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Karl Joseph von Hefele

Bishop of Rottenburg, b. at Unterkochen, Würtemberg, 15 March, 1809; d. at Rottenburg, 5 June, 1893. He was the son of the royal superintendent of furnaces at Unterkochen. After attending the gymnasia at Ellwangen (1817-25) and Ehingen (1825-27), and the University of Tübingen (1827-32), he was ordained on 10 August, 1833. For a time the young priest was vicar at Mergentheim, tutor at the Wilhelmsstift, Tübingen, and substitute professor in Rottweil Gymnasium. After the departure in the autumn of the year 1835, of the famous church historianMöhler, for the University of Munich, Hefele was appointed by the Catholic faculty of theology of Tübingen to the department of church history, with which he was connected as privatdozent from the spring of 1836. In 1840 he became ordinary professor. He retained this post until his election as bishop in the summer of 1869. In scholarly method as well as in the general character of his work, he followed closely in the footsteps of his great predecessor, Johann Adam Möhler. He combined accuracy in historical detail with a thorough grasp of the chief facts of church history, and a great power of exposition.

Möhler, though at first affected by the current Illuminism, had eventually freed himself from it and introduced into the Catholic faculty of Tübingen an unswerving devotion to the Catholic Church and a high degree of enthusiasm, thereby counteracting the aforesaid Illuminism (as far as it was an inner disrupting force) and the external attacks of Protestantism. This was also the spirit and the method of Hefele who, in addition, was endowed with rare gifts as a teacher, an excellent memory, a clear understanding, earnest affection for his pupils, and a diction at once simple and beautiful. His lectures were frequented, in the golden age of the Tübingen faculty of Catholic theology, by hundreds of students from all parts of Germany and Switzerland. In 1895, Professor Knöpfler of Munich published his admirable manual of church history based on the academic lectures of Hefele. Von Funk, successor of Hefele at Tübingen, also owes much in his manual of church history to Hefele's teaching. The same spirit and scientific temper pervaded all the writings of Hefele. Besides his work in various learned periodicals, etc. he wrote about 150 articles for the first edition of the "Kirchenlexikon" and contributed a multitude of critical book notices and reviews to the Tübingen "Theologische Quartalschrift", some of which were collected and published in two volumes under the title "Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte, Archäologie und Liturgik" (1864). Hefele was probably the first Catholic theologian to introduce Christian archæology into the academic curriculum (1840). From 1854 to 1862 he was also at the head of the diocesan association for Christian art (Christliches Diözesankunstverein). Among his earlier works are "Geschichte der Einführung des Christentums im südwestlichen Deutschland, besonders in Würtemberg" (1837); "Patrum Apostolicorum Opera" (1839; 4th ed., 1855); "Das Sendschreiben des Apostels Barnabas" (1840); "Der Kardinal Ximenes und die kirchlichen Zustande Spaniens am Ende des 15. und Anfange des 16. Jahrhunderts" (1844; 2nd ed., 1851); "Chrysostomuspostille" (1845; 3rd ed., 1857); "S. Bonaventuræ Breviloquium" (1845, 1861).

The standard work of Hefele's, however, is the "Conciliengeschichte" in seven volumes, reaching to the fifteenth century and embracing the history of dogma, canon law, liturgy, ecclesiastical discipline, and political history, so far as necessary. Von Funk rightly says that "as one of the most detailed and thorough works on church history, it has attained a prominent place in the learned literature of our time ". The first edition, for which the matter had been in part gathered in a prize essay on Nicholas of Cusa, written during his student years, and in a number of more important recensions and articles, appeared between 1855 and 1874. His life of Cardinal Ximenes was soon translated into French and English, and his history of the councils was likewise rendered into French and the earlier volumes into English. The second edition was edited by Hefele himself as far as the fourth volume inclusive, and appeared in 1873-79 (Freiburg im Br.); the next two volumes were prepared by Professor Knöpfler in 1886 and 1890 respectively. Cardinal Hergenröther issued (1887, 1890) an eighth and ninth volume extending to the Council of Trent. Since 1907 the Benedictine H. Leclercq is publishing a French translation of the second edition. Suitable honours were conferred on Hefele by faculties, universities, and even by the Government. In 1852-53 he was made rector of the university, and in the spring of the latter year he was made a Knight of the Order of the Würtemberg Crown, and with it received the rank of nobility.

