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Epistemology

( Epistéme , knowledge, science, and lógos , speech, thought, discourse).

Epistemology, in a most general way, is that branch of philosophy which is concerned with the value of human knowledge.

The name epistemology, is of recent origin, but especially since the publication of Ferrier's "Institutes of Metaphysics: the Theory of Knowing and Being" (1854), it has come to be used currently instead of other terms, still sometimes met with, like applied logic, material or critical logic, critical or initial philosophy, etc. To the same part of philosophy the name criteriology is given by the authors of some Latin textbooks and by the Louvain School.

The exact province of epistemology is as yet but imperfectly determined, the two main views corresponding to the two meanings of the Greek word epistéme . According as this is understood in its more general sense of knowledge, or in its more special sense of scientific knowledge, epistemology is "the theory of the origin, nature and limits of knowledge " (Baldwin, "Dict. of Philos. and Psychol.", New York, 1901, s.v. "Epistemology", I, 333; cf. "Gnosiology",I,414); or "the philosophy of the sciences ", and more exactly, "the critical study of the principles, hypotheses and results of the various sciences, designed to determine their logical (not psychological ) origin, their value and objective import" ("Bulletin de la Société fran¸aise de Philos.", June, 1905, fasc. no. 7 of the Vocabulaire philosophique, s.v. "Epistémologie", 221; cf. Aug., 1906, fasc. 9 of the Vocabul., s.v. "Gnoséologie", 332). The Italian usage agrees with the French. According to Ranzoli ("Dizionario di seienze filosofiche", Milan, 1905, s.v. "Epistemologia", 226; cf. "Gnosiologia", 286), epistemology "determines the objects of every science by ascertaining their differentiating characteristics, fixes their relations and common principles, the laws of their development and their special methods".

Here we shall consider epistemology in its first and broader meaning, which is the usual one in English, as applying to the theory of knowledge, the German Erkenntnistheorie, i.e. "that part of Philosophy which, in the first place, describes, analyses, examines genetically the facts of knowledge as such ( psychology of knowledge ), and then tests chiefly the value of knowledge and of its various kinds, its conditions of validity, range and limits (critique of knowledge )" (Eisler, Wörterbuch der philos. Begriffe, 2d ed., Berlin, 1904, I, 298). In that sense epistemology does not merely deal with certain assumptions of science, but undertakes to test the cognitive faculty itself in all its functions.

HISTORICAL OUTLINE

The first efforts of Greek thinkers centre around the study of nature. This early philosophy is almost exclusively objective, and supposes, without examining it, the validity of knowledge. Doubt arose later chiefly from the disagreement of philosophers in determining the primordial elements of matter and in discussing the nature and attributes of reality. Parmenides holds that it is unchangeable; Heraclitus, that it is constantly changing; Democritus endows it with an eternal inherent motion, while Anaxagoras requires an independent and intelligent motor. This led the Sophists to question the possibility of certitude, and prepared the way for their sceptical tendencies. With Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who oppose the Sophists, the power of the mind to know truth and reach certitude is vindicated, and the conditions for the validity of knowledge are examined. But epistemological questions are not yet treated on their own merits, nor kept sufficiently distinct from purely logical and metaphysical inquiries. The philosophy of the Stoics is primarily practical, knowledge being looked upon as a means of right living and as a condition of happiness. As man must act according to guiding principles and rational convictions, human action supposes the possibility of knowledge. Subordinating science to ethics, the Epicureans admit the necessity of knowledge for conduct. And since Epicurean ethics rests essentially on the experience of pleasure and pain, these sensations are ultimately the practical criterion of truth. The conflict of opinions, the impossibility of demonstrating everything, the relativity of perception, became again the main arguments of scepticism. Pyrrho claims that the nature of things is unknowable, and consequently we must abstain from judging; herein consist human virtue and happiness. The representatives of the Middle Academy also are sceptical, although in a less radical manner. Thus Arcesilaus, while denying the possibility of certitude and claiming that the duty of a wise man is to refuse his assent to any proposition, admits nevertheless that a degree of probability sufficient for the conduct of life is attainable. Carneades develops the same doctrine and emphasizes its sceptical aspect. Later sceptics, Ænesidemus, Agrippa, and Sextus Empiricus, make no essential addition.

The Fathers of the Church are occupied chiefly in defending Christian dogmas , and thus indirectly in showing the harmony of revealed truth with reason St. Augustine goes farther than any other in the analysis of knowledge and in the inquiry concerning its validity. He wrote a special treatise against the sceptics of the Academy who admitted no certain, but only probable, knowledge. What is probability, he asks in an argument ad hominem, but a likeness of or an approach to truth and certitude? And then how can one speak of probability who does not first admit certitude? On one point at least, the existence of the thinking subject, doubt is impossible. Should a man doubt everything or be in error, the very fact of doubting or being deceived implies existence. First logical principles also are certain. Although the senses are not untrustworthy, perfect knowledge is intellectual knowledge based on the data of the senses and rising beyond them to general causes. In medieval philosophy the main epistemological issue is the objective value of universal ideas. After Plato and Aristotle the Scholastics hold that there is no science of the individual as such. As science deals with general principles and laws to know how far science is legitimate it is necessary to know first the value of general notions and the relations of the universal to the individual. Does the universal exist in nature, or is it a purely mental product? Such was the question raised by Porphyry in his introduction to Aristotle's "Categories". Up to the end of the twelfth century the answers are limited to two, corresponding to the two, possibilities mentioned by Porphyry. Hence if one may speak of Realism at that period, it does not seem altogether correct to speak of Conceptualism or Nominalism in the well-defined sense which these terms have since acquired (see De Wulf, Hist. de la phil. médiévale, 2d ed., Louvain 1905). Later, a distinction is introduced which St. Thomas formulates clearly and which avoids both extremes. The universal as such does not exist in nature, but only in the mind. Yet it is not a mere product of mental activity; it has a basis in really existing things; that is, by their individual and by their common features, existing things offer to the mind a basis for the exercise of its functions of abstraction and generalization. This moderate Realism, as it is called in opposition to Conceptualism on the one side, and on the other, to exaggerated, or absolute Realism, is also essentially the doctrine of Duns Scotus; and it prevailed in the School till the period of decadence when Nominalism or Terminism was introduced by Occam and his followers.

