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University of Notre Dame

(Full name is the University of Notre Dame du Lac ).

Notre Dame is located in Northern Indiana near the boundary lines of Michigan and Illinois. It is owned and directed by the Congregation of Holy Cross, whose motherhouse in the United States is located at Notre Dame, the name by which the university is most commonly known. Notre Dame was founded in 1842 by the Very Reverend Edward Sorin, C.S.C. , late superior-general of his congregation, who came from France at the invitation of the Right Reverend Celestine A. L. Guynemer de La Hailandière, D.D., Bishop of Vincennes. Nearly two years passed before the first building was erected and a faculty organized. In 1844 the university received a charter from the State. By special act of the Legislature of Indiana, it was given legal existence and empowered to grant degrees in the liberal arts and sciences and in law and medicine. Though no medical faculty has heen formed, all the other departments mentioned in the charter have been established, and collegiate and university degrees granted in each. At the outset only collegiate instruction was given in the studies then regarded as best furnishing a liberal education. The first faculty organized was that of the college of arts and letters, and chairs of philosophy, history, mathematics, and ancient and modern languages were established. But the educational conditions in the country near the university were primitive, and few students were ready to take up college work. Accordingly, there was soon founded a preparatory school at Notre Dame in which instruction was given, not only in subjects immediately preparing for college, but also in the rudiments. Soon after the college courses began, the needs of the North-West demanded a school for those preparing for the priesthood. The founder accordingly provided a faculty in theology, and six years after the State charter was granted, one-fifth of the students were pursuing theological studies. But as intercommunication between the more settled parts of the United States increased with more easy modes of travel, the theological faculty was maintained only for members of the Congregation of Holy Cross. To-day the university consists of five colleges, each with several departinents -- arts and letters, engineering, science, architecture, and law. At the head of each college is a dean. The faculties of the five colleges are directed by the president of the university, who governs in matters purely academic. All other affairs are administered by a board of trustees.

Though young as a university, Notre Dame has had distinct influence on movements of the Church in the Middle West from its foundation. Founded at a period when the need of missionaries was pressing and located in a centre of missionary activity, its aid in the spread of Catholicism in the North-West was strong. The work of the early French missionaries was continued by the religious at Notre Dame, who served both as professors and evangelists. They supplied, too, a Catholic literature by their doctrinal and scientific writings and by works of fiction. A university press was early established, from which has been issued weekly a literary and religious magazine, the "Ave Maria", contributed to by the best writers of Europe and America. By attracting, too, every year a large number of non-Catholic students, the university has greatly lessened antagonism to the Church and has quickened religious feeling among the indifferent. Moreover, in laws passed by the State Legislature affecting the Church, and especially in legislation regarding education, the university is usually consulted, and any protest from it is respectfully heeded. In these matters Notre Dame has merited consideration by the State not only by her position as a leading university, but also by a remarkable display of patriotism in the Civil War. At the first call for arms seven of her priests, who were acting as professors, were sent by Father Sorin to act as chaplains ; and this at a time when the university could ill spare any of her faculty.

The progress of the university has been due largely to its presidents, who have been, in all cases, men of scholarly attainments and executive capabilities. Excepting the founder, who was the first president, each had served as professor at Notre Dame before being called to direct its affairs. In all there have been eight presidents -- the Very Reverend Edward Sorin, the founder; Rev. Patrick Dillon, William Corby, Augustus Lemmonier, Patrick Colovin, Thomas Walsh, Andrew Morrissey, aod John Cavanaugh, all members of the Congregation of Holy Cross. Among other professors who, by their writings and researches, have contributed to the sciences which they taught and have added lustre to Notre Dame, are Rev. J. A. Zahm, C.S.C., author of scientific works and pro fessor of physics ; Rev. Alex. Kirsch, C.S.C., professor of zoology; Rev. Jos. Carrier, C.S.C., professor of botany, William Hoynes and Timothy E. Howard, professors of law ; Michael E. Shawe, Gardner Jones, Rev. N. H. Gillespie, C.S.C. , Rev. Daniel Hudson, C.S.C., Charles Warren Stoddard, and Maurice Francis Egan, professors of English literature ; James Farnham Edwards, librarian; Arthur J. Stace and Martin J. McCue, professors of engineering; Rev. John B. Scheier, C.S.C., professor of Latin; Rev. Louis Cointet, C.S.C., professor of philosophy.

