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Konstantin von Höfler

An historian; born at Memmingen, Bavaria, 26 March, 1811; died at Prague, 29 December, 1898. After finishing his studies in the gymnasia at Munich and Landshut, he studied first jurisprudence and then history at the University of Munich under Görres, Döllinger, and especially Schelling, and received his degree in 1831 on presenting the dissertation "Ueber die Anfänge der griechischen Geschichte". Aided by a pension from the government, he studied two more years at Göttingen, where he published a "Geschichte der englischen Civilliste". He then went to Italy, residing chiefly at Florence and Rome, and worked there industriously in the examination of original sources. Returning to Munich he accepted the editorship of the official "Münchener Zeitung" in order to earn a subsistence, but while thus engaged he had by 1838 qualified himself as Privatdozent in history at the university. The following year he became extraordinary, in 1841 ordinary, professor of history; in 1842 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences. In 1839 he published "Die deutschen Päpste" in two volumes. After this he devoted himself to his duties as professor until 1846, when he fell into disfavour with King Ludwig I on account of the position he took, along with several other professors, in the popular agitation against the relations of the king with the dancer Lola Montez. He expressed his views on the subject in "Concordat und Constitutionseid der Katholiken in Bayern", and for this was removed from his university position, 26 March 1847. Although the king after some months took Höfler again into the government service, he was, nevertheless, transferred to Bamberg (Upper Franconia), as keeper of the district archives. With his accustomed zeal he began the study of Franconian history and published in 1849-52 as the fruit of his investigations: "Quellensammlung für fränkische Geschichte", in four volumes, and in 1852-53 "Fränkische Studien", parts I-V. During the same period he issued "Bayern, sein Recht und seine Geschichte" (1850), also in the last mentioned year "Ueber die politische Reformbewegung in Deutschland im Mittelalter und den Anteil Bayerns an derselben (1850). Further, in the midst of these labours, he began the preparation of his "Lehrbuch der Geschichte" which appeared in 1856.

In 1851 when the Austrian school-system was reorganized, Count Thun called Höfler as professor of history to Prague, where he taught with great success until he retired on a pension in 1882. In 1865 he became a member of the Bohemian Diet, in 1872 a life member of the Austrian House of Lords. In this latter year he was raised to the hereditary nobility and received the order of the Iron Crown. In politics he was one of the leaders of the German-Bohemian party, a branch of the constitutional party of that period, and was one of the chief opponents of the Czechs. From 1872, however, he almost practically retired from politics, partly from the increasing opposition which grew up in the German parties in Austria against " Catholicism ", partly because the clerical party was drawing closer to the Slavs. Conflicts were unavoidable; on the one hand he was a thorough German, absolutely convinced of the great mission of the Germans in Austria, on the other he was one of the most faithful sons of the Catholic Church. Consequently he gradually withdrew from party politics, without losing, however, his strong interest in the struggles of the mostly anticlerical German-Bohemiaus against the Czechs, and devoted himself entirely to the cultivation of German sentiment and intellectual life. By his activity, both as teacher and author, he became the founder of the modern school of German-Bohemian historical research, which received enthusiastic support from the Society founded by him, in 1862, for the study of the history of the German element in Bohemia, and in consequence ranks as one of the most deservedly respected historians of Austria.

Höfler gave special attention to the history of the Hussite movement and reached the conclusion that it was directed less against the papacy than against the German power in Bohemia and against the cities. He characterized the movement as "an unsympathetic historical phenomenon, a movement foredoomed to failure, which soon became a burden to itself". He saw in Hus only an antagonist of Germanism, the destroyer of the University of Prague and of the sciences. His works on Hussitism are: "Geschichtsschreiber der husitischen Bewegung" (1856-66), in three volumes; "Magister Johannes Hus und der Abzug der deutschen Professoren und Studenten aus Prag 1409" (1864); "Concilia Pragensia, 1353-1413" (1862). These historical investigations involved Höfler in a violent literary feud with František Palacký, the official historiographer of Bohemia, an enthusiastic representative of Czech interests, and the indefatigable champion of Slavic supremacy in Bohemia. But as the scientific proofs produced by Höfler were indisputable he was victorious in this controversy and broke down Palacký's hitherto unquestioned authority as a historian. These exhaustive studies in Bohemian history led Höfler to deeper research into the history of the Slavic races. In his "Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der slawischen Geschichte" (1879-82), five volumes, he showed how the Slavic element had always warred against the German element; in the same work he emphasized strongly the importance of the German element in the development of Bohemia.