In modern times Descartes may be mentioned for his methodical doubt and his solution of it in the Cogito, ergo sum, i.e. I think, therefore, I exist. But Locke, in his "Essay concerning Human Understanding", is the first to give a clear statement of epistemological problems. To begin with ontological discussions is to begin "at the wrong end" and to take "a wrong coursed." Hence "it came to my thoughts that . . . before we set ourselves upon inquiries of that nature, it was necessary to examine our own abilities, and to see what objects our understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with" (Epistle to the Reader). Locke's purpose is to discover "the certainty, evidence and extent" of human knowledge (I, i, 3), to find "the horizon which sets the bounds between the enlightened and dark parts of things, between what is, and what is not comprehensible by us (I, i, 7), and "to search out the bounds between opinion and knowledge " (I, i, 3). One who reflects on the contradictions among men, and the assurance with which every man maintains his own opinion "may perhaps have reason to suspect that either there is no such thing as truth at all, or that mankind hath no sufficient means to attain a certain knowledge of it" (I, i, 2). This investigation will prevent us from undertaking the study of things that are "beyond the reach of our capacities" (I, i, 4), and will be "a cure of skepticism and idleness" (I, i, 6). Such is the problem; among the main points in its solution may be mentioned the following: "we have the knowledge of our own existence by intuition ; of the existence of God by demonstration; and of other things by sensation" (IV, ix, 2). The nature of the soul cannot be known, nor does the trustworthiness of the senses extend to "secondary qualities"; a fortiori, substance and essences are unknowable. These and other conclusions, however, are not reached by a truly epistemological method, i.e. by the criticism of the processes and postulates of knowledge, but almost exclusively by the psychological method of mental analysis. Following in Locke's footsteps and proceeding farther, Berkeley denied the objectivity even of primary qualities of matter, and Hume held a universal and radical phenomenalism. Aroused from his "dogmatic slumber" by the skepticism of Hume, Kant took up again the same problem of the extent, validity, and limits of human knowledge. This is the task of criticism, not the criticism of books and systems, but of reason itself in the whole range of its powers, and in regard to its ability to attain knowledge transcending experience. Briefly stated, the solution reached by Kant is that we know things-as-they-appear, or phenomena, but not the noumena, or things-in-themselves. These latter, precisely because they are outside the mind, are also outside the possibility of knowledge. Kant's successors, identifying the theory of being with the theory of knowing, elaborated his "Critique" into a system of metaphysics in which the very existence of things-in-themselves was denied. After Kant we reach the present period in the evolution of epistemological problems.

PROBLEMS

Today epistemology stands in the foreground of philosophical sciences. The preceding outline, however, shows that it was the last to be constituted as a distinct investigation and to receive a special systematic treatment. In older philosophers are found partial discussions, not yet coordinated and regarding only special aspects of the problem. The problem itself is not formulated before Locke, and no true epistemological solution attempted before Kant. In the beginning of philosophical investigation, as well as in the beginning of cognitive life in the individual, knowledge and certitude are accepted as self-evident facts needing no discussion. Full of confidence in its own powers, reason at once rises to the highest metaphysical considerations regarding the nature, essential elements, and origin of matter and of the human soul. But contradiction and conflict of opinions oblige the mind to turn back upon itself, to reflect in order to compare, test, and perhaps revise its conclusions; for contradictions cause doubt ; and doubt leads to reflection on the value of knowledge. Throughout history, also, interest in epistemological questions is aroused chiefly after periods characterized by ontological investigations implying the assumption of the validity of knowledge. As the psychology of knowledge develops problems of epistemology grow more numerous, and their solutions more varied. Originally the choice is almost exclusively between affirming the value of knowledge and denying it. For one who looks upon knowledge as a simple fact, these are the only two possible alternatives. After psychology has shown the complexity of the knowing-process, pointed out its various elements, examined its genesis, and followed its development, knowledge is no longer deemed either valid or invalid in its totality. Certain forms of it may be rejected and others retained; or knowledge may be held as valid up to, but not beyond, a certain point. In fact, at present, one would look in vain for absolute and unlimited dogmatism as well as for pure and complete skepticism. Opinions vary between these two extremes; and hence comes, partly at least, the confusion of terms by which various views are designated--a labyrinth in which even the most experienced can hardly find their way. Here a few systems only will be mentioned, and their names used in their most general and obvious sense.

The main problems of epistemology may be conveniently reduced to the following.

