Southern Kiang-si was separated from the mission of Northern Kiang-si in 1879, and organized into an independent Vicariate Apostolic. The mission possessed at the time 2000 Catholics among a population of ten million. This part of Kiang-si had been greatly neglected up to this time, due to its remoteness. Father Rouger, a Lazarist, was the first superior of the new mission. He retained the title of pro-vicar until 1884, when he was named vicar Apostolic. He established his residence at Ki-ngan-fu. At his death in 1887, Mgr Cogret assumed the direction of the mission. The latter came from Peking, and found only two missionaries in the mission. Southern Kiang-si was often a prey to persecution. In 1884 the Christian districts were pillaged. In August, 1900, the chapels on the frontiers of Kwang-tung were again pillaged, and then burned, and the Christians driven from their homes. Later, toward the end of 1907, Father Candugler, an Italian Lazarist, and more than sixty Christians were massacred at Ta-ho-li; the churches and more than twenty Christian villages were pillaged and destroyed by fire. The following is the account rendered at different periods of the condition of the mission. In 1890: 1 bishop, 16 priests, 27 chapels and churches, 2 seminaries with 28 students, 4 colleges with 87 students, 7 native Daughters of St. Anne, 4 orphan asylums with 136 children, 5229 Catholics, and more than 4000 catechumens. In 1908: 1 bishop, 15 missionaries, 6 native priests, 43 chapels and churches, 2 seminaries with 42 students, 1 college with 30 students, 4 orphan asylums with 317 children, 4 Little Brothers of Mary , 5 Daughters of Charity, 15 native Daughters of St. Anne, 8637 Catholics, and about 3000 catechumens.
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