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West Virginia

A state of the American Union, bounded on the northeast by Pennsylvania and Maryland, on the northwest by Ohio, on the southeast and south by Virginia, and on the southwest by Kentucky ; it is situated between latitude 37°36' and 40°38' North, and between the meridians 77°45' and 82°03' West. Its area is 24,780 square miles, of which 24,645 square miles is land and 135 square miles is water, containing 15,859,200 acres. The population, according to the U.S. Census of 1910, is 1,221,119. The principal cities are: Wheeling, 41,641; Huntington, 31,161; Parkersburg, 17,742 Charleston, 22,926; Clarksburg, 9201.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

West Virginia geographically belongs to the Mississippi Valley, and the principal rivers, which are the Sandy, Guyandotte, Big and Little Kanawha, and the Monongahela, with its tributaries the Youghiogheny and Cheat, are tributary to the Ohio River, which flows for 300 miles along this state.

This great watercourse puts West Virginia in direct communication with the trade of the Mississippi Valley, the Gulf of Mexico, and in fact with the markets of the far West. The Allegheny Ridge forms in this state the watershed between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi Valley. West of the Allegheny Range and that of the Shenandoah on the east, and the Greenbrier and Laurel Mountains on the west, are numerous short parallel ridges of which the most important are Potts or Middle Warm Spring and Jackson River Mountains. The most western of these continuous chains is the Laurel Ridge with its prolongations, the Greenbrier and Flat Top Mountains. Near the line of Randolph County the Greenbrier Mountains throw off a spur east to the Allegheny Range, and from this extend numerous parallel ridges following the usual course of the mountain chains of the state and known as Rich, Middle Shaves, Cheat, and Valley Mountains. The Great Flat Top Mountain, as the south-western portion of this ridge is called, also throws out spurs north and north-west called the White Oak Mountain and Barker's Ridge. These mountain chains inclose many fertile valleys.

The prevailing ingredients of the soil are silica, aluminium, pure clay, marl, lime, magnesia, and iron, which the very unevenness of the surface tends to amalgamate to the greatest practical advantage. Thus the alluvial or bottom lands composed of the diluvium from adjacent and distant hills combine mechanically and chemically every kind of mineral and vegetable decomposition in the country. This soil, which varies in depth from three to forty feet, produces the largest timber and heaviest crops, and, resting upon a substantial basis of dark loam and fertile clay, exceeds in reliability and endurance the black, rich, but thirsty and chaffy, soils of the Western prairies. The second bottom is generally representative of the rocks prevailing upon this level, with a strong admixture of the strata above brought down by the gradual landslips and the rains, and accumulated probably to a great extent before the present vegetation took possession of the surface. On ascending, the soil is found gradually less mixed in substance and colour, the timber is less varied, and on steeper places less thrifty. When the ridge is sharp and narrow, the bare rock is found but a few inches below and not seldom protruding above the surface; but when flat or gently inclined, as in a majority of cases, there is found a deep, arable soil heavily coated with humus, and producing, with few exceptions, the identical kinds of timber and crops found in the alluvial valley below. In those regions of the state where the table-lands are exceptionally met with, the surface presents undulating plains, which, but for their timber, would recall to mind an Illinois prairie, reaching along the mountain summits for miles in length and breadth, with scarcely an elevation sufficiently great to divide the water. West Virginia is richly invested with timber, comprising many varieties of the oak and fir, the hemlock, cedar, laurel, tulip-tree, the black and white walnuts, hickory, beech, sycamore, elm, maple, birch, white and mountain ash, besides the wild-fruit varieties peculiar to the surrounding states. It has been estimated that 11,300,000 acres, or nearly three-fourths of the superficial area of the state, are as yet unimproved, and of these a considerable proportion are still in the vigour and juvenescence of original growth.

There is a great diversity of climate in West Virginia. In the mountain regions the summers are never very warm, while the winters are extremely cold, the thermometer sometimes registering 25 below zero. Except in these mountain regions the climate is generally free from the extremes of heat and cold, rain and drought, and upon the whole one of the most agreeable and salubrious in the Union. The mean annual temperature is about 50°; summer 72°; autumn 54° Fahrenheit. The average rainfall is from 43 to 45 inches.