In addition to his other work, he had a parliamentary seat (1842-45) as representative of the government district of Ellwangen. In Würtemberg, as in almost all districts of Germany in the first half of the nineteenth century, the Church groaned under the oppression of the Illuminati and a Protestant government. When in 1842 Bishop von Keller made an energetic attempt to liberate the Church, he was supported by the skill and vigour of his fellow- representative Hefele, who endeavoured in this way to realize Möhler's ideal programme. The historian of the councils was summoned to Rome in 1868 as consultor for the Vatican council. He spent the winter of 1868-69 in Rome, and on his return he was appointed Bishop of Rottenburg ; his consecration took place 29 December of the same year. He was to bring sorely needed peace to the diocese, torn by the so-called "Rottenburg Dissensions", a conflict between the more rigorous and the laxer clergy. Immediately after his consecration, the bishop set out for Rome to attend the council. When the definition of the dogma of papal infallibility was proposed, he was one of the most prominent bishops in the opposition minority. He even published the reason for the stand he had taken in his "Causa Honorii Papæ" (Naples, 1870). In the decisive session of 13 July he voted "Non placet", and having signed the address of the minority to the pope on 17 July, returned home. Even after the definition of the dogma he held to his opinion, but was soon placed in a most difficult position, whence neither his expectation of a common stand on the part of the opposition bishops, nor his hope of a speedy resumption of the œcumenical council, nor yet the thought of resignation, could extricate him. Shrinking from a schism, urged by Rome, importuned by the clergy of his diocese, perhaps also influenced by the desire of the Government, but above all, solicitous for his diocese, Hefele promulgated the decrees of the council, 10 April, 1871.

Various judgments were pronounced on this step. Karl von Hase, in his "Handbuch der Polemik gegen die römisch-katholische Kirche" (5th ed., 1890, p. 237), declared that "the bishop had strangled the scholar". It was the Old Catholics, however, who attacked Hefele the most severely. To compromise him they published various letters written to their leaders both during and after the council, and explained that his submission was merely external. But they erred ; good evidence for this may be found in the declaration made to his coadjutor bishop during an illness in the late autumn of 1890: "It is true that I stood on the side of the opposition. But thereby I made use of my right ; for the question was proposed for discussion. However, once the decision had been made, to tarry in the opposition party would have been inconsistent with my whole past. I would have set my own infallibility in the place of the infallibility of the Church " [From a discourse of Bishop Reiser at the burial of Bishop Hefele (Rottenburg, 1893), p. 11]. Apart from the aforesaid matter, the bishop brought peace to his diocese. It was not disturbed when the Kulturkampf was raging in other parts of Germany. That peace was preserved in Würtemberg, was due, after King Charles, to the services of Hefele. After November, 1886, he was aided by Bishop Reiser as auxiliary bishop.

More Volume: K 165

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Kögler, Ignaz

(Called LAI in Chinese). Along with Father Adam Schall the most important of the fifty German ...

König, Joseph

Theologian and exegete, born at Hausen on the Aach, District of Hegau, Grand Duchy of Baden, 7 ...

Königgrätz

(REGINAE HRADECENSIS). This Bohemian see owes its origin to Emperor Ferdinand III, who, soon ...

Königshofen, Jacob

More properly JACOB TWINGER VON KÖNIGSHOFEN. Chronicler, b. in 1346 at Königshofen, a ...

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Kabbala

The term is now used as a technical name for the system of esoteric theosophy which for many ...

Kadlubek, Blessed Vincent

(KADLUBO, KADLUBKO). Bishop of Cracow, chronicler, b. at Karnow, Duchy of Sandomir, Poland, ...

