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University of Tübingen

Located in Würtemberg ; founded by Count Eberhard im Bart on 3 July, 1477, after Pope Sixtus IV had first undertaken by the Bull of 13 Nov., 1476 to endow the university from the property of the Church. The imperial confirmation followed on 20 Feb., 1484. The university had four faculties: theology, law, medicine, and philosophy, and altogether fourteen professorships. Among the distinguished professors at the beginning were the theologians Gabriel Biel, Johannes Heynlin von Stein (a Lapide), Conrad Summenhart, and the jurist Johannes Vergenhans (Nauclerus). A distinguished physician was Johannes Widmann. In the philosophical faculty should be mentioned the mathematicians Paul Scriptoris and Johannes Stöffler, and the Humanists Johannes Reuchlin, Heinrich Bebel, and Melanchthon. Duke Ulrich of Würtemberg was deposed in 1519 on account of his misgovernment of the country, but in 1534 was restored to power by the Lutheran Landgrave Philip of Hesse. In 1535 Ulrich introduced the Reformation into the country and university, notwithstanding the stubborn opposition manifested at the university, especially by its chancellor Ambrosius Widmann. The most prominent of the new professors were the theologians Johannes Brenz, Erhard Schnepf, Jakob Andreæ, Jakob Heerbrand, Andreas and Luke Osiander. Among the other professors were the jurists Johannes Sichard, Karl Molinæus (Du Moulin), and Christopher Besold, the physician Leonhard Fuchs, the philologists Joachim, Camerarius and Martin Crusius, the cartographer Philip Apian, and the mathematician and astronomer Michael Mästlin. To secure capable preachers Duke Ulrich established the Lutheran seminary, and Duke Christopher founded the collegium illustre for the training of state officials.

The university, like the country, recovered only slowly from the injuries inflicted by the Thirty Years' War. At first the old rigid orthodoxy still prevailed in the theological faculty; but in the eighteenth century a greater independence of thought gradually gained ground, especially through the efforts of the chancellor, Christopher Matthäus Pfaff, the founder of what is called the collegiate system. Pietism also was represented in the theological faculty. Towards the end of the eighteenth century Christian Gottlieb Storr exerted a profound influence as a Biblical theologian and the founder of the early Tübingen School in opposition to the "Enlightenment' and the theories of Kant. Among his pupils were, in particular, Friedrich Gottlieb Süsskind, Johann Friedrich Flatt, and Karl Christian Flatt.

Prominent in the faculty of law were Wolfgang Adam Lauterbach, Ferdinand Christopher Harpprecht, and Karl Christopher Hofacker, and in the faculty of medicine, Johann Georg Gmelin, Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer, and Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Autenrieth. During this era, marked by the spread of the Wolffian and Kantian doctrines, the faculty of philosophy had few distinguished members. The chancellor Lebret, however, ranked high as a historian, and Bohnenberger as a mathematician. Towards the close of the eighteenth century the university was in danger of having the faculties of law and medicine transferred to the school established at Stuttgart by Duke Charles Eugene, after whom the new school was named. This loss was averted, however, by the suppression of the new seat of learning in 1794.

Two causes led to a great development of the university in the nineteenth century. First, the Catholic university for Würtemberg, which at the beginning of the century had been established at Ellwangen, was transferred in 1817 to Tübingen as a Catholic theological faculty, and a Catholic house of study called Wilhelmsstift was founded to counterbalance the Lutheran seminary ; second, a faculty of political economy was organized in 1817 (called the faculty of political science since 1822), and a faculty of natural sciences in 1863. These changes led to the erection of new university buildings: the anatomical building (1832-35); the new aula, intended to replace the old one dating from 1547 and 1777, and the botanical and chemical institute (1842-45); the clinical hospital for surgical cases (1846); the physiological institute (1867); the institute for pathological anatomy (1873); ophthalmic hospital (1875); medical hospital (1878-79); the physico-chemical institute (1883-85); the institute for physics (1888); the new hospital for women (1888-91), in place of the old one built in 1803; the hospital for mental diseases (1892-94); the mineralogico-geological and zoological institute (1902); the institute for chemistry (1903-07); the new ophthalmological clinic (1907-09). A new building for the library, housed till now in the castle, is in course of construction; the library contains 4145 manuscripts and 513,313 volumes. The regular professors numbered 56 in the summer term of 1911; honorary and adjunct professors, Dozents , 71; matriculated students, 2118, and non-matriculated persons permitted to attend the lectures, 145, making a total of 2263. Since the reign of King Frederick I the university has become more and more a state institution; its income for 1911 was 439,499 marks ($104,382), while the grant from the State for the year was 1,366,847 marks ($324,626).