RESOURCES

Agricultural

The production and value of leading crops in 1910 were as follows: hay, 810,000 tons, value $12,150,000; corn, 23,290,000 bushels, value, $16,226,000; wheat, 5,125,000 bushels, value, $5,228,000; oats, 2,520,000 bushels, value, $1,260,000; rye, 155,000 bushels, value $140,000; buckwheat, 575,000 bushels, value $443,000; potatoes, 3,772,000 bushels, value, $2,527,000; tobacco, 12,800,000 lbs., value, $1,318,000. The fruit crop aggregated over $1,000,000 in value. Stock raising is also an important industry.

Mineral

West Virginia is richly endowed with a high grade of oil or crude petroleum. During the year 1909 the production was 10,745,092 barrels, valued at $17,642,283. This state is also very rich in high-grade coal, containing every variety except anthracite; during 1909 there were 51,466,010 tons mined, thus ranking second, after Pennsylvania, in the production of coal; coke was produced to the amount of 2,637,132 short tons. In 1908 the production of natural gas was valued at $14,837,130; and in this year the clay products amounted in value to $3,261,756.

Manufactures

There are a number of manufacturing industries within the state, most of which are located along the Ohio River. In 1907 there were 2150 manufacturing establishments, with a combined capital of $41,175,913, turning out a product valued at $94,584,091, and employing 45,871 persons whose annual wages were $24,268,502. The leading industries in this year were iron and steel, thirteen plants, product valued at $20,095,000; lumber and planing mills, product valued at $10,359,615; coke, product valued at $5,074,403; glass, $6,322,223; leather and harness, $6,623,567; machinery and castings, $6,521,374; brewing and distilling, $2,650,895; flour and feed, $2,664,012; pottery, $1,826,745; wood pulp and paper, $1,735,967; brick and tile, $1,064,710.

EDUCATION

General

Although the state is of comparatively recent development, an efficient free school system has been established of which a state superintendent has general supervision, and a county superintendent and board of three commissioners for each school district have local jurisdiction. In 1908 there were 351,966 children of school age; of these 336,279 were white and 15,657 were coloured. Separate schools are provided for white and coloured persons. There were 7021 public schools with 8282 teachers, with property of an estimated valuation of $7,705,768, while $3,979,125 was expended in maintenance. Other state institutions are: six normal schools, two preparatory branches of the State university, two coloured institutes, a school for the deaf and blind, the State Reform School, the Industrial School for Girls, the Weston Hospital for the Insane, and the West Virginia University. This university, situated at Morgantown, originated by virtue of the National Land Act of Congress of 2 July, 1862, the subsequent action of the Legislature in accepting its provision, and from the foundations of an educational institution which had already been laid at Morgantown for half a century. Its sources of revenue are: first, an annual productive endowment of $115,750; second, the Morrill fund, which amounts to $25,000 a year; third, the Hatch fund, amounting to $15,000 annually; fourth the biennial appropriations of the Legislature; and, fifth, fees and tuitions paid only by students of other states.

Catholic

The Sisters of the Visitation have academies for young ladies at Mount de Chantal, near Wheeling, and at Parkersburg. The Sisters of St. Joseph have academies for young ladies at Clarksburg and Wheeling ; the Xaverian Brothers conduct a high school for boys at Wheeling. St. Edward's Preparatory School for Young Men, at Huntington, was opened in September, 1909. There are 14 parochial schools with 1975 pupils, and in all 3300 young persons are under Catholic care.

The oldest Catholic charitable institution in the state is the Wheeling Hospital, incorporated in 1850, and in charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph , who have been labouring in the diocese since its foundation. The same order conduct hospitals at Parkersburg and Clarksburg, also St. Vincent's Home for Girls, and St. John's Home for Boys at Elm Grove, a suburb of Wheeling. A manual training school for boys at Elm Grove is conducted by the Xaverian Brothers , a home for wayward and homeless girls, at Edgington Lane, Wheeling, is in charge of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd.

LAWS AFFECTING RELIGION

The Constitution provides that there shall be no special laws concerning property held for religious or charitable purposes. No church or religious denomination can be incorporated. A religious congregation can legally acquire and hold a limited quantity of real property by deed of conveyance for three purposes only: first, for a place of worship; second, for a place of burial ; third, for a place of residence for a minister. The title to such property is vested in trustees, named in the deed of conveyances or appointed by the proper court, which trustees hold the property for the use and benefit of the congregation. No devise or bequest by will of either personal or real property to any church, or trustees thereof, or to any congregation is valid. Any persons desiring to make a bequest or devise for the benefit of any church may make such bequest or devise in favour of some individual, absolutely and without any limitation or qualifications, trusting to the loyalty of such person for faithful application of the property to the real purposes for which the bequest or devise is desired to be made. But any devise or bequest if questioned in legal proceedings, and the real facts shown, would doubtless be held to be void. A gift of personal property to the trustees or other proper authorities of any church for the benefit thereof with delivery of possession by the donor, of course, is valid. On some of the questions relating to charitable trusts the decisions of the courts are not free from confusion. Property used for educational, literary, scientific, religious, or charitable purposes is exempt from taxation.