  • Starting from the fact of spontaneous certitude, the first question is: Does reflection also justify certitude? Is certain knowledge within man's power? In a general way Dogmatism gives an affirmative, Scepticism a negative answer. Modern Agnosticism attempts to indicate the limits of human knowledge and concludes that the ultimate reality is unknowable.
  • This leads to a second problem: How does knowledge arise, and what modes of knowledge are valid? Empiricism admits no other trustworthy information than the data of experience, while Rationalism claims that reason as a special faculty is more important.
  • A third question presents itself: What is knowledge ? Cognition is a process within the mind with the special feature of referring to something without the mind, of representing some extramental reality. What is the value of this representative aspect? Is it merely the result of the mind's inner activity, as Idealism claims? Or is the mind also passive in the act of knowing, and does it in fact reflect some other reality, as Realism asserts? And if there exist such realities, can we know anything about them in addition to the fact of their existence ? What is the relation between the idea in the mind and the thing outside the mind ? Finally, even if knowledge is valid, the fact of error is undeniable; what then will be the criterion by which truth may be distinguished from error ? What signs decide whether certitude in any ease is justified? Such systems as Intellectualism, Mysticism, Pragmatism, Traditionalism, etc., have attempted to answer these questions in various ways.
  • Like all other sciences, epistemology should start from self-evident facts, namely the facts of knowledge and certitude. To begin, as Descartes did, with a universal doubt is to do away with the facts instead of interpreting them; nor is it possible consistently to emerge out of such a doubt. Locke's principle that "knowledge is conversant only with our ideas " is contrary to experience, since in fact it is for the psychologist alone that ideas become objects of knowledge. First to isolate the mind absolutely from external reality, and then to ask how it can nevertheless come into contact with this reality, is to propose an insoluble problem. As to the Kantian attitude, it has been criticized repeatedly for examining the validity of knowledge with the knowing faculty, for making reason its own critic and judge while its lights to criticize and judge are still held in doubt. Epistemology, the science of knowing, is closely related to metaphysics, the science of being, as its necessary introduction, and as gradually leading into it. The main epistemological issue cannot be met without stepping almost immediately on metaphysical ground, since the faculty of knowledge cannot be examined apart from its exercise and therefore from the contents of knowledge. Logic in its strict sense is the science of the laws of thought; it is concerned with the form, not the matter of knowledge, and in this it differs from epistemology. Psychology deals with knowledge as a mental fact, apart from its truth or falsity ; it endeavours to determine the conditions, not only of cognitive, but of all mental processes and to discover their relations and the laws of their sequence. Thus logic and epistemology complement the work of psychology in two different directions, and epistemology forms a transition from psychology and logic to metaphysics. The importance of epistemology can hardly be overestimated, since it deals with the ground-work of knowledge itself, and therefore of all scientific, philosophical, moral, and religious principles. At the present time especially it is an indispensable requisite for apologetics, for the very foundations of religion are precisely the doctrines most frequently looked upon as beyond the reach of human intelligence. In fact much recent discussion concerning the value of knowledge has taken place on the ground of apologetics, and for the distinct purpose of testing the value of religious beliefs. If, contrary to the definitions of the Council of the Vatican, the existence of God and some at least of His attributes cannot be demonstrated, it is evident that there is no possibility of revelation and supernatural faith. As Pius X expresses it (Encycl. "Pascendi", 8 Sept., 1907), to confine reason within the field of phenomena and give it no right and no power to go beyond these limits as to make it "incapable of lifting itself up to God and of recognizing His existence by means of visible things. . . . And then all will readily perceive what becomes of natural theology, of the motives of credibility and of external revelation ". (See SCEPTICISM ; CERTITUDE; DOUBT.)

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    Virgin and martyr, flourished c. 490. According to Bishop Challoner (Britannia Saneta, London, ...

    Eliseus

    (E LISHA ; Hebrew ’lysh‘, God is salvation ). A Prophet of Israel. After ...

    Elishé

    A famous Armenian historian of the fifth century, place and date of birth unknown, d. 480. ...

    Elisha

    (E LISHA ; Hebrew ’lysh‘, God is salvation ). A Prophet of Israel. After ...

    Eliud, Saint

    (Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

    Elizabeth

    (" God is an oath " -- Exodus 6:23 ). Zachary's wife and John the Baptist's mother; was ...

    Elizabeth Ann Seton, Saint

    Foundress and first superior of the Sisters of Charity in the United States ; born in New York ...

    Elizabeth Associations

    ( Elisabethenvereine .) Charitable associations of women in Germany which aim for the ...

    Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint

    Also called St. Elizabeth of Thuringia, born in Hungary, probably at Pressburg, 1207; died at ...

    Elizabeth of Portugal, Saint

    Queen (sometimes known as the PEACEMAKER); born in 1271; died in 1336. She was named after her ...

    Elizabeth of Reute, Saint

    Member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born 25 November, 1386, at Waldsee in Swabia, of John ...

    Elizabeth of Schönau, Saint

    Born about 1129; d. 18 June, 1165.-Feast 18 June. She was born of an obscure family, entered the ...

    Elizabeth, Sisters of Saint

    Generally styled "Grey Nuns ". They sprang from an association of young ladies established by ...

    Ellis, Philip Michael

    First Vicar Apostolic of the Western District, England, subsequently Bishop of Segni, ...

    Ellwangen Abbey

    The earliest Benedictine monastery established in the Duchy of Wurtemberg, situated in the ...

    Elohim

    See also GOD. ( Septuagint, theos ; Vulgate, Deus ). Elohim is the common name for ...

    Elphege, Saint

    (Or ALPHEGE). Born 954; died 1012; also called Godwine, martyred Archbishop of Canterbury, ...

    Elphin

    D IOCESE OF E LPHIN (E LPHINIUM ) Suffragan of Tuam, Ireland, a see founded by St. ...

    Elusa

    A titular see of Palaestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra. This city is called Chellous in the ...

    Elvira, Council of

    Held early in the fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain, a city now in ruins not far ...

    Ely

    ANCIENT DIOCESE OF ELY (ELIENSIS; ELIA OR ELYS). Ancient diocese in England. The earliest ...

    Elzéar of Sabran

    Baron of Ansouis, Count of Ariano, born in the castle of Saint-Jean de Robians, in Provence, ...

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    Em 19

    Emanationism

    The doctrine that emanation (Latin emanare , "to flow from") is the mode by which all things ...

    Emancipation, Ecclesiastical

    In ancient Rome emancipation was a process of law by which a slave released from the ...

    Ember Days

    Ember days (corruption from Lat. Quatuor Tempora , four times) are the days at the beginning of ...

    Embolism

    (Greek: embolismos , from the verb, emballein , "to throw in") Embolism is an insertion, ...

    Embroidery

    ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY That in Christian worship embroidery was used from early times to ...

    Emerentiana, Saint

    Virgin and martyr, d. at Rome in the third century. The old Itineraries to the graves of the ...

    Emery, Jacques-André

    Superior of the Society of St-Sulpice during the French Revolution , b. 26 Aug., 1732, at Gex; ...

    Emesa

    A titular see of Phœnicia Secunda, suffragan of Damascus, and the seat of two Uniat ...

    Emigrant Aid Societies

    Records of the early immigration to the North American colonies are indefinite and ...

    Emiliana and Trasilla, Saints

    Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

    Emiliani, Saint Jerome

    Founder of the Order of Somascha; b. at Venice, 1481; d. at Somascha, 8 Feb., 1537; feast, 20 ...