Excepting the land on which it is built, donated by Bishop Hailandière, and a few lesser donations in money, Notre Dame has developed into a great university without financial aid. It opened as a college in September, 1843, in a modest brick structure created to serve temporarily until a larger building was completed in 1844. This was enlarged in 1853. Father Sorin was president continuously until 1865. The enrolment of students for many years was small, numbering sixty-nine in 1850, coming from four states in the Middle West and from New York and Pennsylvania. By 1861 the number bad advanced to two hundred, and in that year the faculty of the college of science was organized. In 1865 the enlarged central building of 1853 gave way to a more pretentious structure; the corps of professors was augmented to forty; the university press was established; the main library was added to, and the equipment of the college of science enlarged. The college of law was formed in 1869, and the college of engineering in 1872. A fire in April, 1879, wiped out the labours of forty years, consuming all the university buildings except the church and the university theatre. Plans were at once made for rebuilding, and the present Notre Dame begun. In September, 1879, the administration building, a large structure, planned to form the centre of a group, was completed and classes resumed. A departure from the old system of student life was made in 1887 when the first residence hall containing private rooms was erected. Before that time the common-room system, modelled on college life in Europe, prevailed. In 1900 the college of architecture was established.

The growth of the University has been steady. At present (in 1911) over one thousand students are registered, from North and South America and from nearly all the countries of Europe. All the students live on the university grounds. The faculties are made up of eighty-five professors, including many laymen. Twenty buildings are devoted to university purposes, and these with their equipment and apparatus are valued at $2,8000,000. The land belonging to Notre Dame is valued at $400,000. In the main library are sixty-five thousand volumes, while libraries in various departments have about ten thousand volumes.

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Ub 8

Ubaghs, Casimir

Born at Bergélez-Fauquemont, 26 November, 1800; died at Louvain, 15 February, 1875, was for ...

Ubaldus, Saint

Confessor, Bishop of Gubbio, born of noble parents at Gubbio, Umbria, Italy, towards the ...

Ubanghi

(UPPER FRENCH CONGO.) Vicariate Apostolic ; formerly part of the Vicariate of French Congo, ...

Ubanghi, Belgian

In Belgian Congo, separated on 7 April, 1911, from the Vicariate of the Belgian Congo and ...

Ubanghi-Chari

Prefecture Apostolic in Equatorial Africa, lies west of the Bahr-el-Ghazal territory and south ...

Uberaba

(DE UBERABA.) Suffragan diocese of Marianna, in Brazil, created by the Consistorial ...

Ubertino of Casale

Leader of the Spirituals, born at Casale of Vercelli, 1259; died about 1330. He assumed the ...

Ubiquitarians

Also called Ubiquists , a Protestant sect started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 ...

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Uc 2

Ucayali

(SAN FRANCISCO DE UCAYALI.) Prefecture Apostolic in Peru. At the request of the Peruvian ...

Uccello

Painter, born at Florence, 1397; died there, 1475. His real name was Paolo di Dono, but from his ...

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Ud 1

Udine

(UTINENSIS) The city of Udine, the capital of a province and archdiocese in Friuli, northern ...

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Ug 2

Ugento

(UXENTIN) The city of Ugento, with its small harbour, is situated in the Province of Leece, in ...

Ughelli, Ferdinando

Historian, born at Florence, 21 March, 1595; died 19 May, 1670. Having entered the Cistercian ...

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Uh 1

Uhtred

(Also spelled: Uhtred or Owtred ), an English Benedictine theologian and writer, born at ...

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Uj 1

Ujejski, Cornelius

Polish poet, born at Beremiany, Galicia, 1823; died at Cholojewie, 1897. His father was a ...

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Ulenberg, Kaspar

Convert, theological writer and translator of the Bible , born at Lippstadt on the Lippe, ...