No appropriation of school funds to support any sectarian or denominational school is allowed. A clergyman is incompetent to testify concerning any confession made to him in the course of discipline enjoined by the Church to which he belongs. Ministers of the Gospel regularly in charge of a congregation are exempt from military duty, labour on public roads, and jury service. No religious or political test or oath can be required as a prerequisite or qualification to vote, serve as a juror, sue, plead, appeal, or pursue any profession or employment. No person can be compelled to attend or support any particular religious worship; the Legislature may not prescribe any religious test whatsoever, or confer any peculiar privileges or advantages on any sect or denomination; it may not pass any law or levy any tax for the erection or repair of any house for public worship, or for the support of any Church or ministry; but every person is free to select his religious instructor and provide for his support. Marriage between whites and negroes is prohibited. Divorces which are vinculo matrimonii or a mensa et toro can only be granted by the courts, on statutory grounds which are very similar to those of most of the Eastern states. In the court all testimony is required to be given under oath. Search warrants cannot be issued without affidavits. Profanity and drunkenness are prohibited by law, and a penalty is imposed for its violation. While the observance of Sunday is not directly enjoined, labouring at any trade or calling or the employing of minor apprentices or servants in labour on Sunday, except in household or other work of necessity or charity, are forbidden. Also hunting and fishing on Sunday are forbidden by law. A penalty is imposed for the disturbance of religious worship.

HISTORY

The territory now embraced in West Virginia was an unexplored wilderness when it first became known to white men. That it was first inhabited not many generations before the coming of the white explorer is evidenced by many relics found, such as pieces of flint, rude stone implements, human bones, large mounds, and other unmistakable witnesses to that fact. Different Indian tribes at various times had their homes within the present limits of the state: the Delawares in the Monongahela Valley; the Mohicans in the Kanawha Valley; the Conoys in the New River Valley, and the Shawnees on the south branch of the Potomac. The first permanent settlement in the state was made at New Mecklenburg in 1727; this is now Shepherdstown, the oldest town in West Virginia. In 1681 Charles II granted to a company of gentlemen a tract of land which comprised as a part of what is now called the "Eastern Pan Handle" of the state.

This tract of land was inherited by Thomas, Lord Fairfax, and became known as the "Fairfax Land Grant". Surveyors were employed to determine the boundaries, and during this work, on 17 October, 1746, was erected the famous "Fairfax Stone", the first monument marking boundary of real estate in West Virginia. George Washington, at a later period, was employed on this survey. West Virginia was organized and became a state during the early years of the Civil War, and was composed of the western and northern counties of the State of Virginia. John Letcher, Governor of Virginia, convened the General Assembly in extra session on 7 January, 1861, at which session an act providing for a convention of the people of Virginia was passed. At this gathering, held in the Old State House at Richmond, the Ordinance of Secession was passed on 13 April, 1861. The people of the eastern counties of the state favoured its ratification, while those of the western and northern counties, separated by a range of mountains from the fertile plains of the Old Dominion and holding but few slaves, had little in common with the wealthy planters and slave owners of the eastern and southern sections, and were opposed to secession. Moreover, many of the latter were of northern descent, especially those residing along the Ohio River, and, when war broke out, they took sides with the Union. Representatives from the counties opposed to secession assembled in Wheeling, and on 19 June, 1861, the convention unanimously adopted An Ordinance for the Reorganization of the State Government . This convention reassembled on 6 August, and an ordinance providing for the creation of a new state out of a portion of the territory of Virginia was adopted. By its provisions this ordinance was to be submitted to the people of the thirty-nine counties, and as many other counties as wished to vote on it, at an election to be held on 24 October, 1861. The vote resulted 18,489 for and 781 against the new state. The proposed constitution was adopted by the people on 11 April, 1863. Its motto is "Montani semper liberi" (Mountaineers are always free). The Constitution of 1863 was superseded by the present one, adopted in 1872. The first capital of the state was situated at Wheeling, but was afterwards removed to Charleston in 1885.

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English martyr, born at Brambridge, Hampshire, about 1536; hanged at Gray's Inn Lane, London, ...

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The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin ...

West Virginia

A state of the American Union, bounded on the northeast by Pennsylvania and Maryland, on the ...

