Failed States: Everyone's Problem
Report Examines Threats to Global Security
WASHINGTON, D.C., JUNE 21, 2004 (Zenit) - A Washington-based think tank, the Center for Global Development, published a study on the security implications of dysfunctional states. The document, "On the Brink: Weak States and U.S. National Security," is a result of an eight-month project of the Commission on Weak States and U.S. National Security.
"Terrorist organizations, transnational crime networks, disease and violence flourish in these countries," said commission co-chair John Edward Porter in a June 8 press release. "Not only do the citizens of these nations suffer, but the world community is imperiled by this general instability and the opportunity for safe haven it provides for those who wish to destabilize other fledgling democracies and the industrialized world."
According to the report, foreign policy problems such as terrorism, transnational crime, global poverty and humanitarian crises have varying causes. "Yet a common thread runs through all of them. They originate in, spread to, and disproportionately affect developing countries where governments lack the capacity, and sometimes the will, to respond."
In comments accompanying the report's release, Nancy Birdsall, president of the Center for Global Development, said there is a veritable "sleeping giant" of threats in countries such as Bolivia, Indonesia, Nigeria and Kenya. These are nations, Birdsall explained, that "now find themselves weakened to the point where their instability threatens to derail political and economic progress and, in some cases, they have become attractive to the entities, some known, others unknown, who would wish to see harm visited on the United States and other nations of the developed world."
The report identified some key gaps that indicate when a state has passed from normal troubles to a situation of chronic weakness.
-- The security gap: Where the state is failing to control its territory and protect its citizens from internal and external threats. This allows terrorists or criminal groups to use the territory in order to mount violent or illicit acts.
-- The capacity gap: Where the state is failing to meet the basic needs (education, health care and infrastructure) of its people. This leaves countries vulnerable to epidemics and other humanitarian crises.
-- The legitimacy gap: Where the state is failing to maintain institutions that protect the basic rights and freedoms of its citizens. The absence of legitimacy provides an opening for violent political opposition, as well as creating greater opportunities for corruption.
The report also observed that these failings affect not only the weak states themselves but also their neighbors. "Regional insecurity is heightened when major powers in the developing world, such as Nigeria or Indonesia, come under stress." The effects can even be global, as in the case when energy producers are affected.
Help states develop
Overcoming these failings will not be easy, notes the report. Money alone will not be sufficient, as "Financial assistance alone, without plans for and commitment to resolving underlying political and structural problems, is insufficient and often wasted." Moreover, the local ruling elites, often part of the problem, cannot be bypassed or easily weakened.
The study considers that the security problems posed by weak states require a broad-based development that will also integrate them more fully into the international community. To achieve this, U.S. foreign policy will need to adapt. The report calls for development policy to be given a higher priority so that the "development challenges of weak states can be effectively managed before they produce security crises." This means that U.S. policy needs to undertake longer-term programs that are more oriented to building up states.
The report acknowledged that in 2002, President George Bush announced a major increase in U.S. aid programs. With the "Millennium Challenge Account," foreign aid is scheduled for an increase of 50%. However, the emphasis of this program is to provide greater assistance to low-income countries that already meet certain conditions of ruling justly, respecting rights and economic freedom. Therefore, weak states "were understandably left out of the conversation -- and in this case, their absence underscored the dearth of strategic thinking on the challenges they pose," noted the report.
Part of the measures suggested in the report are oriented toward the prevention of problems. In the economic area it recommends promoting growth and poverty reduction through increasing market access for developing countries and developing more effective means of assistance.
For example, the report recommends providing duty-free and quota-free access to all imports from a significantly broader range of poor countries that are making progress toward free markets and democracy. Extending debt relief is another suggested measure, both by extending the number of countries eligible and by increasing the relief offered.
Among the preventative measures mentioned is the creation of mechanisms to help poor countries insure against outside economic shocks such as abrupt changes in commodity prices and foreign exchange rates.
In order to strengthen institutions, the report calls for better targeting of assistance for democracy and helping countries to overcome the problem of corruption. Assistance aimed at helping the police and military to maintain security and protect the rights of the local population should also be undertaken, the report urges.
In the case where states need outside help to maintain security, the report recommended that the United States should give greater priority to supporting regional efforts "in preventively deploying military forces, conducting peace enforcement operations, and directing peacekeeping operations."
Greater resources are also needed to promote democracy noted the study. Some steps have been taken, but the report observed that programs in Asia and Africa are "chronically underfunded."
The report also called upon the United States to undertake this effort in the context of greater cooperation with other states and institutions. For example, the more powerful nations that form the Group of Eight can deal with challenges that can be handled only multilaterally, while regional organizations can be of help in implementing measures. As well, the study called for an improvement in the capacity of international institutions, such as the United Nations and the World Bank.
John Paul II has also given much thought to the need for greater help to those nations struggling to develop. "The ongoing challenge remains: to give life to a globalization with solidarity, identifying the causes of economic and social imbalances and exploring operational decisions that are likely to assure to everyone a future under the banner of solidarity and hope," the Pope said in an April 29 message to conference participants brought to Rome by the Vatican Foundation Centesimus Annus-Pro Pontifice to examine themes related to globalization and development.
And in his World Day of Peace Message last Jan. 1, John Paul II noted that part of the fight against terrorism needs to be conducted on the level of "eliminating the underlying causes of situations of injustice which frequently drive people to more desperate and violent acts." He also called for "an education inspired by respect for human life in every situation."
"The unity of the human race is a more powerful reality than any contingent divisions separating individuals and people," said the Pope. A unity that needs to be fostered through concrete measures that will help all nations to develop.
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