Kafiristan and Kashmir, Prefecture Apostolic of

Created (1887) by Leo XIII in the extreme North of India. As regards India proper, the ...

Kafirs

A term popularly to nearly all the natives of South Africa. It was originally imposed by the Arab ...

Kager, Johann Matthias

German historical painter, born at Munich, 1566; died at Augsburg, 1634. He was originally a ...

Kaiser, Kajetan Georg von

Chemist, born at Kelheim on the Danube (Bavaria), 5 January, 1803; died at Munich, 28 August, ...

Kaiserchronik

(Der Keiser und der Kunige buoch.) A German epic poem of the twelfth century. It is at once a ...

Kaiserwilhelmsland

Comprises the German part of the island of New Guinea, area about 460,000 sq. miles; about ...

Kalands Brethren

(Kalandbrüder, Fratres Calendarii.) The name given to religious and charitable ...

Kalcker, Jan Stephanus van

(GIOVANNI DA CALCAR and JOANNES STEPHANUS CALCARENSIS.) Flemish painter, native of the Duchy ...

Kalinka, Valerian

Polish historian, born near Cracow in 1826; died at Jaroslaw in 1886. He fled from Poland in ...

Kalispel Indians

Popularly known under the French name of Pend d'Oreilles, "ear pendants", an important tribe of ...

Kalocsa-Bacs, Archdiocese of

(Colocensis et Bachiensis.) This archdiocese embraces within its territories an archdiocese ...

Kamerun, Vicariate Apostolic of

(Cameroons; Cameroon.) Located in German West Africa, between British Nigeria and French ...

Kan-Su, Prefecture Apostolic of Southern

Separated from the Northern Kan-su mission in 1905, and committed to the Belgian Congregation of ...

Kan-Su, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

This vicariate includes the territory of Ku-ku-nor, northern part of Tibet, and the five ...

Kandy, Diocese of

(Kandiensis.) Formerly part of the Vicariate of Southern Colombo, Ceylon, India, from which ...

Kansas

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Geography Kansas, one of the United States of America , is the central ...

Kansas City, Diocese of

(Kansanopolitana.) Established 10 September, 1880, to include that part of the State of ...

Kant, Philosophy of

Kant's philosophy is generally designated as a system of transcendental criticism tending ...

Karinthia

(CARANTANUM; Slovene, KOROSKO; German KÄRNTEN). A crownland in the Austrian Empire , ...

Karnkowski, Stanislaw

(Karncovious.) Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, born about 1526; died at Lowicz,in ...

Kaskaskia Indians

Formerly chief tribe of the confederacy of Illinois Indians (q.v.). The name is of uncertain ...

Kassai, Upper

Erected as a simple mission in 1901, and detached, as a prefecture Apostolic, from the Vicariate ...

Kateri Tekakwitha, Blessed

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

Kauffmann, Angelica

Born at Coire, in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, 30 October, 1741; died at Rome, 5 November, ...

Kaufmann, Alexander

Poet and folklorist, born at Bonn, 14 May, 1817; died at Wertheim, 1 May, 1893. He came of a ...

Kaufmann, Leopold

Chief Burgomaster of Bonn, brother of the poet and folklorist Alexander Kaufmann, born 13 March, ...

Kaulen, Franz Philip

Scriptural scholar, born 20 March, 1827, at Düsseldorf; died at Bonn, 11 July, 1907. He ...

Kaunitz, Wenzel Anton

An Austrian prince and statesman, born at Vienna 2 February, 1711; died there 27 June, 1794. ...

Kavanagh, Edward

American statesman and diplomat, born at Newcastle, Maine, 27 April, 1795; died there, 21 Jan., ...

Kavanagh, Julia

Novelist and biographer, born 7 Jan., 1824, at Thurles, Ireland ; died 28 October, 1877, at ...

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Ke 32

Kearney, Diocese of

(KEARNEYIENSIS). By Decree of the Sacred Consistorial Congregation of 8 March, 1912, Pius X ...