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As a national expression of religious faith given by Roman Catholics to England since the ...

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Wettingen-Mehrerau, Abbacy Nullius of

A Cistercian abbey near Bregenz, Vorarlberg, Austria. The Cistercian monastery of Wettingen ...

Wetzer, Heinrich Joseph

Learned Orientalist, born at Anzefahr in Hesse-Cassel, 19 March, 1801; died at Freiburg in ...

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Wh 23

Wharton, Ven. Christopher

Born at Middleton, Yorkshire, before 1546; martyred at York, 28 March, 1600. He was the second ...

Wheeling, Diocese of

(WHELINGENSIS). Comprises the State of West Virginia except the following counties, which are ...

Whipple, Amiel Weeks

Military engineer and soldier, born at Greenwich, Massachusetts, 1818; died at Washington, D.C., ...

Whitaker, Venerable Thomas

Born at Burnley, Lancashire, 1614; martyred at Lancaster, 7 August, 1646. Son of Thomas ...

Whitbread, Venerable Thomas

( Alias HARCOURT). Born in Essex, 1618; martyred at Tyburn, 30 June, 1679. He was ...

Whitby, Abbey of

(Formerly called Streoneshalh). A Benedictine monastery in the North Riding of Yorkshire, ...

Whitby, Synod of

The Christianizing of Britain begun by St. Augustine in A.D. 597 was carried on with varying ...

White Fathers

(MISSIONARIES OF OUR LADY OF AFRICA OF ALGERIA). This society, known under the name of ...

White, Andrew

Missionary, b. at London, 1579; d. at or near London, 27 Dec., 1656 (O.S.). He entered St. ...

White, Charles Ignatius

Editor, historian, born at Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. 1 February, 1807; died at Washington, ...

White, Edward

Grandfather of Stephen Mallory White , born in County Limerick, Ireland, in the latter part of ...

White, Eustace, Venerable

Martyr, born at Louth, Lincolnshire, in 1560; suffered at the London Tyburn, 10 December, 1591. ...

White, Richard, Venerable

( Vere GWYN). Martyr, born at Llanilloes, Montgomeryshire, about 1537; executed at Wrexham, ...

White, Robert

English composer, b. about 1530; d. Nov., 1574; was educated by his father, and graduated Mus. ...

White, Stephen

Antiquarian and polyhistor; b. at Clonmel, Ireland, in 1574; d. in Galway, 1646. He belonged to a ...

White, Stephen Mallory

American statesman; born at San Francisco , California, 19 January, 1853; died at Los Angeles ...

White, Thomas

( Alias BLACKLOW, BLACLOE, ALBIUS, ANGLUS). Born in Essex, 1593; died in London, 6 July, ...

Whithorn Priory

Located in Wigtownshire, Scotland, founded about the middle of the twelfth century, in the reign ...

Whiting, Blessed Richard

Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...

Whitsunday

A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

Whitty, Ellen

In religion Mary Vincent, born at Pouldarrig near Oylgate, a village seven miles form the town of ...

Whitty, Robert

Born at Pouldarrig near Oylgate, 7 January, 1817; died 1 September, 1895. In 1830 he entered ...

Whitty, Rose

Born at Dublin, Ireland, 24 November, 1831; died 4 May, 1911. Of her two sisters one became a ...

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Wi 121

Wibald

Abbot of Stavelot ( Stablo ), Malmedy, and Corvey, b. near Stavelot in Belgium in 1098; d. ...

Wichita Indians

A confederacy of Caddoan stock, formerly dwelling between the Arkansas River, Kansas, and the ...

Wichita, Diocese of

(WICHITENSIS). Erected in 1887, from the Diocese of Leavenworth . The territory of the new ...

Wichmans, Francis

In religion AUGUSTINE, born at Antwerp, 1596; died 1661. Having finished his classical studies, ...

Widmer, Joseph

Catholic theologian, born at Hohenraim, Lucerne, Switzerland, 15 Aug., 1779; died at ...

Widow

I. Canonical prescriptions concerning widows in the Old Testament refer mainly to the question ...

Widukind

Saxon leader, and one of the heads of the Westphalian nobility. He was the moving spirit in the ...

Widukind of Corvey

Historian who lived in the tenth century in the Benedictine Abbey of Corvey, Germany. He was a ...

Wiener-Neustadt, Diocese of

(NEOSTADTIENSIS). A suppressed see in Lower Austria. Upon the request of Frederick III it was ...

