Anatomist and physiologist, b. at Bologna, 21 Nov., 1725; d. at Padua, 20 Dec., 1813. He studied medicine in his native city, and received a medical degree there in 1750. He was appointed professor of practical medicine at Bologna in 1755 on condition that he was to study anatomy under Morgagni's direction for five years more. Caldani left Bologna apparently on account of enemies and went to Padua, where, as one of Morgagni's best pupils, he was later made professor of theoretical medicine, and in 1771, after Morgagni's death, was made professor of anatomy. He retained this latter professorship until he retired in 1805. Caldani was a zealous champion of Haller's theory of irritability; he is noted for his experimental studies on the function of the spinal cord and for the introduction of electricity in the physiology of the nerves. His most celebrated work is his anatomical atlas, in which he was aided by his nephew Floriano. His works are: "Sull' intensività et irritabilità di alune parti degli animali" (Bologna, 1757); "Lettera sopra l'irritabilità et insensività Halleriana" (Bologne, 1759); "Lettera sull'uso del muschio nella idrofobia" (Venice, 1767); "Esame del capitolo settimo dell'ultima opera di Antonio de Haen" (Padua, 1770); "Innesto felice del vajuolo" (Padua, 1768); "Institutiones pathologicae" (Padua, 1772, 1776; Leyden, 1784; Venice, 1786; Naples, 1787), translated into German by Reuss (1784), and issued at Prague (1793), in connection with "Institutiones physiologicae"; "Dialoghi di fisiologia e di pathologia" (Padua, 1778, 1793); "Institutiones physiologicae" (Padua, 1773, 1778; Leyden, 1784; Venice, 1786; Naples, 1787); "Institutiones semeioticae" (Padua, 1808); "Icones anatomicae" with 5 vols. of "Explicatio iconum" (Venice, 1801-13).
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