In other works Höfler treated the ecclesiastical reform movements among the Romanic peoples. The most important of this class of his writings is: "Die romanische Welt und ihr Verhältnis zu den Reformideen des Mittelalters" (1878). Others are: "Der Aufstand der kastillianischen Städte gegen Karl V" (1876); "Zur Kritik und Quellenkunde der ersten Regierungsjahre Kaiser Karls V" (1876-83), in three parts; "Der deutsche Kaiser und der letzte deutsche Papst, Karl V und Adrian VI" (1876); "Papst Adrian VI" (1880) in which he proves that this pope was the author of Catholic reform in the sixteenth century. We are also indebted to him for the two volumes of "Monumenta Hispanica" (1881-82). Höfler's contributions to the history of the Hohenzollern family are to be found in: "Denkwürdigkeiten des Ritters Ludwig von Eyb" (1849), and in the monograph "Barbara, Markgräfin von Brandenburg" (1867). Other works worthy of notice are: two volumes of "Abhandlungen zur Geschichte Oesterreichs" (1871-72); "Kritische Untersuchungen über die Quellen der Geschichte König Phiipps des Schönen" (1883); "Bonifatius, der Apostel der Deutschen und die Slawenapostel Konstantinos (Cyrillus) und Methodius" (1887). He also published many papers in the "Denkschriften der k.k. Akademie der Wissenschaften", in the "Fontes rerum Austriacarum", and in the "Zeitschrift des Vereins für die Gesch. der Deutschen in Böhmen".

Höfler also wrote a number of historical dramas in verse, as well as elegant and thoughtful epigrams; his poetical works, however, met with but moderate success. Höfler was an eminent man. Endowed with a keen mind, and profound observation, as well as with many physical advantages, strong health and manly beauty, he succeeded, by hard work and "indefatigable self-discipline" says his successor Bachmann, "in surmounting many initial difficulties and later obstacles and in reaching the high position of a generally respected savant and teacher: he attained the broad views and experience of a statesman, and the sure and harmonious bearing of a sage. Himself the embodiment of kindliness and goodness, to such a degree that he strove to lend assistance where assistance was neither possible nor timely, he anxiously sought to respect the individuality of others and to be a model of courtesy and fairness, not merely to appear such".

More Volume: K 165

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Kögler, Ignaz

(Called LAI in Chinese). Along with Father Adam Schall the most important of the fifty German ...

König, Joseph

Theologian and exegete, born at Hausen on the Aach, District of Hegau, Grand Duchy of Baden, 7 ...

Königgrätz

(REGINAE HRADECENSIS). This Bohemian see owes its origin to Emperor Ferdinand III, who, soon ...

Königshofen, Jacob

More properly JACOB TWINGER VON KÖNIGSHOFEN. Chronicler, b. in 1346 at Königshofen, a ...

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Kabbala

The term is now used as a technical name for the system of esoteric theosophy which for many ...

Kadlubek, Blessed Vincent

(KADLUBO, KADLUBKO). Bishop of Cracow, chronicler, b. at Karnow, Duchy of Sandomir, Poland, ...

Kafiristan and Kashmir, Prefecture Apostolic of

Created (1887) by Leo XIII in the extreme North of India. As regards India proper, the ...

Kafirs

A term popularly to nearly all the natives of South Africa. It was originally imposed by the Arab ...

