, Tuscans by birth, employed at the court of Constantinople under the Emperor Manuel I ...

    Ethethard

    (ÆTHELHEARD, ETHELREARD) The fourteenth Archbishop of Canterbury, England, date of ...

    Ethics

    I. Definition Many writers regard ethics (Gr. ethike ) as any scientific treatment of the ...

    Ethiopia

    The name of this region has been derived, through the Greek form, aithiopia , from the two ...

    Etschmiadzin

    A famous Armenian monastery, since 1441 the ecclesiastical capital of the schismatic Armenians, ...

    × Close

    Eu 66

    Euaria

    A titular see of Phoenicia Secunda or Libanensis, in Palestine. The true name of this city ...

    Eucarpia

    A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris in Asia Minor. Eucarpia ( Eukarpia ), mentioned by Strabo ...

    Eucharist, as a Sacrament

    Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the ...

    Eucharist, as a Sacrifice

    The word Mass ( missa ) first established itself as the general designation for the ...

    Eucharist, Early Symbols of the

    Among the symbols employed by the Christians of the first ages in decorating their tombs, those ...

    Eucharist, Introduction to the

    See also EUCHARIST AS SACRIFICE , EUCHARIST AS SACRAMENT , and REAL PRESENCE . (Greek ...

    Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

    Eucharistic Congresses

    Eucharistic Congresses are gatherings of ecclesiastics and laymen for the purpose of ...

    Eucharistic Prayer

    This article will be divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of ...

    Eucharius, Saint

    First Bishop of Trier (Treves) in the second half of the third century. According to an ...

    Eucherius, Saint

    Bishop of Lyons, theologian, born in the latter half of the fourth century; died about 449. On ...

    Euchologion

    The name of one of the chief Service-books of the Byzantine Church ; it corresponds more or less ...

    Eudes, Blessed Jean

    French missionary and founder of the Eudists and of the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity; ...

    Eudists

    (Society of Jesus and Mary) An ecclesiastical society instituted at Caen, France, 25 March, ...

    Eudocia

    (E UDOKIA ). Ælia Eudocia, sometimes wrongly called Eudoxia, was the wife of ...

    Eudoxias

    A titular see of Galatia Secunda in Asia Minor, suffragan of Pessinus. Eudoxias is mentioned ...

    Eugendus, Saint

    (AUGENDUS; French OYAND, OYAN) Fourth Abbot of Condat (Jura), b. about 449, at Izernore, ...

    Eugene I, Saint, Pope

    Eugene I was elected 10 Aug., 654, and died at Rome, 2 June, 657. Because he would not submit to ...

    Eugene II, Pope

    Elected 6 June, 824; died 27 Aug., 827. On the death of Pascal I (Feb.-May, 824) there took place ...

    Eugene III, Pope

    Bernardo Pignatelli, born in the neighbourhood of Pisa, elected 15 Feb., 1145; d. at Tivoli, 8 ...

    Eugene IV, Pope

    Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 ...

    Eugenics

    Eugenics literally means "good breeding". It is defined as the study of agencies under social ...

    Eugenius I

    Archbishop of Toledo, successor in 636 of Justus in that see ; d. 647. Like his predecessor he ...

    Eugenius II (the Younger)

    Archbishop of Toledo from 647 to 13 Nov., 657, the date of his death. He was the son of a Goth ...

    Eugenius of Carthage, Saint

    Unanimously elected Bishop of Carthage in 480 to succeed Deogratias (d. 456); d. 13 July, 505. ...

    Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint

    A Spanish martyr in the persecution of Diocletian (12 February, 304), patron of the ...

    Eulogia

    (Greek eulogia , "a blessing"). The term has been applied in ecclesiastical usage to the ...

    Eulogius of Alexandria, Saint

    Patriarch of that see from 580 to 607. He was a successful combatant of the heretical errors ...

    Eulogius of Cordova, Saint

    Spanish martyr and writer who flourished during the reigns of the Cordovan Caliphs, Abd-er-Rahman ...

