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(OGNIBENE).

Chronicler, b. at Parma, 9 Oct., 1221; d. probably at Montefalcone about 1288. He was a member of a distinguished family and about 1238 entered the Franciscan Order. For a time he led a very troubled and wandering life, as his father sought to withdraw him from the order by violence. At a later date he was for a long while in the monasteries at Florence, Parma, Ravenna, Reggio, and Montefalcone. He came into close connection with many scholars of his age, and was also acquainted with Pope Innocent IV and the Emperor Frederick II. Besides various treatises that have been lost he wrote, towards the end of his life, a chronicle covering the years 1167-1287. This chronicle was first edited in the "Monumenta historica ad provincias Parmensem et Placentinensem pertinentia", III (Parma, 1857), but the part issued only covered the years 1212-87. The first part of the chronicle, covering the years 1167-1212, was edited by L. Clédat in his work "De fratre Salimbene et de eius chronicae auotoritate" (Paris, 1878). A fine and complete edition was edited by Holder-Egger in "Mon. Germ. Hist.: Scriptores", XXXII (Hanover, 1906). Besides a poor Italian translation by Cantarelli there is an incomplete one in English by Coulton with the title "From Francis to Dante" (London, 1906). The chronicle is one of the most useful sources of the thirteenth century for the political history of that time and is also an animated picture of the era; it is of especial importance for the history of the internal disputes in the Franciscan Order. The writer it is true is a very impulsive and easily influenced man, is swayed by the prophecies of Joachim of Fiore, is inclined to be a partisan, especially against the secular clergy, yet at the same time he shows sound historical sense, is an intelligent critic, and regards it as the chief object of his historical writing to present the exact truth.


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