Kager, Johann Matthias

German historical painter, born at Munich, 1566; died at Augsburg, 1634. He was originally a ...

Kaiser, Kajetan Georg von

Chemist, born at Kelheim on the Danube (Bavaria), 5 January, 1803; died at Munich, 28 August, ...

Kaiserchronik

(Der Keiser und der Kunige buoch.) A German epic poem of the twelfth century. It is at once a ...

Kaiserwilhelmsland

Comprises the German part of the island of New Guinea, area about 460,000 sq. miles; about ...

Kalands Brethren

(Kalandbrüder, Fratres Calendarii.) The name given to religious and charitable ...

Kalcker, Jan Stephanus van

(GIOVANNI DA CALCAR and JOANNES STEPHANUS CALCARENSIS.) Flemish painter, native of the Duchy ...

Kalinka, Valerian

Polish historian, born near Cracow in 1826; died at Jaroslaw in 1886. He fled from Poland in ...

Kalispel Indians

Popularly known under the French name of Pend d'Oreilles, "ear pendants", an important tribe of ...

Kalocsa-Bacs, Archdiocese of

(Colocensis et Bachiensis.) This archdiocese embraces within its territories an archdiocese ...

Kamerun, Vicariate Apostolic of

(Cameroons; Cameroon.) Located in German West Africa, between British Nigeria and French ...

Kan-Su, Prefecture Apostolic of Southern

Separated from the Northern Kan-su mission in 1905, and committed to the Belgian Congregation of ...

Kan-Su, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

This vicariate includes the territory of Ku-ku-nor, northern part of Tibet, and the five ...

Kandy, Diocese of

(Kandiensis.) Formerly part of the Vicariate of Southern Colombo, Ceylon, India, from which ...

Kansas

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Geography Kansas, one of the United States of America , is the central ...

Kansas City, Diocese of

(Kansanopolitana.) Established 10 September, 1880, to include that part of the State of ...

Kant, Philosophy of

Kant's philosophy is generally designated as a system of transcendental criticism tending ...

Karinthia

(CARANTANUM; Slovene, KOROSKO; German KÄRNTEN). A crownland in the Austrian Empire , ...

Karnkowski, Stanislaw

(Karncovious.) Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, born about 1526; died at Lowicz,in ...

Kaskaskia Indians

Formerly chief tribe of the confederacy of Illinois Indians (q.v.). The name is of uncertain ...

Kassai, Upper

Erected as a simple mission in 1901, and detached, as a prefecture Apostolic, from the Vicariate ...

Kateri Tekakwitha, Blessed

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

Kauffmann, Angelica

Born at Coire, in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, 30 October, 1741; died at Rome, 5 November, ...

Kaufmann, Alexander

Poet and folklorist, born at Bonn, 14 May, 1817; died at Wertheim, 1 May, 1893. He came of a ...

Kaufmann, Leopold

Chief Burgomaster of Bonn, brother of the poet and folklorist Alexander Kaufmann, born 13 March, ...

Kaulen, Franz Philip

Scriptural scholar, born 20 March, 1827, at Düsseldorf; died at Bonn, 11 July, 1907. He ...

Kaunitz, Wenzel Anton

An Austrian prince and statesman, born at Vienna 2 February, 1711; died there 27 June, 1794. ...

Kavanagh, Edward

American statesman and diplomat, born at Newcastle, Maine, 27 April, 1795; died there, 21 Jan., ...

Kavanagh, Julia

Novelist and biographer, born 7 Jan., 1824, at Thurles, Ireland ; died 28 October, 1877, at ...

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Ke 32

Kearney, Diocese of

(KEARNEYIENSIS). By Decree of the Sacred Consistorial Congregation of 8 March, 1912, Pius X ...

Keating, Geoffrey

Irish theologian, historian, and poet, b. at Burgess in the parish of Tubbrid, Co. Tipperary, ...

Keewatin, Vicariate Apostolic of

The Vicariate Apostolic of Keewatin includes the northern half of the Province of Saskatchewan, ...

