Philosopher and canonist, born at Bozen, 26 July, 1735, died there, 11 January, 1813. He studied at Innsbruck and Munich, entered the Jesuit Order on 9 October, 1753, was ordained priest on 1 June, 1765, then taught philosophy at Munich, Dillingen, and Innsbruck. Shortly after the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773, Prince-bishop Clemens Wenceslaus engaged him as professor of canon law at Augsburg. He held this position for thirty years (1777-1807), with the exception of four months, during which he was theologian at the papal nunciature at Ratisbon, and sixteen months, which upon invitation of Pius VII he spent in Rome as papal councillor in German affairs (1805-6). In 1807 he returned to Bozen, devoting the rest of his life to literary labours. As a canonist he defended the papal rights again the Febronian tendencies in Germany, and as a philosopher he endeavoured to replace the Scholastic method by the empiricism of Newton. His chief canonical works are: "Institutionum juris naturalis et ecclesiastici publici libri V" (Augsburg, 1784; Ghent, 1823; Rome, 1832); "De usu publici commentarioulus" (Augsburg, 1784; Ghent, 1823); "Historische Bemerkungen uber das sogenannte Resultat des Emser Congressus" (Frankfort and Leipzig, 1787); "Institutiones juris ecclesiastici, maxime privati, ordine Decretalium" (5 vols., Augsburg, 1792-3; 3 vols., Rome, 1832). His chief philosophical works are: "Lex gravitatis universalis ac mutuae cum theoria de sectione coni" (Munich, 1769); "Interpretatio naturae, seu philosophia Newtoniana methodo exposita" (3 vols., Augsburg, 1773); "Disquisitiones philosophiae Kantianae" (2 vols., Augsburg, 1799).
The Catholic Encyclopedia is the most comprehensive resource on Catholic teaching, history, and information ever gathered in all of human history. This easy-to-search online version was originally printed in fifteen hardcopy volumes.
Designed to present its readers with the full body of Catholic teaching, the Encyclopedia contains not only precise statements of what the Church has defined, but also an impartial record of different views of acknowledged authority on all disputed questions, national, political or factional. In the determination of the truth the most recent and acknowledged scientific methods are employed, and the results of the latest research in theology, philosophy, history, apologetics, archaeology, and other sciences are given careful consideration.
No one who is interested in human history, past and present, can ignore the Catholic Church, either as an institution which has been the central figure in the civilized world for nearly two thousand years, decisively affecting its destinies, religious, literary, scientific, social and political, or as an existing power whose influence and activity extend to every part of the globe. In the past century the Church has grown both extensively and intensively among English-speaking peoples. Their living interests demand that they should have the means of informing themselves about this vast institution, which, whether they are Catholics or not, affects their fortunes and their destiny.
Copyright © Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company New York, NY. Volume 1: 1907; Volume 2: 1907; Volume 3: 1908; Volume 4: 1908; Volume 5: 1909; Volume 6: 1909; Volume 7: 1910; Volume 8: 1910; Volume 9: 1910; Volume 10: 1911; Volume 11: - 1911; Volume 12: - 1911; Volume 13: - 1912; Volume 14: 1912; Volume 15: 1912
Catholic Online Catholic Encyclopedia Digital version Compiled and Copyright © Catholic Online