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Ratramnus

(Rathramnus)

A Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Corbie, in the present Department of Somme, one of the most important ecclesiastical authors of the ninth century, d. after 868. Scarcely anything is known of his life. His best known work is a treatise on the Holy Eucharist, entitled "De corpore et sanguine Domini". It was written at the instance of the Emperor Charles the Bald, against a work of the same title by Paschasius Radbertus. The basis of Ratramnus's work is an attempt to solve the two questions:

  • Do we in the Holy Eucharist directly see the Body of Christ with our bodily eyes, or is the Body of Christ hidden from our sensory vision?
  • Is the Eucharistic Christ identical with the historic Christ?
  • In the solution of the first question Ratramnus distinguishes correctly between the invisible substance, "invisibilis substantia", which, he says, is truly the body and blood of Christ, "vere corpus et sanguis Christi" (xlix), and the external appearances which after the consecration by the priest remain the same as they were before (ix-x). The second question he answers in the negative, stating that the Eucharistic Christ is not in everything identical with the historic Christ "who was born of Mary, suffered, died, was buried, ascended into heaven and sitteth at the right hand of the Father" (cap. lxxxix). The work had almost been forgotten during the Middle Ages. Attention was again called to it by Blessed John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, who cited it in defence of the Catholic doctrine on the Eucharist in the preface to his work: "De veritate corporis et sanguinis Christi in Eucharistia adversus Joh. Œcolampadium" (Cologne, 1527). It was first printed with the wrong title: "Bertrami presbyteri ad Carolum Magnum Imperatorem" (Cologne, 1532). A wrong interpretation of the words "figura" and "veritas", and a few ambiguous passages have given rise to the opinion among a few Catholics and most Protestants that Ratramnus taught a merely symbolic presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Various German, French, and English translations made by the Sacramentarians only served to corroborate this opinion. For this reason it was placed on the Index of Prohibited Books in 1559, but was removed in 1900. His best work, from a literary as well as a dogmatic standpoint, is "Contra Græcorum opposita Romanam ecclesiam infamantium, libri quattuor". It was written in 868 at the request of the bishops of the province of Reims, as a refutation of Photius who, in a letter to the King of Bulgaria, had fiercely assailed the "Filioque", the papal primacy, and various customs of the Latin Church. His earliest work, "De eo quod Christus ex virgine natus est liber", defends the Catholic doctrine that the birth of Christ occurred in a natural manner. In his work: "De prædestinatione, libri duo", he upholds the double predestination for salvation and damnation but not for sin. A treatise in defence of the expression "trina Deitas", against Hincmar, has been lost, and two dissertations "De anima" are still unprinted. His works are in "P. L.", CXXI, 1-346 and 1153- 6, his extant letters in "Mon. Germ. Epist.", VI, 149 sq.

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    Re 118

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    Rh 18

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    Rhesæna

    A titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. Rhesæna (numerous variations of the name ...

    Rhinocolura

    A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium. Rhinocolura or Rhinocorura was a ...

    Rhithymna

    (RHETHYMNA) A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, mentioned by Ptolemy, III, 15, ...

    Rhizus

    ( Rizous .) A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus suffragan of Neocæsarea, ...

    Rho, Giacomo

    Missionary, born at Milan, 1593; died at Peking 27 April, 1638. He was the son of a noble and ...

    Rhode Island

    The State of Rhode Island and xxyyyk.htm">Providence Plantations, one of the thirteen original ...

    Rhodes

    (RHODUS) A titular metropolitan of the Cyclades. It is an island opposite to Lycia and ...

    Rhodes, Alexandre De

    A missionary and author, born at Avignon, 15 March, 1591; died at Ispahan, Persia, 5 Nov., 1660. ...

    Rhodesia

    A British possession in South Africa, bounded on the north and north-west by the Congo Free ...

    Rhodiopolis

    A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, called Rhodia by Ptolemy (V, 3) and Stephanus ...

    Rhodo

    A Christian writer who flourished in the time of Commodus (180-92); he was a native of Asia ...

    Rhosus

    A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan to Anazarba. Rhosus or Rhossus was a seaport ...