Kehrein, Joseph

Educator, philologist, and historian of German literature, born at Heidesheim, near Mainz, 20 ...

Keller, Jacob

Controversialist, born at Sackingen, Baden, Germany, in 1568; died at Munich, Bavaria, 23 ...

Kellner, Lorenz

Educationist, born at Kalteneber in the district of Eichsfeld, 29 January, 1811; died at Trier, ...

Kells, Book of

An Irish manuscript containing the Four Gospels, a fragment of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian ...

Kells, School of

Kells (in Gaelic Cenannus ) was the chief of the Irish Columban monasteries. It was founded ...

Kemble, Ven. John

Martyr, b. at Rhydicar Farm, St. Weonard's, Herefordshire, 1599; d. at Widemarsh Common, ...

Kemp, John

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Chancellor of England ; b. at Wye, Kent, about 1380; ...

Kenia

Coextensive with the civil province of Kenia (Kenya) in British East Africa, to which the ...

Kenites

(A.V. Kenites). A tribe or family often mentioned in the Old Testament, personified as ...

Kennedy, James

Bishop of St. Andrews, Scotland. Born about 1406; died 10 May, 1466. Of the ancient house of ...

Kenneth, Saint

(Or KENNY). Commemorated on 11 October, born in 515 or 516, at Glengiven, in what is now ...

Kenny, Saint

(Or KENNY). Commemorated on 11 October, born in 515 or 516, at Glengiven, in what is now ...

Kenosis

A term derived from the discussion as to the real meaning of Phil. 2:6 sqq.: "Who being in the ...

Kenraghty

(KIMRACHA, KINRECHTIN, or MAKENRACHTUS; in Irish MACIONNRACHTAIGH, anglicized HANRATTY and ...

Kenrick, Francis Patrick and Peter Richard

Archbishops respectively of Baltimore, Maryland, and of St. Louis, Missouri. They were sons of ...

Kent, Nun of

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...

Kentigern, Saint

(Or M UNGO ) Bishop, founder of the See of Glasgow, b. about 518; d. at Glasgow, 13 ...

Kentucky

A state situated between the parallels of latitude 36° 30 and 39°6' N., and between the ...

Keon, Miles Gerard

Journalist, novelist, colonial secretary, lecturer, last descendent of the Keons, of Keonbrooke, ...

Kerkuk

(CHERCHENSIS). A Chaldean Catholic diocese. The ancient name of the city was Karka of ...

Kernan, Francis

Lawyer, statesman; born in Steuben County, New York, 14 January, 1816; d. at Utica, New York, 7 ...

Kerry and Aghadoe

The Diocese of Kerry and Aghadoe (Kerriensis Et Aghadoensis), suffragan of Cashel, Ireland, is ...

Kerssenbroch, Hermann von

(KERSSENBROICK). A teacher and historian, b. at Monchshof, near Barntrup (Lippe), about 1520; ...

Kervyn de Lettenhove, Joseph-Marie-Bruno-Constantin, Baron

Belgian statesman and historian, b. at Saint-Michel-lez-Bruges, 17 August, 1817; d. there, 3 ...

Kessels, Matthias

Sculptor, b. at Maastricht, 1784; d. at Rome, 3 March, 1836. He was first apprenticed to a ...

Ketteler, Wilhelm Emmanuel, Baron von

Bishop of Mainz, b. at Münster, in Westphalia, 25 Dec., 1811; d. at Burghausen, 13 July, ...

Kevin of Glendalough, Saint

Abbot of Glendalough, Ireland, b. about 498, the date being very obscure; d. 3 June, 618; son ...

Keyes, Erasmus Darwin

Soldier, convert, b. at Brimfield, Massuchusetts, U.S.A. 29 May, 1810; d. at Nice, France, ...

Keys, Power of the

The expression "power of the keys" is derived from Christ's words to St. Peter (in Matthew ...