Wiest, Stephan

Member of the Order of Cistercians, b. at Teisbach in Lower Bavaria, 7 March, 1748; d. at ...

Wigand, Saints

( Also rendered VENANTIUS). Three saints of this name are mentioned in the Roman ...

Wigbert, Saint

Companion of St. Boniface, born in England about 675; died at Hersfeld about 746. Positive ...

Wigbod

(WICBODUS, WIGBOLD, WIGBALD). Theological writer of the eighth century. Of his works there is ...

Wigley, George J.

Died in Rome, 20 January, 1866. By profession he was an architect, but subsequently devoted ...

Wilberforce, Henry William

Born at Clapham, 22 September, 1807; died at Stroud, Gloucestershire, 23 April, 1873. He was third ...

Wilberforce, Robert Isaac

Born at Clapham, 19 December, 1802; died at Albano, near Rome, 3 Feb. 1857. He was the second son ...

Wilcannia, Diocese of

(WILCANIENSIS). Located in New South Wales, one of the six suffragan sees of Sydney; consists ...

Wilcox, Robert, Venerable

English martyr, born at Chester, 1558; suffered at Canterbury, 1 October, 1588. He arrived at ...

Wild, Johann

Scriptural commentator and preacher, better known by his Latin name FERUS, b. in Swabia, 1497; d. ...

Wilfrid, Saint

Bishop of York, son of a Northumbrian thegn, born in 634; died at Oundle in Northamptonshire, ...

Wilgefortis

A fabulous female saint known also as UNCUMBER, KUMMERNIS, KOMINA, COMERA, CUMERANA, HULFE, ...

Wilhelm of Herle

Painter, born at Herle in Dutch Limburg at an unknown date in the fourteenth century; time and ...

Wilhelm V

Son of Duke Albrecht V. Born at Munich, 29 September, 1548; died at Schlessheim, 7 February, ...

Wilhering, Cistercian Abbey of

(HILARIA). Situated on the right bank of the Danube, in the Diocese of Linz, Austria. Ulric ...

Will

(Latin voluntas, Greek boúlesis, "willing" German Wille, French volonté ). ...

Will and Testament of Clerics

Roman law allowed clerics to dispose of their property by will or otherwise. Bishops, however, ...

Will, Free

RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...

Willaert, Adrian

Composer and founder of the Venetian school, b. at Bruges, or, according to other authorities, ...

Willehad, Saint

Bishop at Bremen, born in Northumberland before 745; died at Blecazze (Blexen) on the Weser, 8 ...

Willems, Pierre

Philologist, born at Maastricht, 6 January, 1840; died at Louvain, 23 February, 1898. Following ...

William

Born in Brittany, died at Marmoutiers, 23 May, 1124. For a time he was Archdeacon of Nantes, ...

William

Abbot of Saint-Bénigne at Dijon, celebrated Cluniac reformer, b. on the Island of ...

William Carter, Venerable

English martyr, born in London, 1548; suffered for treason at Tyburn, 11 January, 1584. Son of ...

William Exmew, Blessed

Carthusian monk and martyr ; suffered at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. He studied at Christ's ...

William Filby, Blessed

Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

William Hart, Blessed

Born at Wells, 1558; suffered at York, 15 March, 1583. Elected Trappes Scholar at Lincoln ...

William Lacy, Blessed

Born at "Hanton", Yorkshire (probably Houghton or Tosside, West Riding); suffered at York, 22 ...

William of Auvergne

Bishop of Paris, medieval philosopher and theologian. Born at Aurillac in Auvergne towards ...

William of Auxerre

A thirteenth-century theologian and professor at the University of Paris . William's name ...

William of Champeaux

A twelfth-century Scholastic, philosopher, and theologian, b. at Champeaux, near Melun, in the ...

William of Conches

A twelfth-century Scholastic philosopher and theologian, b. about the year 1100. After having ...

William of Digulleville

(DEGULLEVILLE). A French poet of the fourteenth century. Nothing is known of his life, except ...

William of Ebelholt, Saint

(Also called WILLIAM OF PARIS and WILLIAM OF THE PARACLETE.) Died on Easter Sunday, 1203, and ...

William of Gellone, Saint

Born 755; died 28 May, c. 812; was the second count of Toulouse, having attained that dignity in ...

William of Jumièges

(Surnamed CALCULUS.) Benedictine historian of the eleventh century. Practically nothing seems ...

William of Maleval, Saint

(or ST. WILLIAM THE GREAT). Died 10 February, 1157; beatified in 1202. His life, written ...

