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The diocese included the provinces (amter) of Aarhus and Randers, the islands of Samso and Tuno, and, after 1396, part of the province of Viborg. Frode, King of Jutland, built the church of the Holy Trinity at Aarhus about 900. In 948 Archbishop Adaldag of Hamburg consecrated Reginbrand as missionary Bishop of Aarhus. After the latter's death in 988 all Jutland was united in one diocese, with Ribe or Viborg as its centre. It was redivided in 1060, and one Christian was ordained Bishop of Aarhus by Adalbert I, Archbishop of Hamburg. Another bishop, Ulfketil (1102-34) planned the town of Aarhus. The warlike Svend Udsson (1166-91) founded the Cistercian abbey at Om. His successor, Peter Vagnsen, began in 1201 the Cathedral of St. Clement. Near it lay the wooden church built by Bishop Ulfketil in 1102 to contain the relics of St. Clement. About 1150 the Venerable Niels, Prince of Denmark, died and was buried in St. Clement's churchyard. The offerings at his tomb facilitated the commencement of the new stone cathedral. This was finished about 1263, but in 1330 the greater part of it was burnt down. Peter Jensen Lodeliat (1386-95) and Bo Magnussen (1395-1423) were the prelates mainly concerned in the erection of the fine building extant today. The last Catholic bishop, Ove Bilde (imprisoned 1536), and Paulus Heliae, prior of the Carmelite monastery at Elsinore, attempted in vain to stay the progress of the Reformation at Aarhus. There were in the diocese : a chapter with 34 prebendaries at Aarhus cathedral ; Benedictines at Essenbeck, Voer, Alling, and Veirlov; Augustinian Canons at Tvilum, Cistercians at Om, who survived till 1560; and Carthusians at Aarhus. There were also Franciscans at Horsens and Randers, Dominicans at Aarhus, Horsens, and Randers, Carmelites and a hospital of the Holy Spirit at Aarhus. There were Hospitallers of St. John till 1568 at Horsens. Lastly there were Brigittines at Mariager from 1412 to 1592.

At Aarhus there is now a Jesuits' college with a fine church, as well as a large hospital in charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Chambery, who also have hospitals at Horsens and Randers, which last two towns also contain Catholic churches.

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