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Kh 1

Kharput

Armenian Uniat diocese created in 1850. The city of Kharput, Armenian Kharpert, which means ...

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Ki 33

Kiang-nan

(Vicariate Apostolic) The present Vicariate comprises the two provinces of Kiang-su and ...

Kiang-si, Eastern

(Vicariate Apostolic) The mission of Eastern Kiang-si was separated from the mission of ...

Kiang-si, Northern

(Vicariate Apostolic) Father Matteo Ricci of the Society of Jesus was the first missionary ...

Kiang-si, Southern

(Vicariate Apostolic) Southern Kiang-si was separated from the mission of Northern Kiang-si in ...

Kickapoo Indians

Apparently corrupted from a longer term signifying "roamers", a tribe of Algonquian stock, ...

Kickham, Charles Joseph

Patriot, novelist, and poet, b. at Mullinahone, Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 1828; d. at Blackrock, Co. ...

Kielce

(Russian K IELTZY ; Latin K IELCENSIS ) Diocese in the sourthern part of Russian Poland, ...

Kieran, Saints

There are many Irish saints of this name, but the most celebrated is St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise ...

Kildare and Leighlin

(KILDARENSIS ET LEIGHLINENSIS) One of the four suffragans of Dublin, Ireland. These two ...

Kildare, School of

Kildare (Irish: Cill-Dara ), originally known as Druim Criaidh , or the Ridge of Clay, ...

Kilian, Saint

(Killena, Cillíne). Apostle of Franconia and martyr, born about 640 of noble parents ...

Killala

(ALLADENSIS). Diocese. It is one of the five suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical Province ...

Killaloe

(LAONIA) A suffragan diocese of Cashel ; it comprises the greater part of County Clare, a ...

Kilmore

(KILMORENSIS) Diocese in Ireland, includes almost all Cavan and about half of Leitrim. It ...

Kilwardby, Robert

Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina ; died at Viterbo, 11 ...

Kilwinning, Benedictine Abbey of

Located in Ayrshire, Scotland, in the town of the same name, where a church was said to have been ...

Kimberley

(KIMBERLIENSIS) Vicariate apostolic ; suffragan of Adelaide, erected by Leo XIII , 5 May, ...

Kimberley in Orange

(KYMBERLEYENSIS IN ORANGIA). The portion of South Africa which at the present day forms the ...

Kingdom of God

(In Matthew, generally, Kingdom of Heaven ). In this expression the innermost teaching of the ...

Kingisel

The name of two abbots who ruled Glastonbury in the seventh and eighth centuries respectively. ...

Kings

(Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...

Kings, Chronology of the

First, we append a table in which the data of the Bible are put together. For the kings of Juda, ...

Kings, First and Second Books of

(Also know as the F IRST AND S ECOND B OOKS OF S AMUEL. For the First and Second Books of ...

Kings, Third and Fourth Books of

The historical book called in the Hebrew Melakhim, i.e. Kings, is in the Vulgate, in imitation ...

Kingston

(KINGSTONIENSIS or REGIOPOLITANA) The Archdiocese of Kingston comprises the territory from the ...

Kinloss

(Gaelic ceann-loch , "head of the loch"). Cistercian abbey on the coast of Morayshire, ...

Kino, Eusebius

A famous Jesuit missionary of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. 10 August, 1644, in ...

Kiowa Indians

(Pronounced Kai-o-wa , Latin spelling. Spanish form: Caygua ; Comanche form: Kaiwa , from ...

Kirby, Blessed Luke

Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

Kircher, Athanasius

Celebrated for the versatility of his knowledge and particularly distinguished for his ...

Kirkwall

A parish, also a royal and parliamentary burgh and chief or county town of Orkney, in the north ...

Kisfaludy

Sándor Kisfaludy Born at Suemeg, Hungary, 27 Sept., 1772; died at Suemeg, 28 October, ...

Kiss

Four times in the Epistles of St. Paul we meet the injunction, used as a sort of formula of ...