William of Malmesbury

Born 30 November, about 1090; died about 1143. He was educated at Malmesbury, where he became a ...

William of Moerbeke

Scholar, Orientalist, philosopher, and one of the most distinguished men of letters of the ...

William of Nangis

(GUILHELMUS). A medieval chronicler, who takes his name from the City of Nancy, France. ...

William of Newburgh

Historian, b. at Bridlington, Yorkshire, 1136; d. at Newburgh, Yorkshire, 1198, where he went as ...

William of Norwich, Saint

Born 1132; died 22 March, 1144. On Holy Saturday, 25 March, 1144, a boy's corpse showing signs of ...

William of Ockham

Fourteenth-century Scholastic philosopher and controversial writer, born at or near the village ...

William of Paris, Saint

Abbot of Eskill in Denmark, born 1105; died 1202. He was born of a noble French family, and ...

William of Perth, Saint

(Or ST. WILLIAM OF ROCHESTER). Martyr, born at Perth ; died about 1201. Practically all that ...

William of Poitiers

Norman historian, born of a noted family, at Préaux near Pont Audemer, Normandy, about 1020. ...

William of Ramsey

Flourished about 1219. Nothing is known of his life except that he was a monk of Crowland Abbey ...

William of Sens

A twelfth-century French architect, supposed to have been born at Sens. He is referred to in ...

William of Shoreham

( Or de Schorham.) An English religious writer of the Anglo-Norman period, born at ...

William of St-Amour

A thirteenth century theologian and controversialist, born in Burgundy in the first decades of ...

William of St-Thierry

Theologian and mystic, and so called from the monastery of which he was abbot, b. at ...

William of Turbeville

(TURBE, TURBO, or DE TURBEVILLE). Bishop of Norwich (1146-74), b. about 1095; d. at Norwich ...

William of Tyre

Archbishop of Tyre and historian, born probably in Palestine, of a European family which had ...

William of Vercelli

(Or WILLIAM OF MONTE VERGINE.) The founder of the Hermits of Monte Vergine, or Williamites, ...

William of Ware

(William de Warre, Guard, Guaro, Varro or Varron.) Born at Ware in Herts; the date of his ...

William of Wayneflete

Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor of England, b. towards the end of the fourteenth century; ...

William of Wykeham

Bishop of Winchester, Chancellor of England and founder of Winchester College ; b. between ...

William Perault

(PERAULD, PERALDUS, PERALTUS). Writer and preacher, b. at Perault, France ; d. at Lyons ; ...

William the Clerk (of Normandy)

French poet of the thirteenth century. Nothing is known of his life except that he was a clerk of ...

William the Conqueror

King of England and Duke of Normandy. William was the natural son of Robert, Duke of ...

William the Walloon

Date of birth unknown; d. (probably) 22 Dec., 1089. He became Abbot of St. Arnoul at Metz in ...

William, Blessed

Abbot of Hirschau, monastic reformer, born in Bavaria ; died at Hirschau, 5 July 1091. He ...

William, Saint

(WILLIAM FITZHERBERT, also called WILLIAM OF THWAYT). Archbishop of York. Tradition ...

William, Saint

Bishop of St-Brieuc, born in the parish of St. Alban, Brittany, between 1178 and 1184; died ...

Williamites

There were two minor religious orders or congregations of this name: (1) a Benedictine ...

Willibald and Winnebald, Saints

(WUNIBALD, WYNNEBALD). Members of the Order of St. Benedict, brothers, natives probably of ...

Willibrord, Saint

Bishop of Utrecht, Apostle of the Frisians, and son of St. Hilgis, born in Northumbria, 658; ...

Willigis, Saint

Archbishop of Mainz, d. 23 Feb., 1011. Feast, 23 February or 18 April. Though of humble birth ...

Williram

(WALTRAM, WILTRAM). Scriptural scholar, b. in Franconia (near Worms), Germany ; d. in 1085 at ...

Wilmers, Wilhelm

Professor of philosophy and theology, b. at Boke in Westphalia, 30 January, 1817; d. at ...

Wilmington, Diocese of

(WILMINGTONIENSIS). Erected 3 March, 1868. It includes what is known as the Delmarvia ...

Wilton Abbey

A Benedictine convent in Wiltshire, England, three miles from Salisbury. A first foundation was ...

Wilton, Richard

Died December 21, 1239. He was a medieval scholar of whom little is known except that he was an ...

Wimborne Minster

( Also WIMBURN or WINBURN). Located in Dorsetshire, England. Between the years 705-23 a ...