In the Protestant theological faculty the critical view of theological history held by Ferdinand Christian Baur led to the founding of the later Tübingen School, to which belong, besides the founder, Albert Schwegler, Karl Christian Planck, Albert Ritschl, Julius Köstlin, Karl Christian Johannes Holsten, Adolf Hilgenfeld, Karl Weizsäcker and Edward Zeller. Other distinguished theologians, who were somewhat more positive in their views, were Johann Tobias Beck, and Christian David Frederick Palmer. David Frederick Strauss, a follower of Hegel, wrote his "Life of Jesus" while a tutor at Tübingen. The distinguished teachers and scholars of the Catholic theological faculty are often called the Catholic Tübingen School. The characteristic of this school is positive and historical rather than speculative or philosophical. Above all should be mentioned the great Catholic theologian of the nineteenth century, Johann Adam Möhler; further: Johann Sebastian Drey, Johann Baptist Hirscher, Benedict Welte, Johann Evangelist Kuhn, Karl Joseph Hefele, Moritz Aberle, Felix Himpel, Franz Quirin Kober, Franz Xaver Linsenmann, Franz Xaver Funk, Paul Schanz, and Paul Vetter. Distinguished professors of law were: Karl Georg Wächter, Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Gerber, Alois Brins, Gustav Mandry, and Hugo Meyer. Among the noted members of the faculty of political science were: Robert Mohl, Albert Eberhard Friedrich Schäffle, Gustav Rümelin, Gustav Friedrich Schönberg, and Friedrich Julius Neumann. Among the noted members of the medical faculty were: Victor Bruns, Felix Niemeyer, Karl Liebermeister, and Johannes Säxinger. In natural science should he mentioned: Hugo Mohl, Theodore Eimer, and Lothar Meyer. Of the philosophical faculty should be mentioned Friedrich Theodor Vischer, writer on æsthetics; the philosopher Christopher Sigwart; the classical philologists Christian Wals and Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel; the Orientalists Julius Mohl, Georg Heinrich Ewald, and Walter Rudolf Roth; the Germanists Ludwig Uhland and Heinrich Adalbert Keller; the historians Julius Weizsäcker and Hermann Alfred Gutschmid; and the geologist Friedrich August Quenstedt.

More Volume: U 91

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Ub 8

Ubaghs, Casimir

Born at Bergélez-Fauquemont, 26 November, 1800; died at Louvain, 15 February, 1875, was for ...

Ubaldus, Saint

Confessor, Bishop of Gubbio, born of noble parents at Gubbio, Umbria, Italy, towards the ...

Ubanghi

(UPPER FRENCH CONGO.) Vicariate Apostolic ; formerly part of the Vicariate of French Congo, ...

Ubanghi, Belgian

In Belgian Congo, separated on 7 April, 1911, from the Vicariate of the Belgian Congo and ...

Ubanghi-Chari

Prefecture Apostolic in Equatorial Africa, lies west of the Bahr-el-Ghazal territory and south ...

Uberaba

(DE UBERABA.) Suffragan diocese of Marianna, in Brazil, created by the Consistorial ...

Ubertino of Casale

Leader of the Spirituals, born at Casale of Vercelli, 1259; died about 1330. He assumed the ...

Ubiquitarians

Also called Ubiquists , a Protestant sect started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 ...

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Uc 2

Ucayali

(SAN FRANCISCO DE UCAYALI.) Prefecture Apostolic in Peru. At the request of the Peruvian ...

Uccello

Painter, born at Florence, 1397; died there, 1475. His real name was Paolo di Dono, but from his ...

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Ud 1

Udine

(UTINENSIS) The city of Udine, the capital of a province and archdiocese in Friuli, northern ...

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Ug 2

Ugento

(UXENTIN) The city of Ugento, with its small harbour, is situated in the Province of Leece, in ...

Ughelli, Ferdinando

Historian, born at Florence, 21 March, 1595; died 19 May, 1670. Having entered the Cistercian ...

