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Zionists

Zionists are followers of the movement to segregate the Jewish people as a nation and to give it a national home either in Palestine or elsewhere. Orthodox Judaism holds to a Zionism pure and simple, the return of the Jews to Palestine, the coming of the Messias, the overthrow of hostile powers by Him, the restoration of the Temple and its worship, the Messianic reign. The Reformed Jews reject this idea of a return to Zion. The conference of rabbis, at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 15-28 July, 1845, deleted from the ritual all prayers for a return to Zion and a restoration of a Jewish state. The Philadelphia conference, 1869, followed the lead of the German rabbis and decreed that the Messianic hope of Israel is "the union of all the children of God in the confession of the unity of God ". The Pittsburg conference, 1885, reiterated this Messianic idea of reformed Judaism.

The practical carrying out of Zionism by orthodox Jews has until recently been attempted only fitfully and very ineffectually, and often with no return to Zion as an objective. In the middle of the sixteenth century Joseph Nasi tried to gather the Portuguese Jews to an island owned by the Republic of Venice. In the seventeenth century Shabbethai Zebi (1626-1676) announced himself as the Messias and gained over many Jews to his side; among these, the philosopher Baruch Spinoza. Jewish settlements were established in the upper Mississippi region by W.D. Robinson, 1819; near Jerusalem, by the American Consul Warder Cresson, a convert to Judaism, 1850; in Prague, by Steinschneider, 1835; and elsewhere. Sir Moses Montefiore tried to colonize Jews in Palestine (1840). Laurence Oliphant failed in a like attempt to bring to Palestine the Jewish proletariat of Poland, Lithuania, Rumania, and the Turkish Empire (1879 and 1882). The man who gave dignity, form, and permanence to the Zionist movement was Theodor Herzl. In 1896 his "Jüdenstaat" appeared in Vienna. He soon won over such Jewish leaders as Israel Zangwill, Max Nordau, Alexander Marmorek, and others. The ideas of "Jüdenstaat" spread throughout the Jewish world. Six successive Zion congresses were held. By 1899 there were more than 100,000 shekel-payers. The Sultan of Turkey removed the ban whereby Jews had been prevented from staying longer than three months in Palestine. The now flourishing colony of Mikweh Israel was established near Jaffa. All attempts failed to get from the sultan for the Jews in Palestine any kind of corporate political existence, and any form of provincial or municipal autonomy. Herzl died on 3 July, 1904. At the next, the seventh, Zionist congress, Max Nordau was elected president (1905). Since then the movement has gone on and has remained true to the first, or Basle, congress platform of Jewish autonomy in the new Jewish state.

More Volume: Z 78

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Zádori, János

(DREXLER). Ecclesiastical writer, born at Katloez, County of Neutra, Hungary, 6 March, 1831; ...

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Zängerle, Roman Sebastian

Prince- Bishop of Seekan, born at Ober-Kirchberg near Ulm, 20 January, 1771; died at Seekau, 27 ...

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Zabarella, Francesco

Cardinal, celebrated canonist, born at Padua, 10 August, 1360; died at Constance, 26 September, ...

Zabulon

One of the twelve sons of Jacob and ancestor of the tribe of the same name ( Genesis 46:14 ; ...

Zacatecas

(DE ZACATECAS). Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Guadalajara. Its area is ...

Zaccaria, Francesco Antonio

Theologian, historian, and prolific writer, born at Venice, 27 March, 1714; died in Rome, 10 ...

Zacconi, Ludovico

Musical theorist, born at Pesaro about 1550; died at Venice, after 1623. He became an ...

Zacharias

( Hebrew zekharyahu and zekharyah ; meaning " Yahweh remembers ", Sept. Zacharia and ...

Zacharias Chrysopolitanus

A famous exegete of the Premonstratensian Order ; born at Chrysopolis ( Besançon ); ...

Zachary, Canticle of

The Benedictus, given in Luke 1:68-79, is one of the three great canticles in the opening ...

Zachary, Pope Saint

(ZACHARIAS.) Reigned 741-52. Year of birth unknown; died in March, 752. Zachary sprang from a ...

Zahle and Forzol

A Greco-Melchite diocese. In the seventeenth, or perhaps in the sixteenth, century the diocese ...

