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Trope

Definition and Description

Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name which, since about the close of the Middle Ages or a little later, has been applied to texts of great variety (in both poetry and prose) written for the purpose of amplifying and embellishing an independently complete liturgical text (e.g. the Introit, the Kyrie, Gloria, Gradual, or other parts of the Mass or of the Office sung by the choir). These additions are closely attached to the official liturgical text, but in no way do they change the essential character of it; they are entwined in it, augmenting and elucidating it; they are, as it were, a more or less poetical commentary that is woven into the liturgical text, forming with it a complete unit. Thus in France and England, instead of the liturgical text "Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth" the lines sung were:

  • Sanctus ex quo sunt omnia;
  • Sanctus , per quem sunt omnia;
  • Sanctus , in quo sunt omnia; Dominus Deus Sabaoth , tibi gloria sit in saecula.
  • The most accurate definition, applicable to all the different kinds of Tropes, might be the following: A Trope is an interpolation in a liturgical text, or the embellishment brought about by interpolation (i.e. by introductions, insertions, or additions). Herein lies the difference between the Trope and the closely-related Sequence or Prose. The Sequence also is an embellishment of the liturgy, an insertion between liturgical chants (the Gradual and the Gospel), originating about the eighth century; the Sequence is thus an interpolation in the liturgy, but it is not an interpolation in a liturgical text. The Sequence is an independent unit, complete in itself; the Trope, however, forms a unit only in connection with a liturgical text, and when separated from the latter is often devoid of any meaning. Accordingly the several Tropes are named after that liturgical text to which they belong, viz. Trope of the Kyrie, Trope of the Gloria, Trope of the Agnus Dei, etc.

    Originally there existed no uniform name for that which is now combined under the idea and name of Tropus . Only the interpolations of the Introit, the Offertory, and the Communion were called Tropi (trophi, tropos, trophos) , and even that not exclusively but only predominantly; for the Introit Trope was frequently called "Versus in psalmis", the Offertory Trope also "Prosa [or prosula] ad [or ante] Offerenda". To all the other interpolations a great variety of names was applied, as "Prosae de Kyrieleison", or "Versus ad Kyrieleison", = Kyrie Tropes; "Laudes" ( Lauda, laus ), "Gloria cum laudes", "Laudes cum tropis", or simply "Ad Gloria", = Gloria Tropes; "Laudes ad Sanctus ", "Versus super Sanctus ", = Sanctus Tropes; "Laudes de Agnus Dei ", "Prosa ad Agnus Dei ", = Agnus Tropes; "Epistola cum Versibus", "Versus super epistolam", = Epistle Trope ( Epître farcie ); "Verba", or "Verbeta", or "Prosella", = Breviary Trope. How and when the general name of Tropus sprang up, has not yet been exactly ascertained. And just as little has the priority been established of the different kinds of interpolations, whether that in the Introit is the oldest, or that in the Gloria, or the Kyrie, or in any other part of the Mass; for that very reason it is not known yet which of the various designations (Versus, Prosae, Tropi, or Laudes) is the oldest and most original.

    One thing is certain: the Latin Tropus is a word borrowed from the Greek tropos . The latter was a musical term, and denoted a melody ( tropos lydios, phrygios = Lydian, Phrygian, Doric melody), or in general a musical change, like the Latin modus or modulus , similar to the international "modulation". It is quite conceivable that the name of the melody was transferred to the text which had been composed to it, as is the case with the word Sequentia . In reasoning thus, one would have to presuppose that over one syllable of a liturgical text, e.g. over the e of the Kyrie, a longer melisma was sung, which bore the name of tropus ; furthermore, that to such a melisma a text was composed later on, and that this text was also called "Tropus". And it is an actual fact that from early times such melismata existed over a vowel of the Kyrie, the Gloria, the Sanctus, etc.; likewise there were many texts which were produced for these melismata, consequently they were interpolations. But the date when these melismata of the Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, etc., were first called "Tropi" is still a matter of research; what we know is that the texts under that kind of melisma which has just been described were not called "Tropi" from the earliest times. On the contrary, by the name of "Tropi" were originally designated the interpolations of precisely those parts of the Mass which do not exhibit any long melismata, as the Introit and Offertory. To give an example, an interpolation of the Christmas Introit written in prose, reads: Ecce, adest de quo prophetae cecinerunt dicentes;

    Puer natus est nobis ,

    Quem virgo Maria genuit,

    Et filius datus est nobis , etc.