    Rhymed Bibles

    The rhymed versions of the Bible are almost entirely collections of the psalms. The oldest ...

    Rhythmical Office

    I. DESCRIPTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND DIVISION By rhythmical office is meant a liturgical horary ...

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    Ri 66

    Ribadeneira, Pedro de

    (Or RIBADENEYRA and among Spaniards often RIVADENEIRA) Pedro De Ribadeneira was born at ...

    Ribas, Andrés Pérez De

    A pioneer missionary, historian of north-western Mexico; born at Cordova, Spain, 1576; died in ...

    Ribe, Ancient See of, in Denmark (Jutland)

    (RIPAE, RIPENSIS.) The diocese (29 deaneries, 278 parishes ) consisted of the modern ...

    Ribeirao Preto

    (DE RIBERAO PRETO) A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of São Paulo , Brazil, ...

    Ribera, Jusepe de

    Called also SPAGNOLETTO, L'ESPAGNOLET (the little Spaniard) Painter born at Jativa, 12 Jan., ...

    Ricardus Anglicus

    Ricardus Anglicus, Archdeacon of Bologna, was an English priest who was rector of the law ...

    Riccardi, Nicholas

    A theologian, writer and preacher; born at Genoa, 1585; died at Rome, 30 May, 1639. Physically ...

    Ricci, Lorenzo

    General of the Society of Jesus b. at Florence, 2 Aug., 1703; d. at the Castle of Sant' Angelo, ...

    Ricci, Matteo

    Founder of the Catholic missions of China, b. at Macerata in the Papal States, 6 Oct. 1552; ...

    Riccioli, Giovanni Battista

    Italian astronomer, b. at Ferrara 17 April, 1598; d. at Bologna 25 June, 1671. He entered the ...

    Rice, Edmund Ignatius

    Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as "Irish ...

    Rich, St. Edmund

    Archbishop of Canterbury, England, born 20 November, c. 1180, at Abingdon, six miles from ...

    Richard

    A Friar minor and preacher, appearing in history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and ...

    Richard de Bury

    Bishop and bibliophile, b. near Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk, England, 24 Jan., 1286; d. at ...

    Richard de la Vergne, François-Marie-Benjamin

    Archbishop of Paris, born at Nantes, 1 March, 1819; died in Paris, 28 January, 1908. ...

    Richard de Wyche, Saint

    Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...

    Richard Fetherston, Blessed

    Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...

    Richard I, King Of England

    Richard I, born at Oxford, 6 Sept, 1157; died at Chaluz, France, 6 April, 1199; was known to ...

    Richard of Cirencester

    Chronicler, d. about 1400. He was the compiler of a chronicle from 447 to 1066, entitled "Speculum ...

    Richard of Cornwall

    (RICHARD RUFUS, RUYS, ROSSO, ROWSE). The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but he ...

    Richard of Middletown

    (A MEDIA VILLA). Flourished at the end of the thirteenth century, but the dates of his birth ...

    Richard of St. Victor

    Theologian, native of Scotland, but the date and place of his birth are unknown; d. 1173 and ...

    Richard Thirkeld, Blessed

    Martyr ; b. at Coniscliffe, Durham, England ; d. at York, 29 May, 1583. From Queen's College, ...

    Richard Whiting, Blessed

    Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...

    Richard, Charles-Louis

    Theologian and publicist; b. at Blainville-sur-l'Eau, in Lorraine, April, 1711; d. at Mons, ...

    Richardson, Ven. William

    ( Alias Anderson.) Last martyr under Queen Elizabeth; b. according to Challoner at Vales in ...

    Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de

    Cardinal ; French statesman, b. in Paris, 5 September, 1585; d. there 4 December 1642. At first ...

    Richmond, Diocese of

    (RICHMONDENSIS.) Suffragan of Baltimore, established 11 July, 1820, comprises the State of ...

    Ricoldo da Monte di Croce

    (PENNINI.) Born at Florence about 1243; d. there 31 October, 1320. After studying in various ...

    Riemenschneider, Tillmann

    One of the most important of Frankish sculptors, b. at Osterode am Harz in or after 1460; d. at ...

    Rienzi, Cola di

    (i.e., NICOLA, son of Lorenzo) A popular tribune and extraordinary historical figure. His ...

