Skip to content
Catholic Online Logo

By Catholic Online (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

2/29/2012 (3 years ago)

Catholic Online (www.catholic.org)

Middle Eastern nation has not known stability since 1979

Long a thorn in the side of the West, the nation of Iran has a long, proud and calamitous history of defiance. Having toppled the autocratic Shah in 1979, who was nonetheless friendly with the United States, the former revolutionaries themselves are now being challenged by groups thirsting for change.

In the lead up to the elections Mir-Hussein Mousavi held a number of popular rallies. Mousavi's supporters dressed themselves in green scarves, wristbands and other items as they paraded in the streets of Iranian cities to show support for the reform candidate.

In the lead up to the elections Mir-Hussein Mousavi held a number of popular rallies. Mousavi's supporters dressed themselves in green scarves, wristbands and other items as they paraded in the streets of Iranian cities to show support for the reform candidate.

Highlights

By Catholic Online (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

Catholic Online (www.catholic.org)

2/29/2012 (3 years ago)

Published in Middle East

Keywords: Iran, Green Party, Khomeini, opposition, revolution


LOS ANGELES, CA (Catholic Online) - Opposition to them began shortly after the revolution that ended the Shah's reign. Iran fought a long and costly war with Iraq, and splits emerged among the once united revolutionary front. The Iranian government began a crackdown on dissent in an attempt to consolidate power and bring stability to the nascent Islamic Republic.

The most famous of the early opposition groups was the People's Mujahedeen of Iran, or MEK. In spite of being closely allied to Ayatollah Khomeini and his supporters throughout the 1970s, the group split from the Supreme Leader shortly after the revolution.

In 1981, the conflict between the government and MEK fighters descended into street battles. Outlawed shortly afterwards, Iraq's Saddam Hussein exploited the group, giving it a base in Iraq and support to wage attacks inside Iran and provide intelligence. 

Also among the opposition groups was the Tudeh party, or the "party of the masses." Many of this group's members were arrested and executed during the 1980s.

Faced with mounting opposition on all sides, the Islamic Republic banned all political parties save the Islamic Republic Party in 1981. Khomeini later broke up the party in 1985 over internal conflicts. Only parties that adhered to the Islamic character of the state could operate legally.

Those who held different views paid a heavy price, like Abulhassan Babnisdar, the Islamic Republic's first president. He went into exile after being impeached a year after taking office.

Another high-profile figure fell foul of the Supreme Leader in 1989. Ayatollah Hussein-Ali Montazeri, Khomeini's heir apparent, was fired after he had called for more openness and criticized the crackdown on dissent.

Montazeri was replaced by the more conservative Ayatollah Ali Khameinei, who succeeded Khomeini upon his death in June 1989. He remains Iran's Supreme Leader today.

Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was elected as president for the first of two terms. Critics accuse Rafsanjani of widespread corruption. He oversaw the period of reconstruction after nearly a decade of the devastating war with Iran.

In 1997, the election of the reformist Mohammad Khatami arrived in a surprising landslide victory indicating the country was ready for change. While Khatami encouraged more openness in Iran, his reformist agenda was limited by the judiciary, which remained controlled by conservatives.

Khatami had tried to increase the president's powers and limit the power of the Guardian Council, a 12-member council half appointed by the Supreme Leader and half selected by parliament, but was blocked by the powerful body that is able to veto parliament and interpret the constitution.

And then, the "Green Movement." Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, a conservative who, ironically, doesn't come from a clerical background like most of his predecessors, was elected to his first term as president in 2005. Ahmadinejad's first term was characterized by defiance to western-imposed sanctions and threats against Iran. 

Ahmadinejad stood for re-election against his main challenger, Mir-Hussein Mousavi in 2009. Mousavi, who served as the Islamic Republic's first and only prime minister from 1979 until the office was abolished in 1989, was a close ally of former president Khatami and ran as the main reform candidate.

In the lead up to the elections Mousavi held a number of popular rallies. Mousavi's supporters dressed themselves in green scarves, wristbands and other items as they paraded in the streets of Iranian cities to show support for the reform candidate.

Despite the visible display of support for Mosuavi, Ahmadinejad emerged from the June elections as the nationwide winner with over 64 percent of the vote; Mousavi finished second with just under 34 percent.

When Iranians go to the polls to elect fresh members of parliament on March 2, they will do so without the major reform candidates on the ballots. Most pro-reform groups are calling for boycott, but some individuals will run as independents.

.

---


Pope Francis: end world hunger through 'Prayer and Action'


Copywriter 2015 - Distributed by THE NEWS CONSORTIUM

Pope Francis Prayer Intentions for July 2015
Universal:
That political responsibility may be lived at all levels as a high form of charity.
Evangelization: That, amid social inequalities, Latin American Christians may bear witness to love for the poor and contribute to a more fraternal society.