    The first introductory phrase of this and similar interpolations, particularly when it comprises an entire stanza, as, e.g.,

    Laudemus omnes Dominum,
    Qui virginis per uterum
    Parvus in mundum venerat
    Mundum regens, quem fecerat,
    Puer natus est nobis , etc.

    cannot possibly be considered as text to an already existing melisma which was called "Tropus", and which then gave its name to the text that was put to it. And yet, just such interpolations of the Introit and the Offertory were called "Tropi". In this article it must suffice to allude to these difficulties, on the solution of which will depend the theory of the origin and the early development of the "Tropi". As yet no definite theory can be advanced, although several writers on liturgy, music, and hymnology have been so confident as to make assertions for which there is absolutely no ground.

    Division

    On the basis of the two choir books for the Mass and the Breviary, namely the Gradual and the Antiphonal, Tropes are divided into two large classes: "Tropi Graduales" and "Tropi Antiphonales," i.e. Tropes of such parts of the Mass and of the Breviary as are chanted. The latter are of slightly later date, are chiefly limited to interpolations of the Responsory after the Lessons, and are almost exclusively insertions into one of the concluding words of such Responsory. Their entire structure resembles so much the structure of the Sequences of the first epoch, upon which they were undoubtedly modelled, that later on they were often used as independent Sequences. Such is the case with the oldest Breviary Trope of the Blessed Virgin, which is built upon the penultimate word, inviolata , of the Responsory of the Assumption: "Gaude Maria virgo . . . et post partum inviolata permansisti." The syllable la of inviolata was the bearer of a long melisma; to this melisma towards the close of the tenth century in France the following text was composed:

    1a. Invio-lata integra et casta es, Maria, 1b. Quae es effecta fulgida regis porta. 2a. O mater alma Christi carissima, 2b. Suscipe pia laudum precamina 3a. Nostra ut pura pectora sint et corpora. 3b. Quae nunc flagitant devota corda et ora, 4a. Tu da per precata dulcisona, 4b. Nobis perpetua frui vita, 5. O benigna, quae sola inviolata permansisti .

    Of a similar structure are all the Breviary Tropes or "Verbeta", and they are dovetailed, as shown above, more or less ingeniously, between the penultimate and last word of their Responsory.

    The "Tropi Graduales" in their turn are divided into two classes, namely into "Tropi ad Ordinarium Missae" or to the unchangeable text of the Mass, i.e. to the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, and Ite missa est, and into "Tropi ad Proprium Missarum" or to those parts of the text which change according to the respective feast, i.e. to the Introit, Lesson, Gradual, Offertory, and Communion. This latter class frequently differs from the former also in the external structure of its Tropes; and at first it was the most widespread; it might perhaps even claim to be the oldest and most original; but it disappeared at a relatively early date, whereas the "Tropi ad Ordinarium Missae" still kept their place in liturgy for a considerable time.