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Uh 1

Uhtred

(Also spelled: Uhtred or Owtred ), an English Benedictine theologian and writer, born at ...

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Uj 1

Ujejski, Cornelius

Polish poet, born at Beremiany, Galicia, 1823; died at Cholojewie, 1897. His father was a ...

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Ul 12

Ulenberg, Kaspar

Convert, theological writer and translator of the Bible , born at Lippstadt on the Lippe, ...

Ulfilas

(Also: Ulphilas ), apostle of the Goths, missionary, translator of the Bible , and inventor ...

Ullathorne, William Bernard

English Benedictine monk and bishop, b. at Pocklington, Yorkshire, 7 May, 1806; d. at Oscott, ...

Ullerston, Richard

Born in the Duchy of Lancaster, England ; d. in August or September, 1423. Having been ordained ...

Ulloa, Antoine de

Naval officer and scientist, born at Seville, Spain, 12 Jan., 1716; died near Cadiz, Spain, 5 ...

Ulloa, Francisco de

Died 1540. It is not known when he came to Mexico nor if he accompanied Hernan Cortés in ...

Ulrich of Bamberg

(Udalricus Babenbergensis), a cleric of the cathedral church of Bamberg, of whom nothing more ...

Ulrich of Richenthal

Chronicler of the Council of Constance , date of birth unknown; died about 1438. Ulrich was ...

Ulrich of Zell

(Wulderic; called also of Cluny, and of Ratisbon ), born at Ratisbon, at the beginning of 1029; ...

Ulrich, Saint

Bishop of Augsburg, born at Kyburg, Zurich, Switzerland, in 890; died at Augsburg, 4 July, ...

Ultan of Ardbracca

St. Ultan of Ardbraccan, Ireland, was the maternal uncle of St. Brigid, and collected a life of ...

Ultramontanism

A term used to denote integral and active Catholicism, because it recognizes as its spiritual ...

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Un 22

Unam Sanctam

(Latin the One Holy , i.e. Church ), the Bull on papal supremacy issued 18 November, 1302, ...

Unclean and Clean

The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral, cleanness and uncleanness ...

Unction, Extreme

A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...

Ungava

A Canadian territory lying north of the Province of Quebec, detached (1876) from the Great ...

Uniformity Acts

These statutes, passed at different times, were vain efforts to secure uniformity in public ...

Unigenitus

A celebrated Apostolic Constitution of Clement XI, condemning 101 propositions of Pasquier ...

Union of Brest

Brest -- in Russian, Brest-Litovski; in Polish, Brzesc; in the old chronicles, called Brestii, or ...

Union of Christendom

The Catholic Church is by far the largest, the most widespread, and the most ancient of ...

Unions of Prayer

A tendency to form unions of prayer among the faithful has recently manifested itself in the ...

Unitarians

A Liberal Protestant sect which holds as it distinctive tenet the belief in a uni-personal ...

Unitas Fratrum

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...

United States of America, The

BOUNDARIES AND AREA On the east the boundary is formed by the St. Croix River and an arbitrary ...

Unitive Way

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

Unity

The marks of the Church are certain unmistakeable signs, or distinctive characteristics which ...

Universalists

A Liberal Protestant sect -- found chiefly in North America -- whose distinctive tenet is the ...

Universals

The name refers on the one hand to the inclination towards uniformity ( uni-versus ) existing in ...

Universe

Universe (or "world") is here taken in the astronomical sense, in its narrower or wider ...

Universe, Relation of God to the

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...

Universities

The principal Catholic foundations have been treated in special articles; here the general ...

University College (Dublin)

A constitutional college of the National University of Ireland. By its charter, granted 2 Dec., ...

Unjust Aggressor

According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, ...

Unyanyembe

Vicariate apostolic in German East Africa, separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Nyanza ...

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Up 4

Upper Nile

Vicariate apostolic ; separated from the mission of Nyanza, 6 July, 1894, comprises the eastern ...

Upper Rhine

Ecclesiastical province; includes the Archdiocese of Freiburg and the suffragan Dioceses of ...

Upsala, Ancient See of

When St. Ansgar, the Apostle of the North, went to Sweden in 829 the Swedes were still heathen ...

Upsala, University of

The oldest and most celebrated university of Sweden. Even today the arrangement of its ...