Keating, Geoffrey

Irish theologian, historian, and poet, b. at Burgess in the parish of Tubbrid, Co. Tipperary, ...

Keewatin, Vicariate Apostolic of

The Vicariate Apostolic of Keewatin includes the northern half of the Province of Saskatchewan, ...

Kehrein, Joseph

Educator, philologist, and historian of German literature, born at Heidesheim, near Mainz, 20 ...

Keller, Jacob

Controversialist, born at Sackingen, Baden, Germany, in 1568; died at Munich, Bavaria, 23 ...

Kellner, Lorenz

Educationist, born at Kalteneber in the district of Eichsfeld, 29 January, 1811; died at Trier, ...

Kells, Book of

An Irish manuscript containing the Four Gospels, a fragment of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian ...

Kells, School of

Kells (in Gaelic Cenannus ) was the chief of the Irish Columban monasteries. It was founded ...

Kemble, Ven. John

Martyr, b. at Rhydicar Farm, St. Weonard's, Herefordshire, 1599; d. at Widemarsh Common, ...

Kemp, John

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Chancellor of England ; b. at Wye, Kent, about 1380; ...

Kenia

Coextensive with the civil province of Kenia (Kenya) in British East Africa, to which the ...

Kenites

(A.V. Kenites). A tribe or family often mentioned in the Old Testament, personified as ...

Kennedy, James

Bishop of St. Andrews, Scotland. Born about 1406; died 10 May, 1466. Of the ancient house of ...

Kenneth, Saint

(Or KENNY). Commemorated on 11 October, born in 515 or 516, at Glengiven, in what is now ...

Kenny, Saint

(Or KENNY). Commemorated on 11 October, born in 515 or 516, at Glengiven, in what is now ...

Kenosis

A term derived from the discussion as to the real meaning of Phil. 2:6 sqq.: "Who being in the ...

Kenraghty

(KIMRACHA, KINRECHTIN, or MAKENRACHTUS; in Irish MACIONNRACHTAIGH, anglicized HANRATTY and ...

Kenrick, Francis Patrick and Peter Richard

Archbishops respectively of Baltimore, Maryland, and of St. Louis, Missouri. They were sons of ...

Kent, Nun of

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...

Kentigern, Saint

(Or M UNGO ) Bishop, founder of the See of Glasgow, b. about 518; d. at Glasgow, 13 ...

Kentucky

A state situated between the parallels of latitude 36° 30 and 39°6' N., and between the ...

Keon, Miles Gerard

Journalist, novelist, colonial secretary, lecturer, last descendent of the Keons, of Keonbrooke, ...

Kerkuk

(CHERCHENSIS). A Chaldean Catholic diocese. The ancient name of the city was Karka of ...

Kernan, Francis

Lawyer, statesman; born in Steuben County, New York, 14 January, 1816; d. at Utica, New York, 7 ...

Kerry and Aghadoe

The Diocese of Kerry and Aghadoe (Kerriensis Et Aghadoensis), suffragan of Cashel, Ireland, is ...

Kerssenbroch, Hermann von

(KERSSENBROICK). A teacher and historian, b. at Monchshof, near Barntrup (Lippe), about 1520; ...

Kervyn de Lettenhove, Joseph-Marie-Bruno-Constantin, Baron

Belgian statesman and historian, b. at Saint-Michel-lez-Bruges, 17 August, 1817; d. there, 3 ...

Kessels, Matthias

Sculptor, b. at Maastricht, 1784; d. at Rome, 3 March, 1836. He was first apprenticed to a ...

Ketteler, Wilhelm Emmanuel, Baron von

Bishop of Mainz, b. at Münster, in Westphalia, 25 Dec., 1811; d. at Burghausen, 13 July, ...

Kevin of Glendalough, Saint

Abbot of Glendalough, Ireland, b. about 498, the date being very obscure; d. 3 June, 618; son ...

Keyes, Erasmus Darwin

Soldier, convert, b. at Brimfield, Massuchusetts, U.S.A. 29 May, 1810; d. at Nice, France, ...