Ulfilas

(Also: Ulphilas ), apostle of the Goths, missionary, translator of the Bible , and inventor ...

Ullathorne, William Bernard

English Benedictine monk and bishop, b. at Pocklington, Yorkshire, 7 May, 1806; d. at Oscott, ...

Ullerston, Richard

Born in the Duchy of Lancaster, England ; d. in August or September, 1423. Having been ordained ...

Ulloa, Antoine de

Naval officer and scientist, born at Seville, Spain, 12 Jan., 1716; died near Cadiz, Spain, 5 ...

Ulloa, Francisco de

Died 1540. It is not known when he came to Mexico nor if he accompanied Hernan Cortés in ...

Ulrich of Bamberg

(Udalricus Babenbergensis), a cleric of the cathedral church of Bamberg, of whom nothing more ...

Ulrich of Richenthal

Chronicler of the Council of Constance , date of birth unknown; died about 1438. Ulrich was ...

Ulrich of Zell

(Wulderic; called also of Cluny, and of Ratisbon ), born at Ratisbon, at the beginning of 1029; ...

Ulrich, Saint

Bishop of Augsburg, born at Kyburg, Zurich, Switzerland, in 890; died at Augsburg, 4 July, ...

Ultan of Ardbracca

St. Ultan of Ardbraccan, Ireland, was the maternal uncle of St. Brigid, and collected a life of ...

Ultramontanism

A term used to denote integral and active Catholicism, because it recognizes as its spiritual ...

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Un 22

Unam Sanctam

(Latin the One Holy , i.e. Church ), the Bull on papal supremacy issued 18 November, 1302, ...

Unclean and Clean

The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral, cleanness and uncleanness ...

Unction, Extreme

A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...

Ungava

A Canadian territory lying north of the Province of Quebec, detached (1876) from the Great ...

Uniformity Acts

These statutes, passed at different times, were vain efforts to secure uniformity in public ...

Unigenitus

A celebrated Apostolic Constitution of Clement XI, condemning 101 propositions of Pasquier ...

Union of Brest

Brest -- in Russian, Brest-Litovski; in Polish, Brzesc; in the old chronicles, called Brestii, or ...

Union of Christendom

The Catholic Church is by far the largest, the most widespread, and the most ancient of ...

Unions of Prayer

A tendency to form unions of prayer among the faithful has recently manifested itself in the ...

Unitarians

A Liberal Protestant sect which holds as it distinctive tenet the belief in a uni-personal ...

Unitas Fratrum

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...

United States of America, The

BOUNDARIES AND AREA On the east the boundary is formed by the St. Croix River and an arbitrary ...

Unitive Way

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

Unity

The marks of the Church are certain unmistakeable signs, or distinctive characteristics which ...

Universalists

A Liberal Protestant sect -- found chiefly in North America -- whose distinctive tenet is the ...

Universals

The name refers on the one hand to the inclination towards uniformity ( uni-versus ) existing in ...

Universe

Universe (or "world") is here taken in the astronomical sense, in its narrower or wider ...

Universe, Relation of God to the

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...

Universities

The principal Catholic foundations have been treated in special articles; here the general ...

University College (Dublin)

A constitutional college of the National University of Ireland. By its charter, granted 2 Dec., ...

Unjust Aggressor

According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, ...

Unyanyembe

Vicariate apostolic in German East Africa, separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Nyanza ...

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Upper Nile

Vicariate apostolic ; separated from the mission of Nyanza, 6 July, 1894, comprises the eastern ...

Upper Rhine

Ecclesiastical province; includes the Archdiocese of Freiburg and the suffragan Dioceses of ...

Upsala, Ancient See of

When St. Ansgar, the Apostle of the North, went to Sweden in 829 the Swedes were still heathen ...

Upsala, University of

The oldest and most celebrated university of Sweden. Even today the arrangement of its ...

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Ur 26

Uranopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ancyra in Galatia Prima. It is vainly sought in any ...

Urban I, Pope Saint

Reigned 222-30, date of birth unknown; died 23 May, 230. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," ...