    Eumenia

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana in Asia Minor, and suffragan to Hierapolis. It was founded ...

    Eunan, Saint

    (Or Eunan). Abbot of Iona, born at Drumhome, County Donegal, Ireland, c. 624; died at the ...

    Eunomianism

    A phase of extreme Arianism prevalent amongst a section of Eastern churchmen from about 350 ...

    Euphemius of Constantinople

    Euphemius of Constantinople (490-496) succeeded as patriarch Flavitas (or Fravitas, 489-490), who ...

    Euphrasia, Saint

    Virgin, b. in 380; d. after 410. She was the daughter of Antigonus, a senator of Constantinople, ...

    Euphrosyne, Saint

    Died about 470. Her story belongs to that group of legends which relate how Christian virgins, in ...

    Euroea

    A titular see of Epirus Vetus in Greece, suffragan of Nicopolis. Euroea is mentioned by ...

    Europe

    NAME The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and ...

    Europus

    A titular see in Provincis Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis. The former name of this city ...

    Eusebius Bruno

    Bishop of Angers, b. in the early part of the eleventh century; d. at Angers, 29 August, 1081. ...

    Eusebius of Alexandria

    Ecclesiastical writer and author of a number of homilies well known in the sixth and seventh ...

    Eusebius of Cæsarea

    Eusebius Pamphili, Bishop of Cæsarea in Palestine, the "Father of Church History "; b. ...

    Eusebius of Dorylæum

    Eusebius, Bishop of Dorylæum in Asia Minor, was the prime mover on behalf of Catholic ...

    Eusebius of Laodicea

    An Alexandrian deacon who had some fame as a confessor and became bishop of Laodicea in ...

    Eusebius of Nicomedia

    Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the ...

    Eusebius, Chronicle of

    Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the "Chronograph" or ...

    Eusebius, Saint

    Bishop of Vercelli, b. in Sardinia c. 283; d. at Vercelli, Piedmont, 1 August, 371. He was ...

    Eusebius, Saint

    Bishop of Samosata (now Samsat) in Syria ; date of birth unknown: d. in 379 or 380. History ...

    Eusebius, Saint

    A presbyter at Rome ; date of birth unknown; d. 357(?). He was a Roman patrician and ...

    Eusebius, Saint, Pope

    Successor of Marcellus, 309 or 310. His reign was short. The Liberian Catalogue gives its duration ...

    Eustace, John Chetwode

    Antiquary, b. in Ireland, c. 1762; d. at Naples, Italy, 1 Aug., 1815. His family was English, ...

    Eustace, Maurice

    Eldest son of Sir John Eustace, Castlemartin, County Kildars, Ireland, martyred for the Faith, ...

    Eustace, Saint

    Date of birth unknown; died 29 March, 625. He was second abbot of the Irish monastery of ...

    Eustachius and Companions, Saints

    Martyrs under the Emperor Hadrian, in the year 188. Feast in the West, 20 September; in the East, 2 ...

    Eustachius, Bartolomeo

    A distinguished anatomist of the Renaissance period — "one of the greatest anatomists ...

    Eustathius of Sebaste

    Born about 300; died about 377. He was one of the chief founders of monasticism in Asia Minor, ...

    Eustathius, Saint

    Bishop of Antioch, b. at Side in Pamphylia, c. 270; d. in exile at Trajanopolis in Thrace , ...

    Eustochium Julia, Saint

    Virgin, born at Rome c. 368; died at Bethlehem, 28 September, 419 or 420. She was the third of ...

    Euthalius

    ( ) A deacon of Alexandria and later Bishop of Sulca. He lived towards the middle of ...

    Euthanasia

    (From Greek eu , well, and thanatos , death), easy, painless death. This is here considered ...

    Euthymius, Saint

    (Styled THE GREAT). Abbot in Palestine; b. in Melitene in Lesser Armenia, A.D. 377; d. A.D. ...