    Emmanuel

    Emmanual ( Septuagint Emmanouel ; A.V., Immanuel ) signifies " God with us" ( Matthew 1:23 ), ...

    Emmaus

    A titular see in Pa1æstina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. It is mentioned for the ...

    Emmeram, Saint

    Bishop of Poitiers and missionary to Bavaria, b. at Poitiers in the first half of the seventh ...

    Emmeram, Saint, Abbey of

    A Benedictine monastery at Ratisbon (Regensburg), named after its traditional founder, the ...

    Emmerich, Anne Catherine

    An Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic, born 8 September, 1774, at Flamsche, near ...

    Empiricism

    (Lat. empirismus, the standpoint of a system based on experience). Primarily, and in its ...

    Ems, Congress of

    The Congress of Ems was a meeting of the representatives of the German Archbishops Friedrich ...

    Emser, Hieronymus

    The most ardent literary opponent of Luther, born of a prominent family at Ulm, 20 March, 1477; ...

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    En 34

    Encina, Juan de la

    (JUAN DE LA ENZINA). Spanish dramatic poet, called by Ticknor the father of the Spanish ...

    Enciso, Diego Ximenez de

    Dramatic poet, b. in Andalusia, Spain, c. 1585; date of death unknown. All trace of him is lost ...

    Enciso, Martín Fernández de

    Navigator and geographer, b. at Seville, Spain, c. 1470; d. probably about 1528 at Seville. It ...

    Encolpion

    (Greek egkolpion , that which is worn on the breast). The name given in early Christian ...

    Encratites

    [ ’Egkrateîs (Irenæus) ’Egkratetai (Clement of Alexandria, ...

    Encyclical

    ( Latin Litterœ Encyclicœ ) According to its etymology, an encyclical (from the ...

    Encyclopedia

    An abridgment of human knowledge in general or a considerable department thereof, treated from a ...

    Encyclopedists

    (1) The writers of the eighteenth century who edited or contributed articles to the ...

    Endlicher, Stephan Ladislaus

    Austrian botanist (botanical abbreviation, Endl. ), linguist, and historian, b. at Pressburg, ...

    Endowment

    ( German Stiftung , French fondation , Italian fondazione , Latin fundatio ) An ...

    Energy, The Law of Conservation of

    Amongst the gravest objections raised by the progress of modern science against Theism, the ...

    Engaddi

    ( Septuagint usually ’Eggadí ; Hebrew ‘En Gédhi, "Fountain of the ...

    Engel, Ludwig

    Canonist, b. at Castle Wagrein, Austria ; d. at Grillenberg, 22 April 1694. He became a ...

    Engelberg, Abbey of

    A Benedictine monastery in Switzerland, formerly in the Diocese of Constance, but now in that ...

    Engelbert

    Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Admont in Styria, b. of noble parents at Volkersdorf ...

    Engelbert of Cologne, Saint

    Archbishop of that city (1216-1225); b. at Berg, about 1185; d. near Schwelm, 7 November, 1225. ...

    Engelbrechtsen, Cornelis

    (Also called ENGELBERTS and ENGELBRECHT, and now more usually spelt ENGELBRECHTSZ). Dutch ...

    England (1066-1558)

    This term England is here restricted to one constituent, the largest and most populous, of the ...

    England (After 1558)

    The Protestant Reformation is the great dividing line in the history of England, as of Europe ...

    England (Before 1066)

    I. ANGLO-SAXON OCCUPATION OF BRITAIN The word Anglo-Saxon is used as a collective name for ...

    England, John

    First Bishop of Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.; b. 23 September, 1786, in Cork, Ireland ...

    Englefield, Sir Henry Charles, Bart.

    Antiquary and scientist, b. 1752; d. 21 March, 1822. He was the eldest son of Sir Henry ...

    English College, The, in Rome

    I. FOUNDATION Some historians (e.g., Dodd, II, 168, following Polydore Vergil, Harpsfield, ...

    English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729)

    Though the resistance of the English as a people to the Reformation compares very badly with the ...

    English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the

    On 29 September, 1850, by the Bull "Universalis Ecclesiae", Pius IX restored the Catholic ...

    English Literature

    It is not unfitting to compare English Literature to a great tree whose far spreading and ever ...

    English Revolution of 1688

    James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...

    Ennodius, Magnus Felix

    Rhetorician and bishop, b. probably at Arles, in Southern Gaul, in 474; d. at Pavia, Italy, 17 ...

    Enoch

    (Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...

    Enoch, Book of

    The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...

    Ensingen, Ulrich

    (ULRICH ENSINGER) Belonged to a family of architects who came from Einsingen near Ulm, ...

    Entablature

    A superstructure which lies horizontally upon the columns in classic architecture. It is divided ...

    Enthronization

    (From Greek ’enthronízein , to place on a throne). This word has been employed ...

    Envy

    Jealousy is here taken to be synonymous with envy. It is defined to be a sorrow which one ...

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    Eo 1

    Eoghan, Saints

    (1) EOGHAN OF ARDSTRAW was a native of Leinster, and, after presiding over the Abbey of ...

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    Ep 26

    Epée, Charles-Michel de l'

    A philanthropic priest and inventor of the sign alphabet for the instruction of the deaf and ...

    Epact

    (Greek épaktai hemérai; Latin dies adjecti ). The surplus days of the ...

    Eparchy

    ( eparchia ). Originally the name of one of the divisions of the Roman Empire. Diocletian ...

    Eperies

    DIOCESE OF EPERIES (EPERIENSIS RUTHENORUM). Diocese of the Greek Ruthenian Rite, suffragan to ...

    Ephesians, Epistle to the

    This article will be treated under the following heads: I. Analysis of the Epistle; II. ...

    Ephesus

    A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century ...

    Ephesus, Council of

    The third ecumenical council, held in 431. THE OCCASION AND PREPARATION FOR THE COUNCIL The ...

    Ephesus, Robber Council of

    (L ATROCINIUM ). The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of ...

    Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of

    The story is one of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after ...