    Rieti

    (REATINA). Diocese in Central Italy, immediately subject to the Holy See. The city is ...

    Rievaulx, Abbey of

    (RIEVALL.) Thurston, Archbishop of York, was very anxious to have a monastery of the newly ...

    Riffel, Caspar

    Historian, b. at Budesheim, Bingen, Germany, 19 Jan., 1807, d. at Mainz, 15 Dec., 1856. He ...

    Rigby, John, Saint

    English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...

    Rigby, Nicholas

    Born 1800 at Walton near Preston, Lancashire; died at Ugthorpe, 7 September, 1886. At twelve years ...

    Right

    Right, as a substantive (my right, his right), designates the object of justice. When a person ...

    Right of Exclusion

    (Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...

    Right of Option

    In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...

    Right of Voluntary Association

    I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

    Rimbert, Saint

    Archbishop of Bremen - Hamburg, died at Bremen 11 June, 888. It is uncertain whether he was ...

    Rimini

    DIOCESE OF RIMINI (ARIMINUM). Suffragan of Ravenna. Rimini is situated near the coast between ...

    Rimini, Council of

    The second Formula of Sirmium (357) stated the doctrine of the Anomoeans, or extreme Arians. ...

    Rimouski

    DIOCESE OF RIMOUSKI (SANCTI GERMANI DE RIMOUSKI) Suffragan of Quebec, comprises the counties of ...

    Ring of the Fisherman, The

    The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...

    Rings

    Although the surviving ancient rings, proved by their devices, provenance, etc., to be of ...

    Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista

    Born at Rome, 1592; d. at Fermo, 1653; was the son of a Florentine patrician, his mother being a ...

    Rio Negro

    Prefecture Apostolic in Brazil, bounded on the south by a line running westwards from the ...

    Rio, Alexis-François

    French writer on art, b. on the Island of Arz, Department of Morbihan, 20 May, 1797; d. 17 June, ...

    Riobamba

    Diocese of (Bolivarensis), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, erected by Pius IX, 5 January, 1863. ...

    Rioja, Francisco de

    A poet, born at Seville, 1583; died at Madrid, 1659. Rioja was a canon in the cathedral at ...

    Ripalda, Juan Martínez de

    Theologian, b. at Pamplona, Navarre, 1594; d. at Madrid, 26 April, 1648. He entered the Society ...

    Ripatransone

    (RIPANENSIS). Diocese in Ascoli Piceno, Central Italy. The city is situated on five hills, ...

    Ripon, Marquess of

    George Frederick Samuel Robinson, K.G., P.C., G.C.S.I., F.R.S., Earl de Grey, Earl of Ripon, ...

    Risby, Richard

    Born in the parish of St. Lawrence, Reading, 1489; executed at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1534. ...

    Rishanger, William

    Chronicler, b. at Rishangles, Suffolk, about ú d. after 1312. He became a Benedictine at ...

    Rishton, Edward

    Born in Lancashire, 1550; died at Sainte-Ménehould, Lorraine, 29 June, 1585. He was ...

    Rita of Cascia, Saint

    Born at Rocca Porena in the Diocese of Spoleto , 1386; died at the Augustinian convent of ...

    Rites

    I. NAME AND DEFINITION Ritus in classical Latin in means primarily, the form and manner of any ...

    Rites in the United States

    Since immigration from the eastern portion of Europe and from Asia and Africa set in with ...

    Ritschlianism

    Ritschlianism is a peculiar conception of the nature and scope of Christianity, widely held in ...

    Ritter, Joseph Ignatius

    Historian, b. at Schweinitz, Silesia, 12 April, 1787; d. at Breslau, 5 Jan., 1857. He pursued his ...

    Ritual

    The Ritual ( Rituale Romanum ) is one of the official books of the Roman Rite. It contains all ...

    Ritualists

    The word "Ritualists" is the term now most commonly employed to denote that advanced section of ...

    Rivington, Luke

    Born in London, May, 1838; died in London, 30 May, 1899; fourth son of Francis Rivington, a ...

    Rizal, José Mercado

    Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor ; b. at Calamba, Province of La Laguna, ...