    Eutropius of Valencia

    A Spanish bishop ; d. about 610. He was originally a monk in the Monasterium Servitanum , ...

    Eutyches

    An heresiarch of the fifth century, who has given his name to an opinion to which his teaching and ...

    Eutychianism

    Eutychianism and Monophysitism are usually identified as a single heresy. But as some ...

    Eutychianus, Saint, Pope

    He succeeded Pope Felix I a few days after the latter's death, and governed the Church from ...

    Eutychius

    Melchite Patriarch of Alexandria, author of a history of the world, b. 876, at Fustat (Cairo); ...

    Eutychius I

    Patriarch of Constantinople, b. about 512, in Phrygia; d. Easter Day , 5 April, 582. He became ...

    × Close

    Ev 18

    Evagrius

    Ecclesiastical historian and last of the continuators of Eusebius of Caesarea, b. in 536 at ...

    Evagrius

    Born about 345, in Ibora, a small town on the shores of the Black Sea; died 399. He is numbered ...

    Evangeliaria

    Liturgical books containing those portions of the Gospels which are read during Mass or in the ...

    Evangelical Alliance, The

    An association of Protestants belonging to various denominations founded in 1846, whose object, ...

    Evangelical Church

    (IN PRUSSIA) The sixteenth-century Reformers accused the Catholic Church of having ...

    Evangelical Counsels

    ( Or COUNSELS OF PERFECTION). Christ in the Gospels laid down certain rules of life and ...

    Evangelist

    In the New Testament this word, in its substantive form, occurs only three times: Acts, xxi, 8; ...

    Evaristus, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; died about 107. In the Liberian Catalogue his name is given as Aristus. In ...

    Eve

    ( Hebrew hawwah ). The name of the first woman, the wife of Adam, the mother of Cain, Abel, ...

    Eve of a Feast

    (Or VIGIL; Latin Vigilia ; Greek pannychis ). In the first ages, during the night before ...

    Evesham Abbey

    Founded by St. Egwin, third Bishop of Worcester, about 701, in Worcestershire, England, and ...

    Evil

    Evil, in a large sense, may be described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to ...

    Evin, Saint

    St. Abban of New Ross -- also known as St. Ewin, Abhan, or Evin, but whose name has been locally ...

    Evodius

    The first Bishop of Antioch after St. Peter. Eusebius mentions him thus in his "History": ...

    Evolution, Catholics and

    One of the most important questions for every educated Catholic of today is: What is to be ...

    Evolution, History and Scientific Foundation of

    The world of organisms comprises a great system of individual forms generally classified ...

    Evora

    Located in Portugal, raised to archiepiscopal rank in 1544, at which time it was given as ...

    Evreux

    DIOCESE OF EVREUX (EBROICENSIS) Diocese in the Department of Eure, France ; suffragan of the ...

    × Close

    Ew 3

    Ewald, Saints

    (Or HEWALD) Martyrs in Old Saxony about 695. They were two priests and natives of ...

    Ewin, Saint

    St. Abban of New Ross -- also known as St. Ewin, Abhan, or Evin, but whose name has been locally ...

    Ewing, Thomas

    Jurist and statesman, b. in West Liberty, Virginia (now West Virginia ), U.S.A. 28 December, ...

    × Close

    Ex 31

    Ex Cathedra

    Literally "from the chair", a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is ...

    Examination

    A process prescribed or assigned for testing qualification; an investigation, inquiry. ...

    Examination of Conscience

    By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ...

    Examiners, Apostolic

    So called because appointed by the Apostolic See for service in Rome. In 1570 Pius V ...

    Examiners, Synodal

    So called because chosen in a diocesan synod. The Council of Trent prescribes at least six ...

    Exarch

    (Greek Exarchos ). A title used in various senses both civilly and ecclesiastically. In ...

    Excardination and Incardination

    (Latin cardo, a pivot, socket, or hinge--hence, incardinare, to hang on a hinge, or fix; ...

    Exclusion, Right of

    (Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...

    Excommunication

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. General Notions and Historical ...