    History and Significance

    The origin of the Tropes, that is to say of the Gradual Tropes (since the Antiphonal Tropes are evidently of a later date ), must almost coincide with that of the Proses or Sequences which are most closely related to them; this would mean that their history begins somewhere in the eighth century. Whether the Trope or the Sequence was the older form is all the more difficult to decide, since the Sequence itself is to a certain degree a kind of Trope. The St. Martial Troper, the oldest one known, of the middle of the tenth century (Cod. Parisin., 1240), abounds in Tropes to the Introit, Gradual, Offertory, and Communion; in other words it has a great many "Tropi ad Proprium Missarum". In addition it contains thirteen Gloria Tropes, but only two of the Sanctus, and not one of the Kyrie. Comparatively poor in Tropes are the St. Gall Tropers, and this fact alone makes it extremely doubtful whether Tutilo of St. Gall was the inventor of the Tropes. It appears that the Trope, like the Sequence, originated in France, where from the tenth century onward it enjoyed great popularity and was most eagerly cultivated. From there it soon made its way to England and to Northern Italy, later to Central and Southern Italy, and became widespread in all these countries, less so, however, in Germany. It was known there as early as in the ninth century, since Tutilo of St. Gall can rightly be considered a composer of Tropes. It remains a curious fact that in spite of the great number of Tropes no poet can be named who gained distinction as a composer of Tropes. In the thirteenth century this once important branch of literature began to decline and survived almost exclusively in Kyrie Tropes, particularly in France until the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

    Regarding the poetical contents, the Tropes, with few exceptions, are of no great value. But this peculiar poetical production is all the more interesting for the student of liturgy, and especially great is its significance in the development of music and poetry. It is worthy of note that, instead of short insertions into the liturgical text, as time went on several verses, entire stanzas, even a number of stanzas, were fitted in. The non-essential part developed into the main work; the liturgical text withdrew entirely into the background, and was scarcely even considered as the starting-point. In this manner the Tropes grew to be independent cantions, motets, or religious folk-songs. Also the dramatic character, which was quite peculiar to many Introit Tropes at Christmas and Easter, developed more and more luxuriantly until it reached its highest perfection in larger dramatic scenes, mystery plays, and plays of a purely religious character. Tropes finally left the liturgical and religious ground altogether, and wandered away from the spiritual to the profane field of songs of love, gambling, and drinking. And for that reason many specimens of religious as well as secular poetry of later date can be fully understood only when they are traced back to their source, the Tropes. The importance from a musical standpoint of both the Tropes and the Sequences has been most suitably characterized by Rev. Walter Howard Frere in his introduction to "The Winchester Troper" where he says: "For the musician the whole story is full of interest, for the Tropers practically represent the sum total of musical advance between the ninth and the twelfth century. . . . All new developments in musical composition, failing to gain admission into the privileged circle of the recognised Gregorian service-books, were thrown together so as to form an independent musical collection supplementary to the official books; and that is exactly what a Troper is" (op. cit., p. vi).

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    Tepl

    A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...

    Teramo

    Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...

    Terce

    The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...

    Terenuthis

    Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...

    Teresa of Avila, Saint

    Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...

    Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

    Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

    Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...

    Terill, Anthony

    English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...

    Termessus

    A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...

    Termoli

    (THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...

    Ternan, Saint

    Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...

    Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

    (TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...

    Terrasson, André

    A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...

    Terrestrial Paradise

    ( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

    Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

    Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...

    Tertiaries

    (From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...

    Tertullian

    (Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...

    Teruel

    (TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...

    Test-Oath, Missouri

    In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

    Testament, New

    I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

    Testament, Old

    I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

    Testem Benevolentiae

    An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...

    Tetzel, Johann

    First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...

    Teuchira

    A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...

    Teutonic Order

    A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...

    Tewdrig

    (THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...

    Texas

    S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...

    Textual Criticism

    The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

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    Th 147

    Thænæ

    A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...

    Thébaud, Augustus

    Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...

    Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

    Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...

    Théophane Vénard

    (JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

    Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

    Thabor, Mount

    The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

    Thabraca

    A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...

    Thacia Montana

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...

    Thagaste

    (TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...

    Thagora

    (Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...

    Thais, Saint

    (THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...

    Thalberg, Sigismond

    Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...

    Thalhofer, Valentin

    German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...

    Thangmar

    (THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...

    Thanksgiving before and after Meals

    The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...