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Kl 6

Klaczko, Julian

Polish author, b. at Vilna, 6 November, 1825, of Jewish parents ; d. at Cracow, 26 November, ...

Klee, Heinrich

German theologian and exegete, b. at Münstermaifeld, in the Rhine province, 20 April, ...

Klesl, Melchior

A cardinal and Austrian statesman, b. at Vienna, 19 February, 1552; d. at Wiener-Neustadt, 18 ...

Kleutgen, Josef Wilhelm Karl

German theologian and philosopher, b. at Dortmund, Westphalia, 9 April, 1811; d. at St. Anton ...

Klinkowström

Friedrich August von Klinkowström Artist, author and teacher; b. at Ludwigsburg in Swedish ...

Klopp, Onno

Historian, b. on 9 October, 1822, at Leer (East Friesland); d. at Vienna, 9 August 1903. After ...

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Kn 17

Knabl, Joseph

A master of religious plastic art, b. at Fliess, Tyrol, in 1819; d. at Munich in 1881. He was ...

Kneeling

To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...

Kneipp, Sebastian

Bavarian priest and hydrotherapist, b. at Stephansreid, Bavaria, 17 May, 1821; d. at ...

Knight, Venerable William

Put to death for the Faith at York, on 29 November, 1596; with him also suffered Venerables ...

Knighthood

Chivalry (derived through the French cheval from the Latin caballus ) as an institution is ...

Knighton, Henry

(CNITTHON) A fourteenth-century chronicler. Nothing is known of his career except that he was ...

Knights of Christ, Order of the

A military order which sprang out of the famous Order of the Temple (see Knights Templars ). ...

Knights of Columbus

A fraternal and beneficent society of Catholic men, founded in New Haven, Connecticut, 2 ...

Knights of Malta

(Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

Knights of the Cross

(Ordo Militaris Crucigerorum cum Rubea Stella.) A religious order famous in the history of ...

Knights Templars, The

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

Knoblecher, Ignatius

Catholic missionary in Central Africa, born 6 July, 1819, at St. Cantian in Lower Carniola; died ...

Knoll, Albert (Joseph)

Dogmatic theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, born at Bruneck in northern Tyrol, ...

Knowledge

I. Essentials of Knowledge II. Kinds of Knowledge III. The Problem of Knowledge Knowledge, ...

Knowledge of Jesus Christ

" Knowledge of Jesus Christ," as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know ...

Knownothingism

This was a name applied to a movement in American politics which attracted a large share of public ...

Knox, John

Scotch Protestant leader, b. at Haddington, Scotland, between 1505 and 1515; d. at Edinburgh, ...

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Ko 19

Kober, Franz Quirin von

German canonist and pedagogist, b. of simple countryfolk on 6 March, 1821, at Warthausen, ...

Koberger, Anthony

(KOBURGER, COBERGER). German printer, publisher, and bookseller, b. about 1445; d. at ...

Kobler, Andreas

An historian, b. at Muhldorf in Bavaria, 22 June, 1816; d. at Klagenfurt, 15 November, 1892. He ...

Kochanowski, Jan

Born at Sycyna, 1530, died at Lublin, 22 August, 1584. He was inscribed in 1544 as a student in ...

Kochowski, Vespasian

Born at Sandomir ?, 1633; died at Krakow, 1699. He received his education at the Jesuit ...

Kohlmann, Anthony

Educator and missionary, b. 13 July, 1771, at Kaiserberg, Alsace; d. at Rome, 11 April, 1836. He ...

Koller, Marian Wolfgang

Scientist and educator, b. at Feistritz in Carniola, Austria, 31 October, 1792; d. of cholera at ...

Konarski, Stanislaus

Born in 1700; died in 1773. This great reformer of Polish schools was a Piarist who, during a ...

Konings, Anthony

Born at Helmond, Diocese of Bois-1e-Duc, Holland, 24 August, 1821; died 30 June, 1884. After a ...