Zakho

A diocese of Chaldea. It corresponds to the ancient Diocese of Maalta, formerly a suffragan of ...

Zallinger zum Thurn, Jacob Anton

Philosopher and canonist, born at Bozen, 26 July, 1735, died there, 11 January, 1813. He studied ...

Zallwein, Gregor

Canonist, born at Oberviechtach, Oberpfalz, 20 October, 1712; died at Salzburg, 6 or 9 August, ...

Zalvidea, José Maria de

Born at Bilbao, Vizeaya, Spain, 2 March, 1780; d. in 1846. He became a Franciscan at the ...

Zama

Titular see of Numidia. There were two sees of this name: Zama Major and Zama Minor. Zama ...

Zambesi Mission

The prefecture comprises all Rhodesia south of the Zambesi, that part of Bechuanaland which is ...

Zamboanga, Diocese of

(ZAMBOANGENSIS). Philippine Islands. It includes the islands of Basilan, Camiguin, Dinagat, ...

Zamboni, Giuseppe

Priest and physicist, born at Venice, June, 1776; died there 25 July 1846. Shortly after ...

Zamora

Vicariate Apostolic in South Ecuador, created 3 February, 1893, by Leo XIII. The second ...

Zamora

(ZAMORENSIS). The Diocese of Zamora, located in the Republic of Mexico, comprises almost ...

Zamora

(ZAMORENSIS), suffragan of Valladolid. It is bounded on the north by Leon, on the east by ...

Zampieri, Domenico

Properly DOMENICO ZAMPIERI. An Italian painter, born in Bologna, 21 Oct., 1581; died in ...

Zante

(ZACYNTHOS). This Greek diocese, the only suffragan of the Archdiocese of Corfu , is ...

Zantedeschi, Francesco

Priest and physicist, born 1797; died at Padua, 29 March, 1873. For some time Abate Zantedeschi ...

Zanzibar

At a very remote unknown period the eastern coast of Africa was colonized by Asiatic nations, ...

Zapoteca Indians

A powerful and numerous Mexican tribe located chiefly in Oaxaca and Guerrero, forming with the ...

Zara

(JADERA). Located in Dalmatia. Zara has been a diocese since A.D. 381 and since 1146 an ...

Zarai

Titular see of Numidia in Africa, mentioned by the "Itinerarium Antonini", 35, and by the "Tabula ...

Zarlino, Gioseffe

Italian musical theorist, born at Chioggia in 1517; died at Venice, 4 February, 1590. He ...

Zasius, Ulric

A famous jurist, born at Constance in 1461; died at Freiburg, 24 Nov., 1536. After studying at ...

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Zeal

(From delos , a derivative of deo "to boil", to "throb with heat"), is "a necessary effect ...

Zegers, Nicholas Tacitus

Famous exegete, born either at Diest or Brussels during the latter half of the fifteenth ...

Zela

Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Amasea in the Helenopontus. In pagan times the city, ...

Zell, Karl

Statesman, philologist, and defender of the rights of the Church, b. at Mannheim, 8 April, 1793; ...

Zell, Ulrich

Publisher, the first printer of Cologne, born at Hanau-on-the-Main, date unknown; died about ...

Zengg-Modrus

(SEGNIENSIS ET MOD-RUSIENSIS SEU CORBAVIENSIS). Located in Hungary ; suffragan of Agram. The ...

Zeno of Elea

Greek philosopher, born at Elea, about 490 B.C. At his birthplace Xenophanes and Parmenides had ...

Zeno, Saint

Entered in the Roman Martyrology on 12 April as a Bishop of Verona martyred under Gallienus. ...

Zenobius, Saint

Bishop of Florence and one of the patrons of that city, b. there in the latter part of the ...

Zenonopolis

Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. The abbreviated form used ...

Zephaniah

The ninth of the twelve Minor Prophets of the Canon of the Old Testament ; preached and wrote ...

Zephyrinus, Pope Saint

(Reigned 198-217). Date of birth unknown; died 20 Dec., 217. After the death of Pope Victor in ...

Zephyrium

A titular see in Cilicia Prima, of Tarsus. Nothing is known of the history of Zephyrium, ...