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Ur 26

Uranopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ancyra in Galatia Prima. It is vainly sought in any ...

Urban I, Pope Saint

Reigned 222-30, date of birth unknown; died 23 May, 230. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," ...

Urban II, Pope Blessed

(Otho, Otto or Odo of Lagery), 1088-1099, born of a knightly family, at Châtillon-sur-Marne ...

Urban III, Pope

Reigned 1185-87, born at Milan ; died at Ferrara, 19 October, 1187. Uberto, of the noble ...

Urban IV, Pope

Reigned 1261-64 (Jacques Pantaléon), son of a French cobbler, born at Troyes, probably in ...

Urban V, Pope Blessed

Guillaume de Grimoard, born at Grisac in Languedoc, 1310; died at Avignon, 19 December, 1370. ...

Urban VI, Pope

Bartolomeo Prignano, the first Roman pope during the Western Schism, born at Naples, about ...

Urban VII, Pope

Giambattista Castagna, born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1521; elected pope, 15 September, 1590; died at ...

Urban VIII, Pope

Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence in April, 1568; elected pope, 6 August, 1623; died at Rome, 29 ...

Urbi et Orbi

The term Urbi et Orbi (which means "for the city and for the world") signifies that a papal ...

Urbino

(URBINATENSIS) Province of Pesaro and Urbino, Italy. The city of Urbino is situated on a ...

Urbs beata Jerusalem dicta pacis visio

The first line of a hymn of probably the seventh or eighth century, comprising eight stanzas ...

Urdaneta, Andrés

Augustinian, born at Villafranca, Guipúzcoa, Spain, 1498; died in the City of Mexico, ...

Urgel

(U RGELLENSIS ). Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; bounded on the N. by France ...

Urim and Thummim

The sacred lot by means of which the ancient Hebrews were wont to seek manifestations of the ...

Urmiah

A residential see in Chaldea, in the Province of Adherbaidjan, Persia. The primitive name of this ...

Urráburu, Juan José

Scholastic philosopher, born at Ceanuri, Biscay, 23 May, 1844; died at Burgos, 13 August, 1904. ...

Ursperger Chronicle

A history of the world in Latin that begins with the Assyrian King Ninius and extends to the year ...

Ursula of the Blessed Virgin, Society of the Sisters of Saint

Religious congregation of women founded in 1606 at Döle (then a Spanish possession), ...

Ursula, Saint, and the Eleven Thousand Virgins

The history of these celebrated virgins of Cologne rests on ten lines, and these are open to ...

Ursulines of Quebec, The

The Ursuline monastery of Quebec is the oldest institution of learning for women in North ...

Ursulines, The

A religious order founded by St. Angela de Merici for the sole purpose of educating young ...

Ursus, Saint

Patron of the principal church of Solothurn (Soleure) in Switzerland, honoured from very early ...

Urubamba

(MISIONES DE SANTO DOMINGO DE URUBAMBA Y MADRE DE DIOS) This prefecture apostolic was created ...

Uruguay

(REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY). The smallest independent state in South America, extending ...

Uruguayana

(URUGUAYANESIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Porto Alegre, Brazil. By a Decree dated 15 August, ...

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Us 4

Ushaw College

(College of St. Cuthbert) A combined college and seminary for the six dioceses that were ...

Usilla

A titular see of Byzacena in Africa. Nothing is known of the history of this city; it is ...

Usuard, Martyrology of

Usuard was a Benedictine monk of the Abbey of St-Germain-des-Prxs, Paris. He seems to have ...

Usury

In the article INTEREST we have reserved the question of the lawfulness of taking interest on ...

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Ut 8

Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris

The first line of a hymn in honour of St. John the Baptist. The Roman Breviary divides it ...

Utah

Utah, the thirty-second state admitted to the Union, takes its name from an Indian tribe known ...

Uthina

A titular see of Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Uthina is mentioned by Ptolemy ...

Utica

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis. The city was founded by Tyrian colonists at the mouth ...

Utilitarianism

( Latin utilis , useful). Utilitarianism is a modern form of the Hedonistic ethical theory ...

Utopia

(Greek ou no or not, and topos place), a term used to designate a visionary or an ideally ...

Utraquism

The principal dogma, and one of the four articles, of the Calixtines or Hussites . It was first ...

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