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Diocese in the province of Salerno, Southern Italy. The city is situated on a hill that overlooks that gulf of the Tyrrhenian Sea, to which Policastro gives its name. It is the ancient Pituntia, and may be regarded as the continuation of the Diocese of Buxentum, the first known bishop of which was Rusticus (501), while another, Sabbadius, is mentioned in 649. San Pietro Poppa Carbone (1079), a Benedictine of Cava, resigned after governing the diocese for a short while, and was succeeded by Arnaldo. In 1211 the Emperor Frederick II, disregarding the candidate of the chapter, wished to give this see to his physician, Jacopo, but Innocent III appointed the regularly elected bishop. Other bishops of Policastro were: Gabriele Atilio (1471), a Latin poet; Urbano Felicio (1630), who held a synod, and was the author of several excellent works; Filippo Jacobio (1652) remodelled the episcopal palace of Orsaca, where the bishops usually reside; Vincenzo de Sylva, O.P. (1672), remodelled the episcopal of Policastro; he was besieged in his palace of Orsaca by Count Fabrizio Carafa, on account of his firmness in maintaining the rights of his Church ; Tommaso della Rosa (1679) restored the cathedral ; Antonio della Rosa (1705) restored the seminary. In the Diocese of S. Giovanni a Piro there was a Basilian monastery. Policastro is a suffragan of Salerno ; it has 38 parishes, with 64,000 inhabitants; 2 religious houses of men, and 3 of women ; 207 secular, 9 regular priests ; 234 churches or chapels. Mgr. Vescia is the present bishop.

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