    Ephod

    ( Hebrew aphwd or aphd ; Greek ’ís, ’ephód, ...

    Ephraem, Saint

    (EPHREM, EPHRAIM). Born at Nisibis, then under Roman rule, early in the fourth century; died ...

    Ephraemi Rescriptus, Codex

    (Symbol C). The last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible, ...

    Ephraim of Antioch

    ( Ephraimios ). One of the defenders of the Faith of Chalcedon (451) against the ...

    Epicureanism

    This term has two distinct, though cognate, meanings. In its popular sense, the word stands for a ...

    Epiklesis

    Epiklesis ( Latin invocatio ) is the name of a prayer that occurs in all Eastern liturgies ...

    Epimachus and Gordianus, Saints

    Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...

    Epiphania

    A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, in Asia Minor, suffragan of Anazarbus. This city is ...

    Epiphanius

    Surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, or in modern terms, THE PHILOLOGIST, a translator of various Greek works in ...

    Epiphanius of Constantinople

    Died 535. Epiphanius succeeded John II (518-20) as Patriarch of Constantinople. It was the time ...

    Epiphanius of Salamis

    Born at Besanduk, near Eleutheropolis, in Judea, after 310; died in 403. While very young he ...

    Epiphany

    Known also under the following names: (1) ta epiphania , or he epiphanios , sc. hemera ...

    Episcopal Subsidies

    ( Latin subsidia , tribute, pecuniary aid, subvention) Since the faithful are obliged to ...

    Episcopalians

    The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

    Epistemology

    ( Epistéme , knowledge, science, and lógos , speech, thought, discourse). ...

    Epistle (in Scripture)

    Lat. epistola ; Greek ’epistolé ; in Hebrew, at first only the general term ...

    Epping, Joseph

    German astronomer and Assyriologist, b. at Neuenkirchen near Rhine in Westphalia, 1 Dec., 1835; ...

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    Er 24

    Erasmus, Desiderius

    The most brilliant and most important leader of German humanism, b. at Rotterdam, Holland, 28 ...

    Erastus and Erastianism

    The name "Erastianism" is often used in a somewhat loose sense as denoting an undue subservience ...

    Erbermann, Veit

    (Or Ebermann). Theologian and controversialist, born 25 May, 1597, at Rendweisdorff, in ...

    Ercilla y Zúñiga, Alonso de

    Spanish soldier and poet, born in Madrid, 7 August, 1533; died in the same city, 29 November, ...

    Erconwald, Saint

    Bishop of London, died about 690. He belonged to the princely family of the East Anglian Offa, ...

    Erdeswicke, Sampson

    Antiquarian, date of birth unknown; died 1603. He was born at Sandon in Staffordshire, his ...

    Erdington Abbey

    Erdington Abbey, situated in a suburb of Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, belongs to the ...

    Erhard of Ratisbon, Saint

    Bishop of that city in the seventh century, probably identical with an Abbot Erhard of ...

    Erie

    DIOCESE OF ERIE (ERIENSIS). Established 1853; it embraces the thirteen counties of ...

    Erin, The Twelve Apostles of

    By this designation are meant twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the ...

    Eriugena, John Scotus

    An Irish teacher, theologian, philosopher, and poet, who lived in the ninth century. NAME ...

    Ermland

    Ermland, or Ermeland (Varmiensis, Warmia), a district of East Prussia and an exempt bishopric. ...

    Ernakulam, Vicariate Apostolic of

    In May, 1887, the churches of Syrian Rite in Malabar were separated from those of the Latin ...

    Ernan, Saints

    Name of four Irish saints. O'Hanlon enumerates twenty-five saints bearing the name Ernan, ...

    Ernst of Hesse-Rheinfels

    Landgrave, b. 9 Dec., 1623, at Cassel; d. 12 May, 1693, at Cologne. He was the sixth son of ...

    Ernulf

    Architect, b. at Beauvais, France, in 1040; d. 1124. He studied under Lanfranc at the monastery ...

    Errington, William

    Priest, founder of Sedgley Park School, b. 17 July, 1716; d. 28 September, 1768. He was son of ...

    Error

    Error, reduplicatively regarded, is in one way or another the product of ignorance. But besides ...

    Erskine, Charles

    Cardinal, b. at Rome, 13 Feb., 1739; d. at Paris, 20 March, 1811. He was the son of Colin ...

    Erthal, Franz Ludwig von

    Prince- Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg, b. at Lohr on the Main, 16 September, 1730; d. at ...

    Erthal, Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr von

    Last Elector and Archbishop of Mainz, b. 3 Jan., 1719, at Mainz ; d. 25 July, 1802, at ...

    Erwin of Steinbach

    One of the architects of the Strasburg cathedral, date of birth unknown; d. at Strasburg, 17 ...

    Erythrae

    A titular see in Asia Minor. According to legend the city was founded by colonists from Crete. ...

    Erzerum (Theodosiopolis)

    DIOCESE OF ERZERUM (ERZERUMIENSIS ARMENIORUM). The native name, Garin (Gr. Karenitis ; ...

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    Es 11

    Esau

    ( ‘sw , hairy). The eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca, the twin-brother of Jacob. The ...

    Esch, Nicolaus van

    (ESCHIUS) A famous mystical theologian, b. in Oisterwijk near Hertogenbosch (Boisle-Duc), ...

    Eschatology

    That branch of systematic theology which deals with the doctrines of the last things ( ta ...

    Escobar y Mendoza, Antonio

    Born at Valladolid in 1589; died there, 4 July, 1669. In his sixteenth year he entered the ...

    Escobar, Marina de

    Mystic and foundress of a modified branch of the Brigittine Order b. at Valladolid, Spain, 8 ...

    Escorial, The

    A remarkable building in Spain situated on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama about ...

    Esdras

    (Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's ...

    Esglis, Louis-Philippe Mariauchau d'

    Eighth Bishop of Quebec, Canada ; born Quebec, 24 April, 1710; died 7 June, 1788. After ...

    Eskil

    Archbishop of Lund, Skåne, Sweden ; b. about 1100; d. at Clairvaux, 6 (7?) Sept., 1181; ...