Keys, Power of the

The expression "power of the keys" is derived from Christ's words to St. Peter (in Matthew ...

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Kh 1

Kharput

Armenian Uniat diocese created in 1850. The city of Kharput, Armenian Kharpert, which means ...

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Ki 33

Kiang-nan

(Vicariate Apostolic) The present Vicariate comprises the two provinces of Kiang-su and ...

Kiang-si, Eastern

(Vicariate Apostolic) The mission of Eastern Kiang-si was separated from the mission of ...

Kiang-si, Northern

(Vicariate Apostolic) Father Matteo Ricci of the Society of Jesus was the first missionary ...

Kiang-si, Southern

(Vicariate Apostolic) Southern Kiang-si was separated from the mission of Northern Kiang-si in ...

Kickapoo Indians

Apparently corrupted from a longer term signifying "roamers", a tribe of Algonquian stock, ...

Kickham, Charles Joseph

Patriot, novelist, and poet, b. at Mullinahone, Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 1828; d. at Blackrock, Co. ...

Kielce

(Russian K IELTZY ; Latin K IELCENSIS ) Diocese in the sourthern part of Russian Poland, ...

Kieran, Saints

There are many Irish saints of this name, but the most celebrated is St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise ...

Kildare and Leighlin

(KILDARENSIS ET LEIGHLINENSIS) One of the four suffragans of Dublin, Ireland. These two ...

Kildare, School of

Kildare (Irish: Cill-Dara ), originally known as Druim Criaidh , or the Ridge of Clay, ...

Kilian, Saint

(Killena, Cillíne). Apostle of Franconia and martyr, born about 640 of noble parents ...

Killala

(ALLADENSIS). Diocese. It is one of the five suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical Province ...

Killaloe

(LAONIA) A suffragan diocese of Cashel ; it comprises the greater part of County Clare, a ...

Kilmore

(KILMORENSIS) Diocese in Ireland, includes almost all Cavan and about half of Leitrim. It ...

Kilwardby, Robert

Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina ; died at Viterbo, 11 ...

Kilwinning, Benedictine Abbey of

Located in Ayrshire, Scotland, in the town of the same name, where a church was said to have been ...

Kimberley

(KIMBERLIENSIS) Vicariate apostolic ; suffragan of Adelaide, erected by Leo XIII , 5 May, ...

Kimberley in Orange

(KYMBERLEYENSIS IN ORANGIA). The portion of South Africa which at the present day forms the ...

Kingdom of God

(In Matthew, generally, Kingdom of Heaven ). In this expression the innermost teaching of the ...

Kingisel

The name of two abbots who ruled Glastonbury in the seventh and eighth centuries respectively. ...

Kings

(Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...

Kings, Chronology of the

First, we append a table in which the data of the Bible are put together. For the kings of Juda, ...

Kings, First and Second Books of

(Also know as the F IRST AND S ECOND B OOKS OF S AMUEL. For the First and Second Books of ...

Kings, Third and Fourth Books of

The historical book called in the Hebrew Melakhim, i.e. Kings, is in the Vulgate, in imitation ...

Kingston

(KINGSTONIENSIS or REGIOPOLITANA) The Archdiocese of Kingston comprises the territory from the ...

Kinloss

(Gaelic ceann-loch , "head of the loch"). Cistercian abbey on the coast of Morayshire, ...

Kino, Eusebius

A famous Jesuit missionary of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. 10 August, 1644, in ...

Kiowa Indians

(Pronounced Kai-o-wa , Latin spelling. Spanish form: Caygua ; Comanche form: Kaiwa , from ...

Kirby, Blessed Luke

Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

Kircher, Athanasius

Celebrated for the versatility of his knowledge and particularly distinguished for his ...

Kirkwall

A parish, also a royal and parliamentary burgh and chief or county town of Orkney, in the north ...

Kisfaludy

Sándor Kisfaludy Born at Suemeg, Hungary, 27 Sept., 1772; died at Suemeg, 28 October, ...