    Thanksgiving Day

    A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...

    Thapsus

    A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...

    Thasos

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...

    Thaumaci

    A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...

    Thayer, John

    Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...

    Theatines

    (CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...

    Theatre, The

    Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...

    Thebaid

    The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...

    Thebes

    (THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...

    Thebes

    (THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...

    Thecla, Saint

    Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...

    Thecla, Saints

    I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...

    Theft

    Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...

    Thegan (Degan) of Treves

    Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...

    Theiner, Augustin

    Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...

    Thelepte

    A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...

    Themiscyra

    A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...

    Themisonium

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...

    Thennesus

    A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...

    Theobald

    (T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...

    Theobald, Saint

    Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...

    Theocracy

    A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...

    Theodard, Saint

    Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...

    Theodicy

    Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...

    Theodore I, Pope

    Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...

    Theodore II, Pope

    Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...

    Theodore of Amasea, Saint

    Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...

    Theodore of Gaza

    A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...

    Theodore of Studium, Saint

    A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...

    Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

    Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...

    Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

    Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...

    Theodoret

    Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...

    Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

    A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...

    Theodoric the Great

    King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...

    Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

    (Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...

    Theodorus Lector

    A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...

    Theodosiopolis

    A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...

    Theodosius Florentini

    Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...

    Theodosius I

    Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...

    Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

    Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...

    Theodulf

    (Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...

    Theology of Christ (Christology)

    Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...

    Theology, Ascetical

    Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

    Theology, Dogmatic

    Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

    Theology, History of Dogmatic

    The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

    Theology, Moral

    Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

    Theology, Mystical

    Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

    Theology, Pastoral

    Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

    Theonas

    Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...

    Theophanes Kerameus

    ( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...

    Theophanes, Saint

    Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...

    Theophilanthropists

    ("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...

    Theophilus

    Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...

    Theophilus

    Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...

    Theosophy

    ( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...

    Theotocopuli, Domenico

    One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

    Thera (Santorin)

    DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...

    Thermae Basilicae

    A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...

    Thermopylae

    A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...

    Thessalonians, Epistles to the

    Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...

    Thessalonica

    (SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...

    Theveste

    Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...

    Thibaris

    Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...

    Thibaut de Champagne

    Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...

    Thierry of Freburg

    ( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...

    Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

    French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...

    Thignica

    A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...

    Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

    Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...

    Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

    Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...

    Thimelby, Richard

    ( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...

    Third Orders

    I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...

    Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...

    Thmuis

    A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...

    Thomas á Jesu

    (Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...

    Thomas à Kempis

    Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...

    Thomas Abel, Blessed

    (Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...

    Thomas Alfield, Venerable

    (AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

    Thomas Aquinas, Saint

    Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

    Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

    Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

    Thomas Becket, Saint

    Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

    Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

    A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

    Thomas Christians, Saint

    An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...

    Thomas Cottam, Blessed

    Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...

    Thomas Ford, Blessed

    Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

    Thomas Garnet, Saint

    Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

    Thomas Johnson, Blessed

    Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

    Thomas More, Saint

    Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

    Thomas of Beckington

    (BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...

    Thomas of Bradwardine

    (BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...

    Thomas of Cantimpré

    Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...

    Thomas of Celano

    Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...

    Thomas of Dover

    Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...

    Thomas of Hereford

    (THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...

    Thomas of Jesus

    (THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...

    Thomas of Jorz

    (Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...

    Thomas of Strasburg

    A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...

    Thomas of Villanova, Saint

    Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...

    Thomas Percy, Blessed

    Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

    Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

    Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...

    Thomas the Apostle, Saint

    Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...

    Thomas Thwing, Venerable

    Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...

    Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

    Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

    Thomas, Charles L.A.

    French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...

    Thomassin, Louis

    Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...

    Thomism

    In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...

    Thompson River Indians

    (THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...

    Thompson, Blessed James

    (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

    Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

    The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...

    Thompson, Francis

    Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...

    Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

    Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...

    Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

    Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...

    Thorlaksson, Arni

    An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

    Thorney Abbey

    (i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...

