French Jesuit, theologian, writer, and one of the foremost opponents of Jansenism, b. 5 January, 1590, at Rodes; d. in Paris, 14 June, 1670. He entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus, 16 February, 1607, was professor of philosophy for six, and theology for seven years, in the college of his order at Toulouse, of which he was subsequently appointed rector. Later he filled the same office at Montpellier. He was assistant to the General in Rome, and Provincial of Paris. In 1654 he was sent to the court as confessor of Louis XIV, and, after the faithful and unselfish discharge of the responsible duties of his office, he felt compelled to resign, owing to the illicit attachment of the King to the Duchess de la Valliere. He became known to the learned world in 1632, by a publication of a defense of the Jesuit doctrine of Divine grace against the Oratorian Gibieuf. In 1644 he began a series of more lengthy contributions of the celebrated controversy that sought to reconcile human freedom with Divine efficacious grace. He was prominent in defending Catholic orthodoxy against the attacks of the Port Royal theologians, and merited, in consequence, the notice of the versatile Pascal, who directed the last of the "Provincial Letters" against Père Annat. A full description of his published works may be found in Sommervogel's "Bibliotheque de la Compagnie de Jesus". A complete edition, in three volumes, of his writings appeared in Paris, in 1666, under the title "Opuscula Theologica".
The Catholic Encyclopedia is the most comprehensive resource on Catholic teaching, history, and information ever gathered in all of human history. This easy-to-search online version was originally printed between 1907 and 1912 in fifteen hard copy volumes.
Designed to present its readers with the full body of Catholic teaching, the Encyclopedia contains not only precise statements of what the Church has defined, but also an impartial record of different views of acknowledged authority on all disputed questions, national, political or factional. In the determination of the truth the most recent and acknowledged scientific methods are employed, and the results of the latest research in theology, philosophy, history, apologetics, archaeology, and other sciences are given careful consideration.
No one who is interested in human history, past and present, can ignore the Catholic Church, either as an institution which has been the central figure in the civilized world for nearly two thousand years, decisively affecting its destinies, religious, literary, scientific, social and political, or as an existing power whose influence and activity extend to every part of the globe. In the past century the Church has grown both extensively and intensively among English-speaking peoples. Their living interests demand that they should have the means of informing themselves about this vast institution, which, whether they are Catholics or not, affects their fortunes and their destiny.
Copyright © Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company New York, NY. Volume 1: 1907; Volume 2: 1907; Volume 3: 1908; Volume 4: 1908; Volume 5: 1909; Volume 6: 1909; Volume 7: 1910; Volume 8: 1910; Volume 9: 1910; Volume 10: 1911; Volume 11: - 1911; Volume 12: - 1911; Volume 13: - 1912; Volume 14: 1912; Volume 15: 1912
Catholic Online Catholic Encyclopedia Digital version Compiled and Copyright © Catholic Online