Wimmer, Boniface

Archabbot, b. at Thalmassing, Bavaria, 14 January, 1809; d. at St. Vincent Archabbey, Beatty, ...

Wimpfeling, Jakob

Humanist and theologian, b. at Schlettstadt, Alsace, 25 July 1450; d. there, 17 Nov., 1528. He ...

Wimpina, Konrad

(WIMINAE, WIMINESIS). Theologian, b. at Buchen in Baden, about 1465; d. at Amorbach in Lower ...

Winchester, Ancient See of

(WINTONIA, WINTONIENSIS). This diocese came into existence in 635 when the great ...

Winckelmann, Johann Joachim

Archaeologist and historian of ancient art, born at Stendal near Magdeburg, in 1717; assassinated ...

Windesheim

An Augustinian monastery situated about four miles south of Zwolle on the Issel, in the Kingdom ...

Winding Sheet of Christ, Feast of the Holy

In 1206 one of the (supposed) Winding Sheets used at the burial of Christ was brought to ...

Windischmann, Friedrich Heinrich Hugo

Orientalist and exegete, b. at Aschaffenburg, 13 December, 1811; d. at Munich, 23 August, ...

Windischmann, Karl Joseph Hieronymus

Philosopher, b. at Mainz, 25 August, 1775; d. at Bonn, 23 April, 1839. He attended the gymnasium ...

Window, Rose

A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...

Windows in Church Architecture

From the beginning Christian churches, in contrast to the ancient temples, were intended to be ...

Windsor

A town of great antiquity, on the Thames, in Berkshire, England ; quaintly rendered Ventus ...

Windthorst, Ludwig

Born near Osnabrück, 17 January, 1812; died 14 March, 1891. He came from a family of ...

Wine, Altar

Wine is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. For valid ...

Winefride, Saint

Born at Holywell, Wales, about 600; died at Gwytherin, Wales, 3 Nov., 660. Her father was ...

Wingham, Thomas

Born in London, 5 January, 1846; died there, 24 March, 1893. He studied music at Wylde's London ...

Winnebago Indians

A tribe of Siouan stock closely related in speech to the Iowa, Missouri, and Oto, and more ...

Winnebald and Willibald, Saints

(WUNIBALD, WYNNEBALD). Members of the Order of St. Benedict, brothers, natives probably of ...

Winnoc, Saint

Abbot or Prior or Wormhoult, died 716 or 717. Three lives of this saint are extant: the best of ...

Winona, Diocese of

(WINONENSIS). Established in 1889, suffragan of St. Paul, comprises the following counties in ...

Winslow, Jakob Benignus

(WINSLOW). Physician and anatomist, b. at Odense, Denmark, 27 April, 1669; d. in Paris, 3 ...

Winwallus, Saint

Abbot of Landevennec; d. 3 March, probably at the beginning of the sixth century, though the ...

Winzet, Ninian

Benedictine abbot and controversial writer, b. at Renfrew, Scotland, 1518; d. at Ratisbon, 21 ...

Wipo

(WIPPO). Apparently a native of Burgundy, lived in the first half of the eleventh century. He ...

Wireker, Nigel

Satirist, lived about 1190. He describes himself as old in the "Speculum Stultorum", which was ...

Wirt, Wigand

Theologian, born at Frankfort about 1460; died at Steyer, 30 June, 1519. He entered the ...

Wisconsin

Known as the "Badger State", admitted to the Union on 29 May, 1848, the seventeenth state ...

Wisdom, Book of

One of the deutero-canonical writings of the Old Testament, placed in the Vulgate between the ...

Wisdom, Daughters of

(LES FILLES DE LA SAGESSE). Founded at Poitiers by Blessed Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort ...

Wise Men (Magi)

(Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...

Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick

Cardinal, first Archbishop of Westminster ; b. at Seville, 2 Aug., 1802; d. in London, 15 ...

Witchcraft

It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between magic and witchcraft. Both are concerned with ...

Witness

One who is present, bears testimony, furnishes evidence or proof. Witnesses are employed in ...

Witt, Francis Xavier

Reformer of church music, founder of the St. CeciliaSociety for German-speaking countries, ...

Wittenberg

The city is in Prussian Saxony and was founded by Albert the Bear (d. 1170). He had conquered ...

Wittman, George Michael

Bishop-elect of Ratisbon, b. near Pleistein, Oberpfalz, Bavaria, 22 (23?) Jan., 1760; d. at ...