    Eskimo

    A littoral race occupying the entire Arctic coast and outlying islands of America from below Cook ...

    Esnambuc, Pierre Belain, Sieur d'

    Captain in the French marine, b. 1565, at Allouville, near Yvetot (Seine-Inferieure); d. at St. ...

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    ES 1

    ESP

    ( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

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    Es 14

    Espejo, Antonio

    A Spanish explorer, whose fame rests upon a notable expedition which he conducted into New ...

    Espen, Zeger Bernhard van

    (also called ESPENIUS) A Belgian canonist, born at Louvain, 9 July, 1646; died at ...

    Espence, Claude D'

    (ESPENCÆUS) A French theologian, born in 1511 at Châlons-sur-Marne; died 5 Oct., ...

    Espinel, Vincent

    Poet and novelist; born at Ronda (Malaga), Spain, 1544; died at Madrid, 1634. He studied at ...

    Espinosa, Alonso De

    Spanish priest and historian of the sixteenth century. Little is known of his early life. He is ...

    Espousals

    An Espousal is a contract of future marriage between a man and a woman, who are thereby ...

    Espousals of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    (DESPONSATIO BEATÆ MARIÆ VIRGINIS) A feast of the Latin Church. It is certain ...

    Essence and Existence

    ( Latin essentia, existentia ) Since they are transcendentals, it is not possible to put ...

    Essenes

    One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century ...

    Est, Willem Hessels van

    (ESTIUS.) A famous commentator on the Pauline epistles, born at Gorcum, Holland, in 1542; ...

    Establishment, The

    (Or ESTABLISHED CHURCH) The union of Church and State setting up a definite and distinctive ...

    Estaing, Comte d'

    JEAN-BAPTISTE-CHARLES-HENRI-HECTOR, COMTE D'ESTAING (MARQUIS DE SAILLANS). A French admiral, ...

    Esther

    (From the Hebrew meaning star, happiness ); Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is ...

    Estiennot de la Serre, Claude

    Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, b. at Varennes, France, 1639; d. at Rome, 1699. ...

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    Et 11

    Eternity

    ( aeternum , originally aeviternum, aionion, aeon -- long). Eternity is defined by ...

    Ethelbert

    Archbishop of York, England, date of birth uncertain; d. 8 Nov., 781 or 782. The name also ...

    Ethelbert, Saint

    Date of birth unknown; d. 794; King of the East Angles, was, according to the "Speculum ...

    Ethelbert, Saint

    King of Kent; b. 552; d. 24 February, 616; son of Eormenric, through whom he was descended from ...

    Etheldreda, Saint

    Queen of Northumbria; born (probably) about 630; died at Ely, 23 June, 679. While still very young ...

    Ethelwold, Saint

    St. Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, was born there of good parentage in the early years of the ...

    Etherianus, Hugh and Leo

    Brothers, Tuscans by birth, employed at the court of Constantinople under the Emperor Manuel I ...

    Ethethard

    (ÆTHELHEARD, ETHELREARD) The fourteenth Archbishop of Canterbury, England, date of ...

    Ethics

    I. Definition Many writers regard ethics (Gr. ethike ) as any scientific treatment of the ...

    Ethiopia

    The name of this region has been derived, through the Greek form, aithiopia , from the two ...

    Etschmiadzin

    A famous Armenian monastery, since 1441 the ecclesiastical capital of the schismatic Armenians, ...

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    Eu 66

    Euaria

    A titular see of Phoenicia Secunda or Libanensis, in Palestine. The true name of this city ...

    Eucarpia

    A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris in Asia Minor. Eucarpia ( Eukarpia ), mentioned by Strabo ...

    Eucharist, as a Sacrament

    Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the ...

    Eucharist, as a Sacrifice

    The word Mass ( missa ) first established itself as the general designation for the ...

    Eucharist, Early Symbols of the

    Among the symbols employed by the Christians of the first ages in decorating their tombs, those ...

    Eucharist, Introduction to the

    See also EUCHARIST AS SACRIFICE , EUCHARIST AS SACRAMENT , and REAL PRESENCE . (Greek ...

    Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

    Eucharistic Congresses

    Eucharistic Congresses are gatherings of ecclesiastics and laymen for the purpose of ...

    Eucharistic Prayer

    This article will be divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of ...

    Eucharius, Saint

    First Bishop of Trier (Treves) in the second half of the third century. According to an ...

    Eucherius, Saint

    Bishop of Lyons, theologian, born in the latter half of the fourth century; died about 449. On ...

    Euchologion

    The name of one of the chief Service-books of the Byzantine Church ; it corresponds more or less ...

    Eudes, Blessed Jean

    French missionary and founder of the Eudists and of the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity; ...

    Eudists

    (Society of Jesus and Mary) An ecclesiastical society instituted at Caen, France, 25 March, ...

    Eudocia

    (E UDOKIA ). Ælia Eudocia, sometimes wrongly called Eudoxia, was the wife of ...

    Eudoxias

    A titular see of Galatia Secunda in Asia Minor, suffragan of Pessinus. Eudoxias is mentioned ...

    Eugendus, Saint

    (AUGENDUS; French OYAND, OYAN) Fourth Abbot of Condat (Jura), b. about 449, at Izernore, ...

    Eugene I, Saint, Pope

    Eugene I was elected 10 Aug., 654, and died at Rome, 2 June, 657. Because he would not submit to ...

    Eugene II, Pope

    Elected 6 June, 824; died 27 Aug., 827. On the death of Pascal I (Feb.-May, 824) there took place ...

    Eugene III, Pope

    Bernardo Pignatelli, born in the neighbourhood of Pisa, elected 15 Feb., 1145; d. at Tivoli, 8 ...

    Eugene IV, Pope

    Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 ...

    Eugenics

    Eugenics literally means "good breeding". It is defined as the study of agencies under social ...

    Eugenius I

    Archbishop of Toledo, successor in 636 of Justus in that see ; d. 647. Like his predecessor he ...

