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Historian, b. at Neustadt, near Friedland, Bohemia, 18 July, 1812; d. 1 September, 1889, as dean of Weisskirchlitz, near Teplitz. After completing his classical and theological studies at Leitmeritz, he became chaplain at Arnsdorf, a post he held for eighteen years. Thenceforth to his death he was pastor at Weisskirchlitz. While chaplain, he began to collect old books, paintings, and copper-plate engravings, also gems and shells. He succeeded in collecting a small but valuable museum, that excited the astonishment of all connoisseurs for the treasures it contained. His library attained to especial celebrity because of the copious collection of rare early printed books, e.g. the ten pre-Reformation German translations of the Bible . He also made a scientific use of his treasures, and wrote several books about them, notable contributions in his day to the knowledge of medieval German religious life and the German language. Especially worthy of mention are: "Der christliche Glaube des deutschen Volkes beim Schluss des Mittelalters" (Ratisbon, 1868), a very valuable and authoritative work, treating of ninety-three printed books and manuscripts ; "Dr. M. Luther und die religiöse Literatur seiner Zeit bis zum Jahre 1520)" (Ratisbon, 1881), a documentary description of the religious and moral conditions of the Middle Ages ; also: "Die Himmelstrasse" (Ratisbon, 1882); and "Die letzte Rose, oder Eklärung des Vater Unser nach Markus von Weida" (Ratisbon, 1883), "Ein Vergissmeinnicht oder Von der heiligen Messe" (Ratisbon, 1884); finally, "Herbstblumen, oder christlicher Volksunterricht in der vorreformatorischen Zeit" (Ratisbon, 1885).

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The Catholic Encyclopedia is the most comprehensive resource on Catholic teaching, history, and information ever gathered in all of human history. This easy-to-search online version was originally printed between 1907 and 1912 in fifteen hard copy volumes.

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Designed to present its readers with the full body of Catholic teaching, the Encyclopedia contains not only precise statements of what the Church has defined, but also an impartial record of different views of acknowledged authority on all disputed questions, national, political or factional. In the determination of the truth the most recent and acknowledged scientific methods are employed, and the results of the latest research in theology, philosophy, history, apologetics, archaeology, and other sciences are given careful consideration.

No one who is interested in human history, past and present, can ignore the Catholic Church, either as an institution which has been the central figure in the civilized world for nearly two thousand years, decisively affecting its destinies, religious, literary, scientific, social and political, or as an existing power whose influence and activity extend to every part of the globe. In the past century the Church has grown both extensively and intensively among English-speaking peoples. Their living interests demand that they should have the means of informing themselves about this vast institution, which, whether they are Catholics or not, affects their fortunes and their destiny.

Copyright © Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company New York, NY. Volume 1: 1907; Volume 2: 1907; Volume 3: 1908; Volume 4: 1908; Volume 5: 1909; Volume 6: 1909; Volume 7: 1910; Volume 8: 1910; Volume 9: 1910; Volume 10: 1911; Volume 11: - 1911; Volume 12: - 1911; Volume 13: - 1912; Volume 14: 1912; Volume 15: 1912

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