    Thorns, Crown of

    Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...

    Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

    The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...

    Thorpe, Venerable Robert

    Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...

    Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

    French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...

    Thou, Nicolas de

    Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...

    Three Chapters

    The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...

    Three Rivers

    DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...

    Throne

    (Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...

    Thuburbo Minus

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...

    Thugga

    Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...

    Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

    Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...

    Thulis, Venerable John

    English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...

    Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

    Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...

    Thundering Legion

    ( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...

    Thuringia

    The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...

    Thurmayr, Johannes

    (Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...

    Thyatira

    A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...

    Thynias

    A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...

    Thyräus, Hermann

    German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...

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    Ti 45

    Tiara

    The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...

    Tibaldi, Pellegrino

    Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...

    Tiberias

    Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...

    Tiberias, Sea of

    So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...

    Tiberiopolis

    Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...

    Tiberius

    The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...

    Tibet

    A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...

    Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

    Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...

    Ticelia

    Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...

    Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

    Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...

    Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

    Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...

    Ticonius

    (Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...

    Ticuna Indians

    A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...

    Tieffentaller, Joseph

    Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...

    Tiepolo

    Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...

    Tierney, Mark Aloysius

    Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...

    Tigris, Saint

    Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...

    Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

    French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...

    Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

    Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...

    Timbrias

    A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...

    Time

    The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...

    Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

    Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...

    Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Timucua Indians

    A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...

    Tincker, Mary Agnes

    Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...

    Tingis

    A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...

    Tinin

    SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...

    Tinos and Mykonos

    DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...

    Tintern Abbey

    This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...

    Tintoretto, Il

    (J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...

    Tipasa

    A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...

    Tiraboschi, Girolamo

    Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...

    Tiraspol

    DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...

    Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

    An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...

    Tissot, James

    (JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...

    Tithes

    (Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...

    Tithes, Lay

    Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

    Titian

    (T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...

    Titopolis

    (TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...

    Titulus

    In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...

    Titus

    Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...

    Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Titus, Bishop of Bostra

    Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...

    Tius

    (TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...

    Tivoli

    DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...

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    Tl 2

    Tlaxcala

    (TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...

    Tlos

    A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...

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    To 56

    Toaldo, Giuseppe

    Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...

    Toba Indians

    One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...

    Tobias

    We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...

    Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

    (CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...

    Todi

    (T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...

    Tokio

    (Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...

    Toledo (Ohio)

    (Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...

    Toledo (Spain)

    ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...

    Toledo, Francisco

    Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...

    Tolentino and Macerata

    Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

    Toleration, History of

    In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...

    Toleration, Religious

    Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...

    Tolomei, John Baptist

    A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...

    Tomb

    A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...

    Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

    Tomb, Altar

    A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

    Tomi

    A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...

    Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

    A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

    Tongerloo, Abbey of

    Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...

    Tongiorgi, Salvator

    Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...

    Tongues, Gift of

    (Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

    Tonica Indians

    (Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...

    Tonkawa Indians

    A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...

    Tonsure

    ( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...

    Tootell, Hugh

    Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...

    Torah

    I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...

    Torbido, Francesco

    Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...

    Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

    Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...

    Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

    Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...

    Torone

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...

    Toronto

    (TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...

    Torquemada, Tomás de

    First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...

    Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

    Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...

    Torres, Francisco

    (TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...

    Torricelli, Evangelista

    Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...

    Torrubia, José

    Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...

    Tortona

    DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...

    Tortosa

    DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...

    Toscanella and Viterbo

    (VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

    Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

    Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...

    Tosephta

    ( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...

    Tostado, Alonso

    (ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...

    Tosti, Luigi

    Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...

    Totemism

    Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...

    Totonac Indians

    One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...

    Touchet, George Anselm

    Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...

    Toulouse

    A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...

    Tournély, Honoré

    Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...

    Tournai

    DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...

    Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

    French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...

    Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

    Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...

    Touron, Antoine

    Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...

    Tours

    (TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...

    Toustain, Charles-François

    French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...

    Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

    A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...