    Eugenius II (the Younger)

    Archbishop of Toledo from 647 to 13 Nov., 657, the date of his death. He was the son of a Goth ...

    Eugenius of Carthage, Saint

    Unanimously elected Bishop of Carthage in 480 to succeed Deogratias (d. 456); d. 13 July, 505. ...

    Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint

    A Spanish martyr in the persecution of Diocletian (12 February, 304), patron of the ...

    Eulogia

    (Greek eulogia , "a blessing"). The term has been applied in ecclesiastical usage to the ...

    Eulogius of Alexandria, Saint

    Patriarch of that see from 580 to 607. He was a successful combatant of the heretical errors ...

    Eulogius of Cordova, Saint

    Spanish martyr and writer who flourished during the reigns of the Cordovan Caliphs, Abd-er-Rahman ...

    Eumenia

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana in Asia Minor, and suffragan to Hierapolis. It was founded ...

    Eunan, Saint

    (Or Eunan). Abbot of Iona, born at Drumhome, County Donegal, Ireland, c. 624; died at the ...

    Eunomianism

    A phase of extreme Arianism prevalent amongst a section of Eastern churchmen from about 350 ...

    Euphemius of Constantinople

    Euphemius of Constantinople (490-496) succeeded as patriarch Flavitas (or Fravitas, 489-490), who ...

    Euphrasia, Saint

    Virgin, b. in 380; d. after 410. She was the daughter of Antigonus, a senator of Constantinople, ...

    Euphrosyne, Saint

    Died about 470. Her story belongs to that group of legends which relate how Christian virgins, in ...

    Euroea

    A titular see of Epirus Vetus in Greece, suffragan of Nicopolis. Euroea is mentioned by ...

    Europe

    NAME The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and ...

    Europus

    A titular see in Provincis Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis. The former name of this city ...

    Eusebius Bruno

    Bishop of Angers, b. in the early part of the eleventh century; d. at Angers, 29 August, 1081. ...

    Eusebius of Alexandria

    Ecclesiastical writer and author of a number of homilies well known in the sixth and seventh ...

    Eusebius of Cæsarea

    Eusebius Pamphili, Bishop of Cæsarea in Palestine, the "Father of Church History "; b. ...

    Eusebius of Dorylæum

    Eusebius, Bishop of Dorylæum in Asia Minor, was the prime mover on behalf of Catholic ...

    Eusebius of Laodicea

    An Alexandrian deacon who had some fame as a confessor and became bishop of Laodicea in ...

    Eusebius of Nicomedia

    Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the ...

    Eusebius, Chronicle of

    Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the "Chronograph" or ...

    Eusebius, Saint

    Bishop of Vercelli, b. in Sardinia c. 283; d. at Vercelli, Piedmont, 1 August, 371. He was ...

    Eusebius, Saint

    Bishop of Samosata (now Samsat) in Syria ; date of birth unknown: d. in 379 or 380. History ...

    Eusebius, Saint

    A presbyter at Rome ; date of birth unknown; d. 357(?). He was a Roman patrician and ...

    Eusebius, Saint, Pope

    Successor of Marcellus, 309 or 310. His reign was short. The Liberian Catalogue gives its duration ...

    Eustace, John Chetwode

    Antiquary, b. in Ireland, c. 1762; d. at Naples, Italy, 1 Aug., 1815. His family was English, ...

    Eustace, Maurice

    Eldest son of Sir John Eustace, Castlemartin, County Kildars, Ireland, martyred for the Faith, ...

    Eustace, Saint

    Date of birth unknown; died 29 March, 625. He was second abbot of the Irish monastery of ...

    Eustachius and Companions, Saints

    Martyrs under the Emperor Hadrian, in the year 188. Feast in the West, 20 September; in the East, 2 ...

    Eustachius, Bartolomeo

    A distinguished anatomist of the Renaissance period — "one of the greatest anatomists ...

    Eustathius of Sebaste

    Born about 300; died about 377. He was one of the chief founders of monasticism in Asia Minor, ...

    Eustathius, Saint

    Bishop of Antioch, b. at Side in Pamphylia, c. 270; d. in exile at Trajanopolis in Thrace , ...

    Eustochium Julia, Saint

    Virgin, born at Rome c. 368; died at Bethlehem, 28 September, 419 or 420. She was the third of ...

    Euthalius

    ( ) A deacon of Alexandria and later Bishop of Sulca. He lived towards the middle of ...

    Euthanasia

    (From Greek eu , well, and thanatos , death), easy, painless death. This is here considered ...

    Euthymius, Saint

    (Styled THE GREAT). Abbot in Palestine; b. in Melitene in Lesser Armenia, A.D. 377; d. A.D. ...

    Eutropius of Valencia

    A Spanish bishop ; d. about 610. He was originally a monk in the Monasterium Servitanum , ...

    Eutyches

    An heresiarch of the fifth century, who has given his name to an opinion to which his teaching and ...

    Eutychianism

    Eutychianism and Monophysitism are usually identified as a single heresy. But as some ...

    Eutychianus, Saint, Pope

    He succeeded Pope Felix I a few days after the latter's death, and governed the Church from ...

    Eutychius

    Melchite Patriarch of Alexandria, author of a history of the world, b. 876, at Fustat (Cairo); ...

    Eutychius I

    Patriarch of Constantinople, b. about 512, in Phrygia; d. Easter Day , 5 April, 582. He became ...

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    Ev 18

    Evagrius

    Ecclesiastical historian and last of the continuators of Eusebius of Caesarea, b. in 536 at ...

    Evagrius

    Born about 345, in Ibora, a small town on the shores of the Black Sea; died 399. He is numbered ...

    Evangeliaria

    Liturgical books containing those portions of the Gospels which are read during Mass or in the ...

    Evangelical Alliance, The

    An association of Protestants belonging to various denominations founded in 1846, whose object, ...

    Evangelical Church

    (IN PRUSSIA) The sixteenth-century Reformers accused the Catholic Church of having ...

    Evangelical Counsels

    ( Or COUNSELS OF PERFECTION). Christ in the Gospels laid down certain rules of life and ...

