Skip to content
Catholic Online Logo

These names designate the authors of the courses of Scholastic philosophy and theology, and of moral theology published by the lecturers of the philosophical college of the Discalced Carmelites at Alcalá de Henares, and of the theological college at Salamanca. Although primarily intended for the instruction of the younger members of the order, these colleges, being incorporated in the Universities of Alcalá ( Complutum ) and Salamanca, opened their lecture rooms also to outsiders. During the Middle Ages the Carmelites, with some notable exceptions, had gone hand in hand with the Dominicans in the matter of Scholastic teaching as against the Franciscan and Augustinian schools ; it was therefore natural that in the sixteenth century they should maintain their old allegiance as against the Jesuits. Consequently they made strict adherence to Thomism their fundamental principle, and carried it out with greater consistency than probably any other commentators of the neo-Scholastic period. Although the names of the several contributors to the three courses are on record, their works must not be taken as the views or utterances of individual scholars, but as the expression of the official teaching of the order, for no question was finally disposed of without being submitted to the discussion of the whole college, and in case of difference of opinions the matter was decided by vote. By this means such uniformity and consistency were obtained that it could be claimed that there was not a single contradiction in any of these immense works, although nearly a century elapsed between the publication of the first and the appearance of the final instalment. At the beginning the lecturers contented themselves with writing their quaterniones , many of which are still extant. But at the beginning of the seventeenth century the publication of a complete course was decided upon. The "Logic", written by Diego de Jesus (b. at Granada, 1570; d. at Toledo, 1621) appeared at Madrid, 1608, and was re-written by Miguel de la SS. Trinidad (b. at Granada, 1588; d. at Alcalá 1661), in which form it was frequently printed in Spain, France, and Germany. Nearly all the remaining philosophical treatises were the work of Antonio de la Madre de Dios (b. at Léon, 1588; d. 1640). The whole work was then re-cast by Juan de la Anunciación (b. at Oviedo, 1633; general from 1694 to 1700; d. 1701), who also added a supplement. It appeared at Lyons in 1670 in five quarto volumes, under the title, "Collegii Complutensis Fr. Discalc. B. M. V. de Monte Carmeli Artium cursus ad breviorem formam collectus et novo ordine atque faciliori stylo dispositus". It superseded all previous editions and various supplements, such as the "Metaphysica in tres lib. distincta" (Paris, 1640) by the French Carmelite, Blasius à Conceptione. Antonio de la Madre de Dios laid the foundation of the dogmatic part of the Salmanticenses by publishing, in 1630, two volumes containing the treatises "De Deo uno", "De Trinitate", and "De angelis". He was succeeded by Domingo de Sta Teresa (b. at Alberca, 1600; d. at Madrid, 1654), who wrote in 1647 "De ultimo fine", "De beatitudine, etc.", and "De peccatis". Juan de la Anunciación, already mentioned, contributed "De gratia", "De justificatione et merito", "De virtutibus theologicis", "De Incarnatione", "De sacramentis in communi", and "De Eucharistia". He left the first volume of "De poenitentia" in manuscript. It was revised and continued by Antonio de S. Juan-Bautista, who, dying at Salamanca in 1699, was unable to carry it through the press. The work was therefore completed by Alonso de los Angeles (d. 1724) and Francisco de Sta Ana (d. at Salamanca, 1707). This last volume, the twelfth, appeared in 1704. The Salmanticenses have ever been held in the highest esteem, particularly at Rome where they are considered a standard work on Thomistic scholasticism. A new edition, in twenty volumes appeared in Paris as late as 1870-83. An abridgment (two large volumes, in folio) for the use of students was published by Pablo de la Concepción (general from 1724 to 1730; d. at Granada, 1734).

The moral theology of the Salmanticenses was begun in 1665 by Francisco de Jesus-Maria (d. 1677), with treatises on the sacraments in general, and on baptism, confirmation, the Eucharist, and extreme unction. The fourth edition (Madrid, 1709) underwent considerable revision on account of the new Decrees of Innocent XI and Alexander VII. It was augmented by a disquisition on the " Bull Cruciata" of José de Jesús-Maria, published by Antonio del SS. Sagramento. Andrés de la Madre de Dios (d. 1674) wrote "De sacramento ordinis et matrimonii" (Salamanca, 1668), "De censuris", "De justitia" and "De statu religioso", with all cognate matters. Sebastian de San Joaquin (d. 1714), the author of two volumes on the Commandments, did not live to see his work through the press. Hence it was completed and published by Alonso de los Angeles, who had also put the last hand to the course of dogmatic theology. St. Alphonsus Liguori esteemed the moral theology of the Salmanticenses; he nearly always quotes them approvingly and follows their lead, though on rare occasions he finds them somewhat too easy going. Lehmkuhl complains that they are not always accurate in their quotations.

More Encyclopedia

The Catholic Encyclopedia is the most comprehensive resource on Catholic teaching, history, and information ever gathered in all of human history. This easy-to-search online version was originally printed between 1907 and 1912 in fifteen hard copy volumes.

Catholic Encyclopedia

Designed to present its readers with the full body of Catholic teaching, the Encyclopedia contains not only precise statements of what the Church has defined, but also an impartial record of different views of acknowledged authority on all disputed questions, national, political or factional. In the determination of the truth the most recent and acknowledged scientific methods are employed, and the results of the latest research in theology, philosophy, history, apologetics, archaeology, and other sciences are given careful consideration.

No one who is interested in human history, past and present, can ignore the Catholic Church, either as an institution which has been the central figure in the civilized world for nearly two thousand years, decisively affecting its destinies, religious, literary, scientific, social and political, or as an existing power whose influence and activity extend to every part of the globe. In the past century the Church has grown both extensively and intensively among English-speaking peoples. Their living interests demand that they should have the means of informing themselves about this vast institution, which, whether they are Catholics or not, affects their fortunes and their destiny.

Copyright © Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company New York, NY. Volume 1: 1907; Volume 2: 1907; Volume 3: 1908; Volume 4: 1908; Volume 5: 1909; Volume 6: 1909; Volume 7: 1910; Volume 8: 1910; Volume 9: 1910; Volume 10: 1911; Volume 11: - 1911; Volume 12: - 1911; Volume 13: - 1912; Volume 14: 1912; Volume 15: 1912

Catholic Online Catholic Encyclopedia Digital version Compiled and Copyright © Catholic Online


Newsletter Sign Up icon

Stay up to date with the latest news, information, and special offers

Subscribe to Catholic OnlineYouTube Channel

Daily Readings

Reading 1, Ephesians 2:19-22
19 So you are no longer aliens or foreign visitors; you are ... Read More

Psalm, Psalms 19:2-3, 4-5
2 day discourses of it to day, night to night hands on the ... Read More

Gospel, Luke 6:12-16
12 Now it happened in those days that he went onto the mountain to pray; ... Read More

Saint of the Day

Saint of the Day for October 28th, 2016 Image

St. Jude Thaddaeus
October 28: St. Jude, known as Thaddaeus, was a brother of ... Read More