    Executor, Apostolic

    A cleric who puts into execution a papal rescript, completing what is necessary in order ...

    Exedra

    A semicircular stone or marble seat; a rectangular or semicircular recess; the portico of the ...

    Exegesis, Biblical

    Exegesis is the branch of theology which investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred ...

    Exemption

    Exemption is the whole or partial release of an ecclesiastical person, corporation, or ...

    Exequatur

    (Synonymous with REGIUM PLACET) Exequatur, as the Jansenist Van Espen defines it, is a ...

    Exeter, Ancient Diocese of

    (EXONIA, ISCA DAMNONIORUM, CAER WISE, EXANCEASTER; EXONIENSIS). English see, chosen by Leofric, ...

    Exmew, Blessed William

    Carthusian monk and martyr ; suffered at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. He studied at Christ's ...

    Exodus ( See Pentateuch)

    Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

    Exorcism

    ( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCIST, POSSESSION.) Exorcism is (1) the act of driving ...

    Exorcist

    ( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, POSSESSION.) (1) In general, any one who ...

    Expectation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    ( Exspectatio Partus B.V.M. ) Celebrated on 18 December by nearly the entire Latin Church. ...

    Expectative

    (From the Latin expectare , to expect or wait for.) An expectative, or an expectative grace, ...

    Expeditors, Apostolic

    (Latin Expeditionarius literarum apostolicarum, Datariae Apostolicae sollicitator atque ...

    Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament

    Exposition is a manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing It, with proper solemnity, to ...

    Extension

    (From Latin ex-tendere , to spread out.) That material substance is not perfectly ...

    Extension Society, The Catholic Church

    IN THE UNITED STATES The first active agitation for a church extension or home mission society ...

    Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP)

    ( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

    Extravagantes

    ( Extra , outside; vagari , to wander.) This word is employed to designate some papal ...

    Extreme Unction

    A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...

    Exul Hibernicus

    The name given to an Irish stranger on the Continent of Europe in the time of Charles the ...

    Exultet

    The hymn in praise of the paschal candle sung by the deacon, in the liturgy of Holy ...

    Exuperius, Saint

    (Also spelled Exsuperius). Bishop of Toulouse in the beginning of the fifth century; place ...

    × Close

    Ey 7

    Eyb, Albrecht von

    One of the earliest German humanists, born in 1420 near Anabach in Franconia; died in 1475. After ...

    Eyck, Hubert and Jan van

    Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and ...

    Eycken, Jean Baptiste van

    Painter, born at Brussels, Belgium, 16 September, 1809; died at Schaerbeek, 19 December, 1853. ...

    Eymard, Venerable Pierre-Julien

    Founder of the Society of the Blessed Sacrament , and of the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament, ...

    Eymeric, Nicolas

    Theologian and inquisitor, born at Gerona, in Catalonia, Spain, c. 1320; died there 4 January, ...

    Eyre, Thomas

    First president of Ushaw College ; born at Glossop, Derbyshire; in 1748; died at Ushaw, 8 May, ...

    Eyston, Charles

    Antiquary, born 1667; died 5 November, 1721; he was a member of the ancient family of Eyston, ...

    × Close

    Ez 6

    Ezechias

    Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...

    Ezekiel

    Ezekiel, whose name, Yehézq'el signifies "strong is God ", or "whom God makes strong" ...

    Ezion-geber

    More properly Ezion-geber, a city of Idumea, situated on the northern extremity of the ...

    Eznik

    A writer of the fifth century, born at Golp, in the province of Taikh, a tributary valley of the ...

    Ezra

    (Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's ...

    Never Miss any Updates!

    Stay up to date with the latest news, information, and special offers.

    Catholic Online Logo

    Copyright 2016 Catholic Online. All materials contained on this site, whether written, audible or visual are the exclusive property of Catholic Online and are protected under U.S. and International copyright laws, © Copyright 2016 Catholic Online. Any unauthorized use, without prior written consent of Catholic Online is strictly forbidden and prohibited.