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    Ro 133

    Robbers, Seven

    (Septem Latrones), martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their ...

    Robbia, Andrea della

    Nephew, pupil, assistant, and sharer of Luca's secrets, b. at Florence, 1431; d. 1528. It is ...

    Robbia, Lucia di Simone

    Sculptor, b. at Florence, 1400; d. 1481. He is believed to have studied design with a goldsmith, ...

    Robert Bellarmine, Saint

    (Also, "Bellarmino"). A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at ...

    Robert Johnson, Blessed

    Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...

    Robert of Arbrissel

    Itinerant preacher, founder of Fontevrault, b. c. 1047 at Arbrissel (now Arbressec) near ...

    Robert of Courçon

    (DE CURSONE, DE CURSIM, CURSUS, ETC.). Cardinal, born at Kedleston, England ; died at ...

    Robert of Geneva

    Antipope under the name of Clement VII, b. at Geneva, 1342; d. at Avignon, 16 Sept., 1394. He ...

    Robert of Jumièges

    Archbishop of Canterbury (1051-2). Robert Champart was a Norman monk of St. Ouen at Rouen ...

    Robert of Luzarches

    (LUS). Born at Luzarches near Pontoise towards the end of the twelfth century; is said to have ...

    Robert of Melun

    (DE MELDUNO; MELIDENSIS; MEIDUNUS). An English philosopher and theologian, b. in England ...

    Robert of Molesme, Saint

    Born about the year 1029, at Champagne, France, of noble parents who bore the names of Thierry ...

    Robert of Newminster, Saint

    Born in the district of Craven, Yorkshire, probably at the village of Gargrave; died 7 June, 1159. ...

    Robert Pullus

    (PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

    Robert, Saint

    Founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne, b. at Aurilac, Auvergne, about 1000; d. in ...

    Roberts, Saint John

    First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...

    Robertson, James Burton

    Historian, b. in London 15 Nov., 1800; d. at Dublin 14 Feb., 1877, son of Thomas Robertson, a ...

    Robinson, Venerable Christopher

    Born at Woodside, near Westward, Cumberland, date unknown; executed at Carlisle, 19 Aug., 1598. ...

    Robinson, William Callyhan

    Jurist and educator, b. 26 July, 1834, at Norwich, Conn.; d. 6 Nov., 1911, at Washington, D.C. ...

    Rocaberti, Juan Tomás de

    Theologian, b. of a noble family at Perelada, in Catalina, c. 1624; d. at Madrid 13 June, 1699. ...

    Rocamadour

    Communal chief town of the canton of Gramat, district of Gourdon, Department of Lot, in the ...

    Rocca, Angelo

    Founder of the Angelica Library at Rome, b. at Rocca, now Arecevia, near Ancone, 1545; d. at ...

    Roch, Saint

    Born at Montpellier towards 1295; died 1327. His father was governor of that city. At his birth ...

    Rochambeau, Jean-Baptiste-Donatien

    Marshal, b. at Vendôme, France, 1 July, 1725; d. at Thoré, 10 May, 1807. At the age ...

    Roche, Alanus de la

    ( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

    Rochester, Ancient See of

    (ROFFA; ROFFENSIS). The oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury, was ...

    Rochester, Blessed John

    Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...

    Rochester, Diocese of

    This diocese, on its establishment by separation from the See of Buffalo, 24 January, 1868, ...

    Rochet

    An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), ...

    Rochette, Désiré Raoul

    Usually known as Raoul-Rochette, a French archeologist, b. at St. Amand (Cher), 9 March, 1789; d. ...

    Rock, Daniel

    Antiquarian and ecclesiologist, b. at Liverpool, 31 August, 1799; d. at Kensington, London, 28 ...

    Rockford, Diocese of

    (ROCKFORDIENSIS). Created 23 September, 1908, comprises Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, ...

    Rockhampton

    Diocese in Queensland, Australia. In 1862 Father Duhig visited the infant settlement on the banks ...

    Rococo Style

    This style received its name in the nineteenth century from French émigrés , who ...

    Rodez

    (RUTHENAE) The Diocese of Rodez was united to the Diocese of Cahors by the Concordat of ...

    Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre

    A Brazilian natural scientist and explorer, b. at Bahia in 1756; d. at Lisbon in 1815. He ...

    Rodriguez, Alonso

    Born at Valladolid, Spain, 1526; died at Seville 21 February, 1616. When twenty years of age he ...

    Rodriguez, Joao

    (GIRAM, GIRAO, GIRON, ROIZ). Missionary and author, b. at Alcochete in the Diocese of Lisbon ...

    Rodriguez, Saint Alphonsus

    (Also Alonso). Born at Segovia in Spain, 25 July, 1532; died at Majorca, 31 October, 1617. ...

    Roe, Bartholomew

    (VENERABLE ALBAN). English Benedictine martyr, b. in Suffolk, 1583; executed at Tyburn, 21 ...

    Roermond

    (RUBAEMUNDENSIS). Diocese in Holland ; suffragan of Utrecht. It includes the Province of ...

    Rogation Days

    Days of prayer, and formerly also of fasting, instituted by the Church to appease God's anger ...

    Roger Bacon

    Philosopher, surnamed D OCTOR M IRABILIS , b. at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; d. at ...

    Roger Cadwallador, Venerable

    English martyr, b. at Stretton Sugwas, near Hereford, in 1568; executed at Leominster, 27 Aug., ...

    Roger of Wendover

    Benedictine monk, date of birth unknown; d. 1236, the first of the great chroniclers of St. ...

    Roger, Bishop of Worcester

    Died at Tours, 9 August, 1179. A younger son of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, he was educated ...

    Roh, Peter

    Born at Conthey (Gunthis) in the canton of Valais ( French Switzerland ), 14 August, 1811; d. at ...

    Rohault de Fleury

    A family of French architects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century, of which the most ...

    Rohrbacher, Réné François

    Ecclesiastical historian, b. at Langatte (Langd) in the present Diocese of Metz, 27 September, ...

    Rojas y Zorrilla, Francisco de

    Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Toledo, 4 Oct., 1607; d. 1680. Authentic information regarding the ...

    Rokewode, John Gage

    Born 13 Sept., 1786; died at Claughton Hall, Lancashire, 14 Oct., 1842. He was the fourth son of ...

    Rolduc

    (RODA DUCIS, also Roda, Closterroda or Hertogenrade). Located in S. E. Limburg, Netherlands. ...

    Rolfus, Hermann

    Catholic educationist, b. at Freiburg, 24 May, 1821; d. at Buhl, near Offenburg, 27 October, ...

    Rolle de Hampole, Richard

    Solitary and writer, b. at Thornton, Yorkshire, about 1300; d. at Hampole, 29 Sept., 1349. The ...

    Rollin, Charles

    Born in Paris, 1661; died there, 1741. The son of a cutler, intended to follow his father's ...

    Rolls Series

    A collection of historical materials of which the general scope is indicated by its official ...

    Rolph, Thomas

    Surgeon, b. 1800; d. at Portsmouth, 17 Feb., 1858. He was a younger son of Dr. Thomas Rolph and ...

    Roman Catacombs

    This subject will be treated under seven heads: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. ...

    Roman Catechism

    This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the ...

    Roman Catholic

    A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those ...

    Roman Catholic Relief Bill

    IN ENGLAND With the accession of Queen Elizabeth (1558) commenced the series of legislative ...

    Roman Christian Cemeteries, Early

    This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome. For ...

    Roman Colleges

    This article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ...

    Roman Congregations

    Certain departments have been organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the ...

    Roman Curia

    Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff ...

    Roman Processional

    Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

    Roman Rite, The

    ( Ritus romanus ). The Roman Rite is the manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, ...

    Romanos Pontifices, Constitutio

    The restoration by Pius IX, 29 Sept. 1850, by letters Apostolic "Universalis ecclesiæ" of ...

    Romanos, Saint

    Surnamed ho melodos and ho theorrhetor , poet of the sixth century. The only authority for ...

    Romans, Epistle to the

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. ...

    Romanus, Pope

    Of this pope very little is known with certainty, not even the date of his birth nor the exact ...

    Romanus, Saints

    (1) A Roman martyr Romanus is mentioned in the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 155) ...