Zeugma

A titular see of Syria, suffragan of Hierapolis, in the Province of the Euphratensis. The city ...

Zeuss, Johann Kaspar

Born at Vogtendorf, in Upper Franconia, 22 July, 1806; d. there, 10 Nov., 1856. He was the founder ...

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Ziegelbauer, Magnoald

Historian, born at Ellwangen, Swabia, 1689; died at Olmütz, 14 January, 1750. He took vows ...

Ziegler, Gregorius Thomas

Bishop of Linz, born at Kirchheim near Augsburg, 7 March, 1770; died at Linz, 15 April, 1852. ...

Zierikzee, Cornelius van

Born at Zierikzee (whence he takes his surname), a town in the Province of Zeeland, Holland, ...

Zigliara, Tommaso Maria

( Baptismal name, FRANCESCO). Cardinal, theologian, and philosopher, b. at Bonifacio, a ...

Zimmer, Patrick Benedict

Philosopher and theologian, b. at Abtsgmund, Wurtenberg, 22 Feb., 1752; d. at Stenheim near ...

Zingarelli, Niccolò Antonio

Composer, born at Naples, 4 April, 1752; died at Torre del Greco, 5 May, 1837. Having studied at ...

Zingerle, Pius

Celebrated Orientalist, born at Meran, in the Tyrol, 17 March, 1801; died at the Abbey of ...

Zionists

Zionists are followers of the movement to segregate the Jewish people as a nation and to give it ...

Zionites

A sect of visionary fanatics which flourished in the eighteenth century at Ronsdorf in the Duchy ...

Zips

(SZEPES; SCEPUSIENSIS). A diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Agria (Eger), founded by Maria ...

Zircz

ZIRCENSIS or BOCCON. Cistercian abbey, situated in the Diocese of Veszprém , ...

Zita's Home for Friendless Women, Saint

Founded at 158 East 24th Street, New York, by Ellen O'Keefe (Mother Zita) in 1890. Born in County ...

Zita, Saint

Model and heavenly patroness of domestic servants, born early in the thirteenth century of a ...

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Zoara

A titular see of Palestina Tertia. It is the ancient Bala or Segor, one of the five cities of ...

Zoega, Jörgen

(GEORGE). Archaeologist and numismatist, born at Daler near Tönder, near the west coast ...

Zolkiewski, Stanislaus

Chancellor of Poland, born in Tuyrnka (Red Russia ), 1547; died at Cecora, 6 Oct., 1620. He ...

Zonaras, John

Byzantine chronicler and canonist, lived from the latter part of the eleventh to about the ...

Zoque Indians

A Mexican tribe dwelling in the western part of Chipas, north of the Sierra Madre, and part of ...

Zosimus

Byzantine historian of the fifth and sixth century; dates of birth and death unknown. Nothing ...

Zosimus, Pope Saint

(Reigned 417-18). Year of birth unknown; died 27 December, 418. After the death of Pope Innocent ...

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Zuñi Indians

A Pueblo tribe residing at Zuñi on the bank of the Rio Zuñi near the boundary of ...

Zucchetto

( zucca , head). The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic. The official name is ...

Zulia, Diocese of

(Zuliensis.) Comprises the State of Zulia in the Republic of Venezuela. The Diocese of Zulia was ...

Zululand

A territory in South Africa lying between 28° and 29° S. Latitude and inhabited by the ...

Zumárraga, Juan de

Born at Durango in the Basque provinces in 1468; died in Mexico, 3 June, 1548. He entered the ...

Zurbaran, Francisco

Born in the suburb of Fuente de Cantos in Estramadure, on the boundaries of Andalusia, Nov., ...

Zurich

The capital of the Swiss canton of the same name which is the second largest and richest of the ...

Zurla, Giacinto Placido

Cardinal Vicar of Rome, writer on medieval geography, born at Legnano, of noble parents, 2 ...

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Zwettl

(CLARAVALLIS AUSTRIAE). A filiation of Heiligenkreuz, of the line of Morimond, situated in ...

Zwingli, Ulrich

(Also, Huldreich ) Founder of the Reformation in Switzerland, born at Wildhaus in ...

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