Urban II, Pope Blessed

(Otho, Otto or Odo of Lagery), 1088-1099, born of a knightly family, at Châtillon-sur-Marne ...

Urban III, Pope

Reigned 1185-87, born at Milan ; died at Ferrara, 19 October, 1187. Uberto, of the noble ...

Urban IV, Pope

Reigned 1261-64 (Jacques Pantaléon), son of a French cobbler, born at Troyes, probably in ...

Urban V, Pope Blessed

Guillaume de Grimoard, born at Grisac in Languedoc, 1310; died at Avignon, 19 December, 1370. ...

Urban VI, Pope

Bartolomeo Prignano, the first Roman pope during the Western Schism, born at Naples, about ...

Urban VII, Pope

Giambattista Castagna, born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1521; elected pope, 15 September, 1590; died at ...

Urban VIII, Pope

Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence in April, 1568; elected pope, 6 August, 1623; died at Rome, 29 ...

Urbi et Orbi

The term Urbi et Orbi (which means "for the city and for the world") signifies that a papal ...

Urbino

(URBINATENSIS) Province of Pesaro and Urbino, Italy. The city of Urbino is situated on a ...

Urbs beata Jerusalem dicta pacis visio

The first line of a hymn of probably the seventh or eighth century, comprising eight stanzas ...

Urdaneta, Andrés

Augustinian, born at Villafranca, Guipúzcoa, Spain, 1498; died in the City of Mexico, ...

Urgel

(U RGELLENSIS ). Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; bounded on the N. by France ...

Urim and Thummim

The sacred lot by means of which the ancient Hebrews were wont to seek manifestations of the ...

Urmiah

A residential see in Chaldea, in the Province of Adherbaidjan, Persia. The primitive name of this ...

Urráburu, Juan José

Scholastic philosopher, born at Ceanuri, Biscay, 23 May, 1844; died at Burgos, 13 August, 1904. ...

Ursperger Chronicle

A history of the world in Latin that begins with the Assyrian King Ninius and extends to the year ...

Ursula of the Blessed Virgin, Society of the Sisters of Saint

Religious congregation of women founded in 1606 at Döle (then a Spanish possession), ...

Ursula, Saint, and the Eleven Thousand Virgins

The history of these celebrated virgins of Cologne rests on ten lines, and these are open to ...

Ursulines of Quebec, The

The Ursuline monastery of Quebec is the oldest institution of learning for women in North ...

Ursulines, The

A religious order founded by St. Angela de Merici for the sole purpose of educating young ...

Ursus, Saint

Patron of the principal church of Solothurn (Soleure) in Switzerland, honoured from very early ...

Urubamba

(MISIONES DE SANTO DOMINGO DE URUBAMBA Y MADRE DE DIOS) This prefecture apostolic was created ...

Uruguay

(REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY). The smallest independent state in South America, extending ...

Uruguayana

(URUGUAYANESIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Porto Alegre, Brazil. By a Decree dated 15 August, ...

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Us 4

Ushaw College

(College of St. Cuthbert) A combined college and seminary for the six dioceses that were ...

Usilla

A titular see of Byzacena in Africa. Nothing is known of the history of this city; it is ...

Usuard, Martyrology of

Usuard was a Benedictine monk of the Abbey of St-Germain-des-Prxs, Paris. He seems to have ...

Usury

In the article INTEREST we have reserved the question of the lawfulness of taking interest on ...

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Ut 8

Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris

The first line of a hymn in honour of St. John the Baptist. The Roman Breviary divides it ...

Utah

Utah, the thirty-second state admitted to the Union, takes its name from an Indian tribe known ...

Uthina

A titular see of Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Uthina is mentioned by Ptolemy ...

Utica

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis. The city was founded by Tyrian colonists at the mouth ...

Utilitarianism

( Latin utilis , useful). Utilitarianism is a modern form of the Hedonistic ethical theory ...

Utopia

(Greek ou no or not, and topos place), a term used to designate a visionary or an ideally ...

Utraquism

The principal dogma, and one of the four articles, of the Calixtines or Hussites . It was first ...

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