    Rome

    The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope. The Bishop ...

    Rome, University of

    The University of Rome must be distinguished from the "Studium Generale apud Curiam", established ...

    Romero, Juan

    Missionary and Indian linguist, b. in the village of Machena, Andalusia, Spain, 1559; d. at ...

    Romuald, Saint

    Born at Ravenna, probably about 950; died at Val-di-Castro, 19 June, 1027. St. Peter Damian, his ...

    Romulus Augustulus

    Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire. His reign was purely ...

    Ronan, Saint

    There are twelve Irish saints bearing the name of Ronan commemorated in the "Martyrology of ...

    Ronsard, Pierre de

    French poet, b. 2 (or 11) Sept., 1524, at the Château de la Poissonniere, near ...

    Rood

    (Anglo-Saxon Rod, or Rode, "cross"), a term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, ...

    Roothaan, Johann Philipp

    Twenty-first General of the Society of Jesus , b. at Amsterdam, 23 November, 1785; d. at Rome, ...

    Roper, William

    Biographer of St. Thomas More, born 1496; died 4 January, 1578. Both his father and mother ...

    Rorate Coeli

    (Vulgate, text), the opening words of Isaiah 45:8 . The text is used frequently both at Mass and ...

    Rosa, Salvatore

    (Also spelled SALVATOR; otherwise known as RENNELLA, or ARENELLA, from the place of his birth). ...

    Rosalia, Saint

    Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she in patroness. ...

    Rosary, Breviary Hymns of the

    The proper office granted by Leo XIII (5 August, 1888) to the feast contains four hymns ...

    Rosary, Confraternity of the

    In accordance with the conclusion of the article ROSARY no sufficient evidence is forthcoming to ...

    Rosary, Feast of the Holy

    Apart from the signal defeat of the Albigensian heretics at the battle of Muret in 1213 which ...

    Rosary, Seraphic

    ( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...

    Rosary, The

    Please see our How to Recite the Holy Rosary sheet in PDF format, and feel free to copy and ...

    Rosate, Alberico de

    (Or ROSCIATE). Jurist, date of birth unknown; died in 1354. He was bom in the village of ...

    Roscelin

    Roscelin, a monk of Compiègne, was teaching as early as 1087. He had contact with ...

    Roscommon

    Capital of County Roscommon, Ireland ; owes origin and name to a monastery founded by St. Coman ...

    Rose of Lima, Saint

    Virgin, patroness of America, born at Lima, Peru 20 April, 1586; died there 30 August, 1617. ...

    Rose of Viterbo, Saint

    Virgin, born at Viterbo, 1235; died 6 March, 1252. The chronology of her life must always remain ...

    Rose Window

    A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...

    Rosea

    A titular see. The official catalogue of the Roman Curia mentioned formerly a titular see of ...

    Roseau

    (ROSENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I. The different islands of ...

    Rosecrans, William Starke

    William Born at Kingston, Ohio, U.S.A. 6 Sept., 1819; died near Redondo California, 11 March, ...

    Roseline, Saint

    (Rossolina.) Born at Château of Arcs in eastern Provence, 1263; d. 17 January, 1329. ...

    Rosenau

    ( Hungarian ROZSNYÓ; Latin ROSNAVIENSIS). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, ...

    Rosh Hashanah

    The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

    Rosicrucians

    The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic- theosophic "Rosicrucian ...

    Roskilde, Ancient See of, in Denmark

    (ROSCHILDIA, ROSKILDENSIS.) Suffragan to Hamburg, about 991-1104, to Lund, 1104-1536. The ...

    Roskoványi, August

    Bishop of Neutra in Hungary, doctor of philosophy and theology, b. at Szenna in the County ...

    Rosmini and Rosminianism

    Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, ...

    Rosminians

    The Institute of Charity, or, officially, Societas a charitate nuncupata , is a religious ...

    Ross

    (ROSSENSIS). Diocese in Ireland. This see was founded by St. Fachtna, and the place-name ...

    Ross, School of

    The School of Ross &151; now called Ross-Carbery, but formerly Ross-Ailithir from the large ...

    Rossano

    (ROSSANENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, province of Cosenza, Southern Italy. The city is ...

