Professor at Düsseldorf, b. at Darmstadt, 29 Oct., 1818; d. at Neuenahr, 15 Aug., 1893, belongs to the more recent members of a school of German religious painters known as the "Nazarenes", who succeeded felicitously in popular but beautiful representation of religious devotion, and gave new renown to the Düsseldorf school even in foreign lands. His style, delicate even to softness, exhibits, however, as much naturalness, fresh, simple piety and spiritual peace as the subjects demand. Schadow, director of the Düsseldorf academy, had selected in 1837 the nineteen year old student, along with his brother Andreas, and Deger (who were later joined by Ittenbach ), for the contemplated fresco paintings in the Fürstenburg church on the Apollinarisberg at Remagen. They had first to study carefully in Italy the technique of fresco painting, then little known. Karl Müller arrived in Rome at the end of 1839. The study and imitation of the art treasures of the Eternal City, as later of those of Florence, Pisa, Assisi, and other places, brought to maturity his great natural talent. His taste for landscape, which he brought with him from Düsseldorf, now found the greatest encouragement; he regarded moreover the study of models as indispensable in the practical exercise of his art. A large circle of German and Italian friends mutually helped each other by artistic excursions. His evenings he spent in composition and the like. At the end of four years the master brought home his characteristic German religious style, lightly mingled with some southern elements. In his principal paintings of the "Crowning" and the "Birth of Mary" (entirely finished in 1850) he showed himself, according to the judgment of connoisseurs, the equal of the elder Deger. The former painting unfortunately is in a bad light the greater part of the year. The lower part, the Apostles by the grave, out of which spring lilies and roses, is widely known. The leading scene in the upper part presents the Virgin Mother bowed before the Saviour in a Raphaelite beauty of colour. The painter worked so long over the "Birth of Mary" that he hoped to succeed in some degree in satisfying the spirit at once of Raphael and of Dürer. In this work the eight typical women especially deserve to be noticed. Besides these there belong to Müller in the same church the "Annunciation", the "Visitation", the "Wedding of the Virgin", and the "Lamb of God ", adored by angels in the midst of the symbols of the Evangelists on the triumphant arch. In 1859 a contract was made with the authorities of the church of Notre-Dame de La Garde at Marseilles in regard to the great pictorial scheme, unfortunately never carried out. The upper part of the cartoon of a new "Coronation of Mary" wonderful in execution, is in the Berlin National Gallery. For the cathedral church at Bonn, undertaken in 1866, eighteen paintings were contemplated. The objections of the ecclesiastical authorities also caused this monumental work, to the master's unutterable sorrow, to fail. His easel pictures, however, are all the better known: "The Magnificat ", "Wonder of Roses", "Immaculate Conception", "Joseph with the Boy Jesus", "The Disciples in Emmaus "; the popular round pictures; "Mary and Elizabeth", the "Holy Family at Work", also "The Holy Family ", "The Holy Night", and so on. Of the highest value in art are the alter painting, "Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus," which he undertook for the church of St. Remigius at Bonn, and his last cartoon for the same church, completed by his nephew Franz Müller.
The Catholic Encyclopedia is the most comprehensive resource on Catholic teaching, history, and information ever gathered in all of human history. This easy-to-search online version was originally printed between 1907 and 1912 in fifteen hard copy volumes.
Designed to present its readers with the full body of Catholic teaching, the Encyclopedia contains not only precise statements of what the Church has defined, but also an impartial record of different views of acknowledged authority on all disputed questions, national, political or factional. In the determination of the truth the most recent and acknowledged scientific methods are employed, and the results of the latest research in theology, philosophy, history, apologetics, archaeology, and other sciences are given careful consideration.
No one who is interested in human history, past and present, can ignore the Catholic Church, either as an institution which has been the central figure in the civilized world for nearly two thousand years, decisively affecting its destinies, religious, literary, scientific, social and political, or as an existing power whose influence and activity extend to every part of the globe. In the past century the Church has grown both extensively and intensively among English-speaking peoples. Their living interests demand that they should have the means of informing themselves about this vast institution, which, whether they are Catholics or not, affects their fortunes and their destiny.
Copyright © Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company New York, NY. Volume 1: 1907; Volume 2: 1907; Volume 3: 1908; Volume 4: 1908; Volume 5: 1909; Volume 6: 1909; Volume 7: 1910; Volume 8: 1910; Volume 9: 1910; Volume 10: 1911; Volume 11: - 1911; Volume 12: - 1911; Volume 13: - 1912; Volume 14: 1912; Volume 15: 1912
Catholic Online Catholic Encyclopedia Digital version Compiled and Copyright © Catholic Online