Kiss

Four times in the Epistles of St. Paul we meet the injunction, used as a sort of formula of ...

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Kl 6

Klaczko, Julian

Polish author, b. at Vilna, 6 November, 1825, of Jewish parents ; d. at Cracow, 26 November, ...

Klee, Heinrich

German theologian and exegete, b. at Münstermaifeld, in the Rhine province, 20 April, ...

Klesl, Melchior

A cardinal and Austrian statesman, b. at Vienna, 19 February, 1552; d. at Wiener-Neustadt, 18 ...

Kleutgen, Josef Wilhelm Karl

German theologian and philosopher, b. at Dortmund, Westphalia, 9 April, 1811; d. at St. Anton ...

Klinkowström

Friedrich August von Klinkowström Artist, author and teacher; b. at Ludwigsburg in Swedish ...

Klopp, Onno

Historian, b. on 9 October, 1822, at Leer (East Friesland); d. at Vienna, 9 August 1903. After ...

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Kn 17

Knabl, Joseph

A master of religious plastic art, b. at Fliess, Tyrol, in 1819; d. at Munich in 1881. He was ...

Kneeling

To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...

Kneipp, Sebastian

Bavarian priest and hydrotherapist, b. at Stephansreid, Bavaria, 17 May, 1821; d. at ...

Knight, Venerable William

Put to death for the Faith at York, on 29 November, 1596; with him also suffered Venerables ...

Knighthood

Chivalry (derived through the French cheval from the Latin caballus ) as an institution is ...

Knighton, Henry

(CNITTHON) A fourteenth-century chronicler. Nothing is known of his career except that he was ...

Knights of Christ, Order of the

A military order which sprang out of the famous Order of the Temple (see Knights Templars ). ...

Knights of Columbus

A fraternal and beneficent society of Catholic men, founded in New Haven, Connecticut, 2 ...

Knights of Malta

(Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

Knights of the Cross

(Ordo Militaris Crucigerorum cum Rubea Stella.) A religious order famous in the history of ...

Knights Templars, The

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

Knoblecher, Ignatius

Catholic missionary in Central Africa, born 6 July, 1819, at St. Cantian in Lower Carniola; died ...

Knoll, Albert (Joseph)

Dogmatic theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, born at Bruneck in northern Tyrol, ...

Knowledge

I. Essentials of Knowledge II. Kinds of Knowledge III. The Problem of Knowledge Knowledge, ...

Knowledge of Jesus Christ

" Knowledge of Jesus Christ," as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know ...

Knownothingism

This was a name applied to a movement in American politics which attracted a large share of public ...

Knox, John

Scotch Protestant leader, b. at Haddington, Scotland, between 1505 and 1515; d. at Edinburgh, ...

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Ko 19

Kober, Franz Quirin von

German canonist and pedagogist, b. of simple countryfolk on 6 March, 1821, at Warthausen, ...

Koberger, Anthony

(KOBURGER, COBERGER). German printer, publisher, and bookseller, b. about 1445; d. at ...

Kobler, Andreas

An historian, b. at Muhldorf in Bavaria, 22 June, 1816; d. at Klagenfurt, 15 November, 1892. He ...

Kochanowski, Jan

Born at Sycyna, 1530, died at Lublin, 22 August, 1584. He was inscribed in 1544 as a student in ...

Kochowski, Vespasian

Born at Sandomir ?, 1633; died at Krakow, 1699. He received his education at the Jesuit ...

Kohlmann, Anthony

Educator and missionary, b. 13 July, 1771, at Kaiserberg, Alsace; d. at Rome, 11 April, 1836. He ...

Koller, Marian Wolfgang

Scientist and educator, b. at Feistritz in Carniola, Austria, 31 October, 1792; d. of cholera at ...

Konarski, Stanislaus

Born in 1700; died in 1773. This great reformer of Polish schools was a Piarist who, during a ...

Konings, Anthony

Born at Helmond, Diocese of Bois-1e-Duc, Holland, 24 August, 1821; died 30 June, 1884. After a ...