    Rosselino, Antonio di Matteo di Domenico

    The youngest of five brothers, sculptors and stone cutters, family name Gamberelli (1427-78). He ...

    Rosselino, Bernardo

    (Properly BERNARDO DI MATTEO GAMBARELLI.) B. at Florence, 1409; d. 1464. Rosselino occupies ...

    Rosselli, Cosimo

    (LORENZO DI FILIPPO). Italian fresco painter, b. at Florence, 1439; d. there in 1507. The ...

    Rossi, Bernardo de

    (DE RUBEIS, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO BERNARDO MARIA). Theologian and historian; b. at Cividale del ...

    Rossi, Giovanni Battista de

    A distinguished Christian archaeologist , best known for his work in connection with the Roman ...

    Rossi, Pellegrino

    Publicist, diplomat, economist, and statesman, b. at Carrara, Italy, 13 July, 1787; assassinated ...

    Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio

    Born 29 February, 1792, at Pesaro in the Romagna; died 13 November, 1868, at Passy, near Paris. ...

    Rostock, Sebastian von

    Bishop of Breslau, b. at Grottkau, Silesia, 24 Aug. 1607; d. at Breslau, 9 June, 1671. He ...

    Rostock, University of

    Located in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, founded in the year 1419 through the united efforts of Dukes John ...

    Roswitha

    A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

    Rota, Sacra Romana

    In the Constitution "Sapienti Consilio" (29 June, 1908), II, 2, Pins X re-established the Sacra ...

    Roth, Heinrich

    Missionary in India and Sanskrit scholar, b. of illustrious parentage at Augsburg, 18 December, ...

    Rothe, David

    Bishop of Ossory ( Ireland ), b. at Kilkenny in 1573, of a distinguished family ; d. 20 ...

    Rottenburg

    (ROTTENBURGENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of the ecclesiastical Province of the Upper Rhine. It ...

    Rotuli

    Rotuli, i.e. rolls — in which a long narrow strip of papyrus or parchment, written on one ...

    Rouen, Archdiocese of

    (ROTHOMAGENSIS) Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and ...

    Rouen, Synods of

    The first synod is generally believed to have been held by Archbishop Saint-Ouen about 650. ...

    Rouquette, Adrien

    Born in Louisiana in 1813, of French parentage; died as a missionary among the Choctaw Indians ...

    Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste

    French poet, b. in Paris, 16 April 1670; d. at La Genette, near Brussels, 17 May, 1741. ...

    Rovezzano, Benedetto da

    Sculptor and architect, b. in 1490, either at Rovezzano, near Florence, or, according to some ...

    Rowsham, Stephen

    A native of Oxfordshire, entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1572. He took orders in the English ...

    Royal Declaration, The

    This is the name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in ...

    Royer-Collard, Pierre-Paul

    Philosopher and French politician, b. at Sompuis (Marne), 21 June, 1763; d. at ...

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    Ru 42

    Ruadhan, Saint

    One of the twelve "Apostles of Erin" ; died at the monastery of Lorrha, County Tipperary, ...

    Ruben

    (REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...

    Rubens, Peter Paul

    Eminent Flemish painter, b. at Siegen, Westphalia, 28 June, 1577; d. at Antwerp, 30 May, 1640. ...

    Rubrics

    I. IDEA Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica , ...

    Rubruck, William

    (Also called William of Rubruck and less correctly Ruysbrock, Ruysbroek, and Rubruquis), ...

    Rudolf of Fulda

    Chronicler, d. at Fulda, 8 March, 862. In the monastery of Fulda Rudolf entered the ...

    Rudolf of Habsburg

    German king, b. 1 May 1218; d. at Speyer, 15 July, 1291. He was the son of Albert IV, the founder ...

    Rudolf of Rüdesheim

    Bishop of Breslau, b. at Rüdesheim on the Rhine, about 1402; d. at Breslau in Jan., 1482. ...

    Rudolf von Ems

    [Hohenems in Austria ]. A Middle High German epic poet of the thirteenth century. Almost ...

    Rueckers, Family of

    Famous organ and piano-forte builders of Antwerp. Hans Rueckers, the founder, lived in ...