    Evangelist

    In the New Testament this word, in its substantive form, occurs only three times: Acts, xxi, 8; ...

    Evaristus, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown; died about 107. In the Liberian Catalogue his name is given as Aristus. In ...

    Eve

    ( Hebrew hawwah ). The name of the first woman, the wife of Adam, the mother of Cain, Abel, ...

    Eve of a Feast

    (Or VIGIL; Latin Vigilia ; Greek pannychis ). In the first ages, during the night before ...

    Evesham Abbey

    Founded by St. Egwin, third Bishop of Worcester, about 701, in Worcestershire, England, and ...

    Evil

    Evil, in a large sense, may be described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to ...

    Evin, Saint

    St. Abban of New Ross -- also known as St. Ewin, Abhan, or Evin, but whose name has been locally ...

    Evodius

    The first Bishop of Antioch after St. Peter. Eusebius mentions him thus in his "History": ...

    Evolution, Catholics and

    One of the most important questions for every educated Catholic of today is: What is to be ...

    Evolution, History and Scientific Foundation of

    The world of organisms comprises a great system of individual forms generally classified ...

    Evora

    Located in Portugal, raised to archiepiscopal rank in 1544, at which time it was given as ...

    Evreux

    DIOCESE OF EVREUX (EBROICENSIS) Diocese in the Department of Eure, France ; suffragan of the ...

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    Ew 3

    Ewald, Saints

    (Or HEWALD) Martyrs in Old Saxony about 695. They were two priests and natives of ...

    Ewin, Saint

    St. Abban of New Ross -- also known as St. Ewin, Abhan, or Evin, but whose name has been locally ...

    Ewing, Thomas

    Jurist and statesman, b. in West Liberty, Virginia (now West Virginia ), U.S.A. 28 December, ...

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    Ex 31

    Ex Cathedra

    Literally "from the chair", a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is ...

    Examination

    A process prescribed or assigned for testing qualification; an investigation, inquiry. ...

    Examination of Conscience

    By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ...

    Examiners, Apostolic

    So called because appointed by the Apostolic See for service in Rome. In 1570 Pius V ...

    Examiners, Synodal

    So called because chosen in a diocesan synod. The Council of Trent prescribes at least six ...

    Exarch

    (Greek Exarchos ). A title used in various senses both civilly and ecclesiastically. In ...

    Excardination and Incardination

    (Latin cardo, a pivot, socket, or hinge--hence, incardinare, to hang on a hinge, or fix; ...

    Exclusion, Right of

    (Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...

    Excommunication

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. General Notions and Historical ...

    Executor, Apostolic

    A cleric who puts into execution a papal rescript, completing what is necessary in order ...

    Exedra

    A semicircular stone or marble seat; a rectangular or semicircular recess; the portico of the ...

    Exegesis, Biblical

    Exegesis is the branch of theology which investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred ...

    Exemption

    Exemption is the whole or partial release of an ecclesiastical person, corporation, or ...

    Exequatur

    (Synonymous with REGIUM PLACET) Exequatur, as the Jansenist Van Espen defines it, is a ...

    Exeter, Ancient Diocese of

    (EXONIA, ISCA DAMNONIORUM, CAER WISE, EXANCEASTER; EXONIENSIS). English see, chosen by Leofric, ...

    Exmew, Blessed William

    Carthusian monk and martyr ; suffered at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. He studied at Christ's ...

    Exodus ( See Pentateuch)

    Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

    Exorcism

    ( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCIST, POSSESSION.) Exorcism is (1) the act of driving ...

    Exorcist

    ( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, POSSESSION.) (1) In general, any one who ...

    Expectation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    ( Exspectatio Partus B.V.M. ) Celebrated on 18 December by nearly the entire Latin Church. ...

    Expectative

    (From the Latin expectare , to expect or wait for.) An expectative, or an expectative grace, ...

    Expeditors, Apostolic

    (Latin Expeditionarius literarum apostolicarum, Datariae Apostolicae sollicitator atque ...

    Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament

    Exposition is a manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing It, with proper solemnity, to ...

    Extension

    (From Latin ex-tendere , to spread out.) That material substance is not perfectly ...

    Extension Society, The Catholic Church

    IN THE UNITED STATES The first active agitation for a church extension or home mission society ...

    Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP)

    ( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

    Extravagantes

    ( Extra , outside; vagari , to wander.) This word is employed to designate some papal ...

    Extreme Unction

    A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...

    Exul Hibernicus

    The name given to an Irish stranger on the Continent of Europe in the time of Charles the ...

    Exultet

    The hymn in praise of the paschal candle sung by the deacon, in the liturgy of Holy ...

    Exuperius, Saint

    (Also spelled Exsuperius). Bishop of Toulouse in the beginning of the fifth century; place ...

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    Ey 7

    Eyb, Albrecht von

    One of the earliest German humanists, born in 1420 near Anabach in Franconia; died in 1475. After ...

    Eyck, Hubert and Jan van

    Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and ...

    Eycken, Jean Baptiste van

    Painter, born at Brussels, Belgium, 16 September, 1809; died at Schaerbeek, 19 December, 1853. ...

    Eymard, Venerable Pierre-Julien

    Founder of the Society of the Blessed Sacrament , and of the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament, ...

    Eymeric, Nicolas

    Theologian and inquisitor, born at Gerona, in Catalonia, Spain, c. 1320; died there 4 January, ...

    Eyre, Thomas

    First president of Ushaw College ; born at Glossop, Derbyshire; in 1748; died at Ushaw, 8 May, ...

    Eyston, Charles

    Antiquary, born 1667; died 5 November, 1721; he was a member of the ancient family of Eyston, ...

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    Ez 6

    Ezechias

    Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...

    Ezekiel

    Ezekiel, whose name, Yehézq'el signifies "strong is God ", or "whom God makes strong" ...

    Ezion-geber

    More properly Ezion-geber, a city of Idumea, situated on the northern extremity of the ...

    Eznik

    A writer of the fifth century, born at Golp, in the province of Taikh, a tributary valley of the ...

    Ezra

    (Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's ...

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