Konrad ("der Pfaffe")

Surnamed DER PFAFFE ("The Priest"). A German epic poet of the twelfth century, author of the ...

Konrad of Lichtenau

A medieval German chronicler, d. at Ursperg, in the year 1240. He descended from a noble Swabian ...

Konrad of Megenberg

(KUNRAT). Scholar and writer, b. probably at Mainberg, near Schweinfurt, Bavaria, 2 February, ...

Konrad of Würzburg

A Middle High German poet, b. about 1230; d. at Basle, 1287. He was the most important of the ...

Konsag, Ferdinand

A German missionary of the eighteenth century, b. 2 December, 1703, at Warasdin, Croatia ; d. 10 ...

Koran, The

The sacred book of the Muslims, by whom it is regarded as the revelation of God. Supplemented by ...

Kosciuszko, Tadeusz

Polish patriot and soldier, b. near Novogrudok, Lithuania, Poland, 12 February, 1746; d. at ...

Kostka, Saint Stanislas

Born at Rostkovo near Prasnysz, Poland, about 28 October, 1550; died at Rome during the night of ...

Kottayam, Vicariate Apostolic of

Located on the Malabar Coast, India. This vicariate forms part of the territory of the ancient ...

Kozmian, Stanislaus and John

Two brothers who took part in the Polish insurrection of 1831, and subsequently fled the country. ...

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Kr 11

Krämer, John

(Also called INSTITOR, the Latin form of his name). Born about the end of the fourteenth ...

Krafft, Adam

Sculptor, b. about 1440 at Nuremberg ; d. Jan., 1509 at Schwabach. He carved at Nuremberg the ...

Krain

(Or CARNIOLA; Slov. KRANJSKO) A duchy and crownland in the Austrian Empire, bounded on the ...

Krasicki, Ignatius

Born in 1735; died at Berlin, 1801. He took orders in early youth, and soon after became a canon, ...

Krasinski, Sigismund

Count, son of a Polish general, b. at Paris, 19 Feb., 1812; d. there, 23 Feb., 1859. He lost his ...

Kraus, Franz Xaver

An ecclesiastical and art historian, b. at Trier, 18 September, 1840; d. at San Remo, 28 ...

Kreil, Karl

Austrian meteorologist and astronomer, b. at Ried, Upper Austria, 4 Nov., 1798; d. at Vienna, 21 ...

Kreiten, William

Literary critic and poet, b. 21 June, 1847, at Gangelt near Aschen; d. 6 June, 1902, at Kerkrade ...

Kremsmünster

A Benedictine abbey in Austria, on the little river Krems, about twenty miles south of Linz, ...

Kromer, Martin

A distinguished Polish bishop and historian; b. at Biecz in Galicia in 1512; d. at Heilsberg, ...

Krzycki, Andrew

Date of birth uncertain; d. in 1535. — A typical humanistic poet, a most supple courtier ...

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Ku 5

Kuhn, Johannes von

Theologian, b. at Waeschenbeuren in Wuertemberg, 19 Feb., 1806; d. at Tübingen, 8 May, 1887. ...

Kulturkampf

The name given to the political struggle for the rights and self-government of the Catholic ...

Kumbakonam

(KUMBAKONENSIS). Kumbakonam, signifying in English the "Jug's Corner," is a town of 60,000 ...

Kuncevyc, Saint Josaphat

Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...

Kutenai Indians

An important tribe of south-eastern British Columbia and the adjacent portions of Montana and ...

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Kw 4

Kwang-si

(Prefecture Apostolic) The mission of Kwang-si comprises the entire province of that name. As ...

Kwang-tung

(Prefecture Apostolic) This prefecture comprises the whole province of that name except the ...

Kwango

(Prefecture Apostolic) Kwango is the name of a river which flows into the Kassai, which itself ...

Kwei-chou

(Vicariate Apostolic) The mission of Kwei-chou embraces the entire province of that name. The ...

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Ky 1


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