    Ruffini, Paolo

    Physician and mathematician, b. at Valentano in the Duchy of Castro, 3 Sept., 1765; d. at Modena, ...

    Rufford Abbey

    A monastery of the Cistercian Order, situated on the left bank of the Rainworth Water, about ...

    Rufina, Saints

    The present Roman Martyrology records saints of this name on the following days: (1) On ...

    Rufinus, Saint

    The present Roman Martyrology records eleven saints named Rufinus: (1) On 28 February, a ...

    Rufus, Saint

    The present Roman Martyrology records ten saints of this name. Historical mention is made of ...

    Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, Juan de

    Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Mexico City, about 1580; d. at Madrid, 4 August, 1639. He received ...

    Ruiz de Montoya, Antonio

    One of the most distinguished pioneers of the original Jesuit mission in Paraguay, and a ...

    Ruiz de Montoya, Diego

    Theologian, b. at Seville, 1562; d. there 15 March, 1632. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

    Rule of Faith, The

    The word rule ( Latin regula , Gr. kanon ) means a standard by which something can be ...

    Rule of St. Augustine

    The title, Rule of Saint Augustine , has been applied to each of the following documents: ...

    Rule of St. Benedict

    This work holds the first place among monastic legislative codes, and was by far the most ...

    Rumania

    A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian ...

    Rumohr, Karl Friedrich

    Art historian, b. at Dresden, 1785; d. there, 1843. He became a Catholic in 1804. He was ...

    Rupe, Alanus de

    ( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

    Rupert, Saint

    (Alternative forms, Ruprecht, Hrodperht, Hrodpreht, Roudbertus, Rudbertus, Robert, Ruprecht). ...

    Rusaddir

    A titular see of Mauritania Tingitana. Rusaddir is a Phoenician settlement whose name ...

    Rusicade

    A titular see of Numidia. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (IV, 3), Mela (I, 33), Pliny (V, 22), ...

    Ruspe

    Titular see of Byzacena in Africa, mentioned only by Ptolemy (IV, 3) and the "Tabula" of ...

    Russell, Charles

    (BARON RUSSELL OF KILLOWEN). Born at Newry, Ireland, 10 November, 1832; died in London, 10 ...

    Russell, Charles William

    Born at Killough, Co. Down, 14 May, 1812; died at Dublin 26 Feb., 1880. He was descended from the ...

    Russell, Richard

    Bishop of Vizéu in Portugal, b. in Berkshire, 1630; d. at Vizéu, 15 Nov., 1693. He ...

    Russia

    GEOGRAPHY Russia ( Rossiiskaia Imperiia; Russkoe Gosudarstvo ) comprises the greater part of ...

    Russia, The Religion of

    A. The Origin of Russian Christianity There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity ...

    Russian Language and Literature

    The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE; ANCIENT POPULAR ...

    Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint

    Born either at Marseilles or at Narbonnaise, Gaul; died 26 Oct., 461. According to biographers, ...

    Ruth, Book of

    One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, which derives its name from the heroine ...

    Ruthenian Rite

    There is, properly speaking, no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but inasmuch as ...

    Ruthenians

    (Ruthenian and Russian: Rusin , plural Rusini ) A Slavic people from Southern Russia, ...

    Rutter, Henry

    ( vere BANISTER) Born 26 Feb., 1755; died 17 September, 1838, near Dodding Green, ...

    Ruvo and Bitonto

    (RUBENSIS ET BITUNTINENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Bari, Aquileia, Southern Italy. Ruvo, ...

    Ruysbroeck, Blessed John

    Surnamed the Admirable Doctor, and the Divine Doctor, undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish ...

    Ruysch, John

    Astronomer, cartographer, and painter, born at Utrecht about 1460; died at Cologne, 1533. Little ...

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    Ry 4

    Ryan, Father Abram J.

    The poet-priest of the South, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 15 August, 1839; died at Louisville, ...

    Ryan, Patrick John

    Sixth Bishop and second Archbishop of Philadelphia, b. At Thurles, County Tipperary, ...

    Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley

    English Oratorian priest and controversialist, b. 3 Jan., 1837; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 7 ...

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