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Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Belem do Para, in the State of Piauhy, north-eastern Brazil, The state is bounded on the north by the Atlantic, west by Maranhao, south by Bahia, east by Pemambuco and Ceara. It takes its name from the river Piauhy. Its area is 116,218 sq. miles, and it has a coast line of ten miles. Piauhy is one of the poorest of the Brazilian states. It has a small trade in cotton and cattle, Frequent periods of drought, followed by famine and typhus, add to the disadvantages of its unhealthful climate. Except in mountainous districts, vegetation is scanty; even the agricultural products — sugar-cane, coffee, tobacco — barely support the population. Therezina is the capital and Parnahyba the chief port. Emigration is making heavy drains on the population, and attempts to colonize by immigration have proved unsuccessful. The Diocese of Piauhy, formerly included in the Diocese of São Luiz do Maranhao, was, on 11 August, 1902, erected by Leo XIII into a separate diocese. Its jurisdiction comprises the Piauhy State, and its population (1911) is 425,000, with 32 parishes. Its first bishop, Mgr de Aranjo Pereira (born at Limolira, 4 Nov., 1853), was consecrated on 9 Nov., 1903, and the present bishop Mgr Joachim Antonio de Almeida (born 7 Aug., 1868) on 14 December, 1905.

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