( zucca , head).
The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic. The official name is pileolus; other designations are: berettino, calotte, subbiretum (because worn under the biretta ), submitrale (because worn under the mitre ), soli-deo. The pope's zucchetto is white, that of the cardinals red, even when the cardinal is a member of an order. Cardinals who had been secular priests received the red zucchetto and also the red biretta in 1464 from Paul II ; the cardinals taken from the regulars were granted both in 1591. If the newly-appointed cardinal is at Rome he receives the zucchetto from the Sotto-guardaroba as he leaves the throne room where he has received the mozetta, and biretta from the pope ; otherwise the zucchetto is brought to him, along with the decree of appointment, by one of the pope's Noble Guard. The pileolus of the bishops is violet, that of other ecclesiastics, including the prelates, unless a special privilege to wear violet is granted, black. Bishops and cardinals wear it at Mass, except during the Canon; other ecclesiastics may not wear it at Mass without special papal permission. However, according to a decision of the Sacred Congregation of Rites (23 September, 1837), a bishop also may not wear it while giving Benediction.
It cannot be said positively when the zucchetto became customary, but it was probably not before the thirteenth century. It appears on the cardinals in the fresco, "St. Francis before Honorius III ", painted about 1290 in the upper church of St. Francis at Assisi. It is seen also under the tiara in the effigy on the tomb of Clement VI (d. 1352) at La Chaise-Dieu. The figures on the several tombs of bishops of the fifteenth century in the Roman churches show the zucchetto under the mitre. In the "Ordo" of Jacobus Gajetanus (about 1311) the zucchetto is mentioned in connection with the hat of the cardinals (cap. cxviii), and with the mitre in the "Ordo" of Petrus Amelii (cap. cxliv.), which appeared about 1400. It is shown in the pictures and sculpture of the late Middle Ages sometimes as a round skullcap, sometimes as a cap that covers the back of the head and the ears. In this shape it was called camauro ; this designation was given especially to the red velvet cap of this kind bordered with ermin that was peculiar to the pope. There was great confusion as to the proper use of the zucchetto and hence the Sacred Congregation of Rites has delivered several decisions on the Subject ("Decr. auth. Congr. SS. Rit.", V, Rome 1901, 382).
More Catholic Encyclopedia
Browse Encyclopedia by Alphabet
The Catholic Encyclopedia is the most comprehensive resource on Catholic teaching, history, and information ever gathered in all of human history. This easy-to-search online version was originally printed in fifteen hardcopy volumes.
Designed to present its readers with the full body of Catholic teaching, the Encyclopedia contains not only precise statements of what the Church has defined, but also an impartial record of different views of acknowledged authority on all disputed questions, national, political or factional. In the determination of the truth the most recent and acknowledged scientific methods are employed, and the results of the latest research in theology, philosophy, history, apologetics, archaeology, and other sciences are given careful consideration.
No one who is interested in human history, past and present, can ignore the Catholic Church, either as an institution which has been the central figure in the civilized world for nearly two thousand years, decisively affecting its destinies, religious, literary, scientific, social and political, or as an existing power whose influence and activity extend to every part of the globe. In the past century the Church has grown both extensively and intensively among English-speaking peoples. Their living interests demand that they should have the means of informing themselves about this vast institution, which, whether they are Catholics or not, affects their fortunes and their destiny.
Browse the Catholic Encyclopedia by Topic
Copyright © Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company New York, NY. Volume 1: 1907; Volume 2: 1907; Volume 3: 1908; Volume 4: 1908; Volume 5: 1909; Volume 6: 1909; Volume 7: 1910; Volume 8: 1910; Volume 9: 1910; Volume 10: 1911; Volume 11: - 1911; Volume 12: - 1911; Volume 13: - 1912; Volume 14: 1912; Volume 15: 1912
Catholic Online Catholic Encyclopedia Digital version Compiled and Copyright © Catholic Online