    Tower of Babel

    The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

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    Tr 77

    Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

    Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...

    Tradition and Living Magisterium

    The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

    Traditionalism

    A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...

    Traducianism

    Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...

    Trajan

    Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...

    Trajanopolis

    Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...

    Trajanopolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...

    Tralles

    A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...

    Trani and Barletta

    (T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...

    Transcendentalism

    The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...

    Transept

    A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...

    Transfiguration

    The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...

    Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

    Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...

    Transubstantiation

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

    Transvaal

    Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...

    Transylvania

    (Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...

    Trapani

    (TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...

    Trapezopolis

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...

    Trappists

    The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...

    Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

    Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

    Treason, Accusations of

    A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...

    Trebizond

    (TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...

    Trebnitz

    A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...

    Tredway, Lettice Mary

    (Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...

    Tregian, Francis

    Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...

    Tremithus

    Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...

    Trent

    (TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...

    Trent, Council of

    The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...

    Trenton

    (T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...

    Tresham, Sir Thomas

    Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...

    Treviso

    (TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...

    Tribe, Jewish

    ( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

    Tricarico, Diocese of

    (TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...

    Tricassin, Charles Joseph

    One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...

    Tricca

    Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...

    Trichinopoly, Diocese of

    (TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...

    Trichur

    (TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...

    Tricomia

    Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...

    Triduum

    (Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...

    Trier

    (TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...

    Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

    Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...

    Triest-Capo d'Istria

    (TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...

    Trincomalee

    (TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...

    Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

    Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...

    Trinitarians, Order of

    The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...

    Trinity College

    An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...

    Trinity Sunday

    The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...

    Trinity, The Blessed

    This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

    Triple-Candlestick

    A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...

    Trissino, Giangiorgio

    Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...

    Tritheists

    (TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...

    Trithemius, John

    A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...

    Trivento

    (Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...

    Trivet, Nicholas

    (Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...

    Troas

    A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...

    Trocmades

    (Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...

    Trokelowe, John de

    (THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...

    Trondhjem, Ancient See of

    (NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...

    Trope

    Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...

    Tropology, Scriptural

    The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...

    Troy, John Thomas

    Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...

    Troyes

    (TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...

    Truce of God

    The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...

    Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

    Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...

    Trudo, Saint

    (TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...

    Trudpert, Saint

    Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...

    True Cross, The

    (AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...

    Trueba, Antonio de

    Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...

    Trujillo

    Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...

    Trullo, Council in

    This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...

    Trumpets, Feast of

    The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

    Trumwin, Saint

    (TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...

    Trustee System

    I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...

    Trusts and Bequests

    A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...

    Truth

    Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...

    Truth Societies, Catholic

    This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...

    Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

    Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

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    Ts 2

    Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

    Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...

    Tschupick, John Nepomuk

    A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...

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    Tu 27

    Tuam

    (TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...

    Tuam, School of

    (Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...

    Tubunae

    A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...

    Tucson

    (T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...

    Tucumán

    (T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...

    Tudela

    (TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...

    Tuguegarao

    (TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...

    Tulancingo

    (D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...

    Tulasne, Louis-René

    A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...

    Tulle

    (TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...

    Tunic

    By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...

    Tunis

    French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...

    Tunja

    (T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...

    Tunkers

    ( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

    Tunstall, Cuthbert

    Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

    Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

    Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...

    Tunsted, Simon

    English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...

    Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

    Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...

    Turin

    (Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...

    Turin, Shroud of

    This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...

    Turin, University of

    The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...

    Turkestan

    I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...

    Turkish Empire

    Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...

    Turnebus, Adrian

    Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...

    Turpin

    Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...

    Tuscany

    Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...

    Tuy

    (Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...

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    Tw 2

    Twenge, Saint John

    Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

    Twiketal of Croyland

    (THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...

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    Ty 7

    Tyana

    A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...

    Tychicus

    A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...

    Tynemouth Priory

    Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...

    Types in Scripture

    Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...

    Tyrannicide

    Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...

    Tyre

    (TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...

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