Konrad ("der Pfaffe")

Surnamed DER PFAFFE ("The Priest"). A German epic poet of the twelfth century, author of the ...

Konrad of Lichtenau

A medieval German chronicler, d. at Ursperg, in the year 1240. He descended from a noble Swabian ...

Konrad of Megenberg

(KUNRAT). Scholar and writer, b. probably at Mainberg, near Schweinfurt, Bavaria, 2 February, ...

Konrad of Würzburg

A Middle High German poet, b. about 1230; d. at Basle, 1287. He was the most important of the ...

Konsag, Ferdinand

A German missionary of the eighteenth century, b. 2 December, 1703, at Warasdin, Croatia ; d. 10 ...

Koran, The

The sacred book of the Muslims, by whom it is regarded as the revelation of God. Supplemented by ...

Kosciuszko, Tadeusz

Polish patriot and soldier, b. near Novogrudok, Lithuania, Poland, 12 February, 1746; d. at ...

Kostka, Saint Stanislas

Born at Rostkovo near Prasnysz, Poland, about 28 October, 1550; died at Rome during the night of ...

Kottayam, Vicariate Apostolic of

Located on the Malabar Coast, India. This vicariate forms part of the territory of the ancient ...

Kozmian, Stanislaus and John

Two brothers who took part in the Polish insurrection of 1831, and subsequently fled the country. ...

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Kr 11

Krämer, John

(Also called INSTITOR, the Latin form of his name). Born about the end of the fourteenth ...

Krafft, Adam

Sculptor, b. about 1440 at Nuremberg ; d. Jan., 1509 at Schwabach. He carved at Nuremberg the ...

Krain

(Or CARNIOLA; Slov. KRANJSKO) A duchy and crownland in the Austrian Empire, bounded on the ...

Krasicki, Ignatius

Born in 1735; died at Berlin, 1801. He took orders in early youth, and soon after became a canon, ...

Krasinski, Sigismund

Count, son of a Polish general, b. at Paris, 19 Feb., 1812; d. there, 23 Feb., 1859. He lost his ...

Kraus, Franz Xaver

An ecclesiastical and art historian, b. at Trier, 18 September, 1840; d. at San Remo, 28 ...

Kreil, Karl

Austrian meteorologist and astronomer, b. at Ried, Upper Austria, 4 Nov., 1798; d. at Vienna, 21 ...

Kreiten, William

Literary critic and poet, b. 21 June, 1847, at Gangelt near Aschen; d. 6 June, 1902, at Kerkrade ...

Kremsmünster

A Benedictine abbey in Austria, on the little river Krems, about twenty miles south of Linz, ...

Kromer, Martin

A distinguished Polish bishop and historian; b. at Biecz in Galicia in 1512; d. at Heilsberg, ...

Krzycki, Andrew

Date of birth uncertain; d. in 1535. — A typical humanistic poet, a most supple courtier ...

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Ku 5

Kuhn, Johannes von

Theologian, b. at Waeschenbeuren in Wuertemberg, 19 Feb., 1806; d. at Tübingen, 8 May, 1887. ...

Kulturkampf

The name given to the political struggle for the rights and self-government of the Catholic ...

Kumbakonam

(KUMBAKONENSIS). Kumbakonam, signifying in English the "Jug's Corner," is a town of 60,000 ...

Kuncevyc, Saint Josaphat

Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...

Kutenai Indians

An important tribe of south-eastern British Columbia and the adjacent portions of Montana and ...

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Kw 4

Kwang-si

(Prefecture Apostolic) The mission of Kwang-si comprises the entire province of that name. As ...

Kwang-tung

(Prefecture Apostolic) This prefecture comprises the whole province of that name except the ...

Kwango

(Prefecture Apostolic) Kwango is the name of a river which flows into the Kassai, which itself ...

Kwei-chou

(Vicariate Apostolic) The mission of Kwei-chou embraces the entire province of that name. The ...

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Ky 1


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