French mathematician and astronomer, b. at Rennes, in Brittany, 2 February, 1786; d. in Paris, 12 May, 1856. After two years of study at the Ecole Polytechnique, he was appointed, in 1806, student-engineer in the government department of bridges and roads. Teaching, however, soon attracted him. For some time, he was professor of mathematics at the Lycée Napoléon. He then became, at the Ecole Polytechnique, successively, répétiteur of descriptive geometry, examiner, professor of mechanics, and inspecteur-général of studies. In 1823, he succeeded Delambre in the chair of astronomy at the Collège de France. Because of his intense devotion to the cause of Charles X, the Government of July, 1830, removed him from the Ecole Polytechnique, although it allowed him to retain his professorship at the Collège de France. He had been made a member of the Société Philomathique, in 1812. In 1843, he was elected to succeed Lacroix in the Académie des Sciences, of which he was a most active member and had become president at the time of his death. Binet was a man of modest manner and a devout Catholic.
To mathematics, mechanics, and astronomy, Binet contributed many valuable articles on a great variety of topics. These articles were published in the "Bulletins de la Société philomathique", in the "Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences ", in the "Journal des Mathématiques" (Liouville) and, chiefly, in the "Journal de l'Ecole polytechnique". He also rewrote, to a large extent, the second volume of the "Mécanique analytique" of Lagrange for the edition of 1816. A few of his principal articles are: "Mémoire sur la théorie des axes conjugués et des moments d'inertie des corps", enunciating the principle sometimes called Binet's Theorem (Journ. de l'Ec. pol., IX, 1813); "Mémoire sur la détermination analytique d'une sphère tangente à quatre autres sphères (ibid., X, 1815); "Mémoire sur la détermination des orbites des planètes et des comètes" (ibid., XIII, 1831); "Mémoire sur les intégrales définies eulériennes et sur leur application à la théorie des suites ainsi qu'à l'évaluation des fonctions des grands nombres" (ibid., XVI, 1839; Paris, 1840); "Mémoire sur les inégalités séculaires du mouvement des planètes" (Journal de Math., V, 1840); "Mémoire sur la formation d'une classe très étendue d'équations réciproques renfermant un nombre quelconque de variables" (Paris, 1843).
The Catholic Encyclopedia is the most comprehensive resource on Catholic teaching, history, and information ever gathered in all of human history. This easy-to-search online version was originally printed between 1907 and 1912 in fifteen hard copy volumes.
Designed to present its readers with the full body of Catholic teaching, the Encyclopedia contains not only precise statements of what the Church has defined, but also an impartial record of different views of acknowledged authority on all disputed questions, national, political or factional. In the determination of the truth the most recent and acknowledged scientific methods are employed, and the results of the latest research in theology, philosophy, history, apologetics, archaeology, and other sciences are given careful consideration.
No one who is interested in human history, past and present, can ignore the Catholic Church, either as an institution which has been the central figure in the civilized world for nearly two thousand years, decisively affecting its destinies, religious, literary, scientific, social and political, or as an existing power whose influence and activity extend to every part of the globe. In the past century the Church has grown both extensively and intensively among English-speaking peoples. Their living interests demand that they should have the means of informing themselves about this vast institution, which, whether they are Catholics or not, affects their fortunes and their destiny.
Copyright © Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company New York, NY. Volume 1: 1907; Volume 2: 1907; Volume 3: 1908; Volume 4: 1908; Volume 5: 1909; Volume 6: 1909; Volume 7: 1910; Volume 8: 1910; Volume 9: 1910; Volume 10: 1911; Volume 11: - 1911; Volume 12: - 1911; Volume 13: - 1912; Volume 14: 1912; Volume 15: 1912
Catholic Online Catholic Encyclopedia Digital version Compiled and Copyright © Catholic Online