Wittman, Patrizius

Catholic journalist, b. at Ellwanger, Würtemberg, 4 January, 1818; d. at Munich, 3 ...

Witzel, Georg

(WICELIUS). Theologian, b. at Vacha, Province of Hesse, 1501; d. at Mainz, 16 Feb., 1573. He ...

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Wl 1

Wladislaw, Diocese of

(Polish WLOCLAWEK; Latin VLADISLAVIENSIS ET POMERANLAE). The historical origin of this ...

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Wo 23

Wolff, George Dering

Editor, b. at Martinsburg, West Virginia , 25 Aug., 1822; d. at Norristown, Pennsylvania, 29 ...

Wolfgang, Saint

Bishop of Ratisbon (972-994), born about 934; died at the village of Pupping in upper Austria, ...

Wolfram von Eschenbach

Generally regarded as the greatest of Middle-High-German epic poets, date of birth unknown; d. ...

Wolgemut, Michael

Painter and engraver, b. at Nuremberg, 1434; d. there, 1519. He was the most prominent artist of ...

Wolowski, Louis-François-Michel-Reymond

Born at Warsaw, 31 Aug., 1810; d. at Gisors, Eure, 15 Aug., 1876. His father, a member of the ...

Wolsey, Thomas

Cardinal, Archbishop of York, b. at Ipswitch, the usually accepted date, 1471, being probably ...

Wolstan, Saint

Benedictine, and Bishop of Worcester, b. at Long Itchington, Warwickshire, England, about 1008; ...

Woman

Of late years the position of woman in human society has given rise to a discussion which, as part ...

Wood, Thomas

Priest and confessor, b. about 1499; d. in Wisbech Castle before 1588. After being prebendary ...

Wood-Carving

In general, the production from wood of objects of trade or art by means of sharp instruments, as ...

Woodcock, Venerable John

English Franciscan martyr, b. at Leyland, Lancashire, 1603; suffered at Lancaster, 7 August, ...

Woodhead, Abraham

Born at Almonbury, Yorkshire, about March, 1609; died at Hoxton, Middlesex, 4 May, 1678. This ...

Woodhouse, Blessed Thomas

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

Woods, Julian Edmund Tenison

Priest and scientist, b. at Southwark, London, 15 Nov., 1832; d. at Sydney, New South Wales, 7 ...

Worcester, Ancient Diocese of

(WIGORNIENSIS.) Located in England, created in 680 when, at the Synod of Hatfield under ...

Words (in Canon Law)

To give the right value to words is a very important factor in the proper interpretation of ...

World, Antiquity of the

Various attempts have been made to establish the age of the world. Two groups of scientists have ...

Wormwood

( Hebrew la'anah .) Wormwood, known for its repulsive bitterness ( Jeremiah 9:15 ; 23:15 ; ...

Worship, Christian

NOTION AND CHARACTERISTICS The word worship (Saxon weorthscipe , "honour"; from worth , ...

Worsley, Edward

Born in Lancashire, England, 1605; died at Antwerp, 2 Sept., 1676. He is said to have been ...

Worthington, Thomas, D.D.

Third President of Douai College , b. 1549 at Blainscough Hall, near Wigan, Lancashire; d. at ...

Wounds, The Five Sacred

Devotion The revival of religious life and the zealous activity of St. Bernard and St. ...

Wouters, G. Henry

Historian, b. at Oostham, Belgian Limburg, 3 May, 1802; d. 5 January, 1872. In 1829 he became ...

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Wr 2

Wright, Venerable Peter

Martyr, b. at Slipton, Northamptonshire, 1603; suffered at Tyburn, 19 May, 1651. After spending ...

Wright, William

Born at York, 1562; died 18 Jan., 1639. Though he came late (23) to his studies, he then made ...

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Wu 2

Wulfen, Franz Xaver Freiherr von

Botanist, b. at Belgrade, 5 November, 1728; d. at Klagenfurt, 17 March, 1805. He was the son of ...

Wulfram, Saint

(VULFRAMNUS.) Bishop of Sens, missionary in Frisi, born at Milly near Fontainebleau, probably ...

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Wy 5

Wyart, Théophile-Louis-Henri

(In religion DOM SEBASTIAN). Abbot of Cîteaux and Abbot-General of the Order of ...

Wyche, Saint Richard de

Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...

Wyclif, John

(WYCLIFFE, or WICLIF, etc.). Writer and "reformer", b. probably at Hipswell near Richmond, ...

Wyntoun, Andrew of

Scottish chronicler, born (as we know from the internal evidence of his writings) in the reign ...

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