Comments


More Middle East

YOU WILL NOT TAKE MY HEAD! - Notorious ISIS executioner 'Jihadi John' now on the run from his former bosses Watch

Image of There are rumors that Jihadi John had been moved by ISIS to Libya, where he supposedly attended a terror training camp with Sousse gunman Seifeddine Rezgui.

By Catholic Online (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

He was at one time the most visible and dreaded figure in the Islamic State terror group . now, "Jihadi John" has fled for his life, afraid that his ISIS overlords were planning to kill him with as much leniency mercy as he did captive journalists. LOS ANGELES, ... continue reading


ISIS executes two homosexuals by pushing them off the roof (WARNING: Graphic Content) Watch

Image of The unidentified male victims were sadistically dangled over the side of the building before being pushed.

By Catholic Online (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

In what appears to be their favored method of execution for those accused of homosexuality, ISIS agents tied the hands of two men behind their back and then pushed them off a rooftop to their deaths in Homs, Syria. The jihadis blindfold the men before standing ... continue reading


Catholic relief Services roll up their sleeves to help rebuild Gaza Watch

Image of Reconstruction efforts in Gaza are complicated by the Israeli blockade.

By Kevin J. Jones, CNA/EWTN News

One year after an outbreak of violence between the Israeli military and Hamas militants in Gaza, Catholic Relief Services is helping conflict victims to find new homes. Gaza City (CNA/EWTN News) - "It's hard to believe it's been a year already. Unfortunately, it ... continue reading


The Cubs of the Caliphate take over: ISIS cub executes Iraqi 'spy' in latest horrific propaganda video (WARNING: Graphic Content) Watch

Image of The young ISIS soldier who shot an Iraqi spy at point blank.

By Linky C. (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

ISIS has once again released another shocking video, this time featuring a young boy shooting an alleged Iraqi spy in the head, point blank. The child dressed in black from head-to-toe executes the man after he confesses he has been spying on ISIS in the Iraqi town of ... continue reading


Forced to chew a sandal! Captured ISIS killer ridiculed on TV by Iraqi media Watch

Image of Chewing a sandal is greatly insulting in Iraq.

By Nikky Andres (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

An ISIS terrorist, accused of taking the lives of 60 unarmed Iraqi army soldiers, was forced to chew a sandal, an incredibly insulting act in the Arab world, as he appeared in front of news cameras in Iraq. In the Arab culture, simply showing the sole of your shoe is a ... continue reading


'Give me my weapon': ISIS releases disturbing video featuring 'the cubs of the Caliphate' directly speaking to the camera Watch

Image of Where are the suicide attackers?

By Abigail James (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

In what is believed to be the first time ever, ISIS has released a propaganda video featuring the "cubs," some as young as three, as the primary speakers. LOS ANGELES, CA (Catholic Online) - The latest video, released from the terrorist group's official media wing in ... continue reading


Turkish student activist dies in ISIS suicide bombing minutes after posting a selfie Watch

Image of Recent ISIS Bombing kills Turkish students minutes after sharing a Selfie.

By Linky C. (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

Turkish student activist, Ezgi Saadet has died in a ISIS suicide bombing, along with 30 others, last Monday in Suruc - a town located at the Southern area of Turkey. Saadet posted a selfie with fellow student activists several minutes prior to the attack; the picture ... continue reading


Terrorist group mimics 'Game of Thrones': Parades ISIS commander through town to be hanged Watch

Image of ISIS Commander Abu-Nabil Al-Anbari [not pictured] was captured and was forced to do the

By Linky C. (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

Abu-Nabil Al-Anbari, who was dispatched by ISIS to create an Islamic State in Libya was captured by a rival Islamist group and forced to participate in a "Game of Thrones-style" walk-of-shame through a Libyan city, along with other captives, before he was hanged to ... continue reading


ISIS forces young kidnapped boys to join them and endure extreme radical training Watch

Image of ISIS turns young boys into weapons.

By Nikky Andres (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

It has been revealed that more than 120 young boys were given a doll and a sword to perform a beheading under ISIS' command, as part of the "Cubs of the Caliphate." MUNTINLUPA, PHILIPPINES (Catholic Online) - A 14-year-old who was abducted and later able to escape his ... continue reading


Ice offered to sweltering Iraqis turns deadly after ISIS detonates car bomb Watch

Image of More than 100 people were killed, dozens were injured, and a massive crater in the floor of the marketplace bears mute witness to the despicable scene of mass slaughter.

By Catholic Online (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

Sweltering Iraqi citizens were lured with the promise of cheap ice in Iraq. It was all part of a diabolical trick by Islamic State, who detonated bombs, killing up to 115 people. One jihadi drove a vehicle packed with more than three tons of explosives into the market ... continue reading


All Middle East News

Newsletters

Newsletter Sign Up icon

Stay up to date with the latest news, information, and special offers

Daily Readings

Reading 1, Exodus 33:7-11; 34:5-9, 28
7 Moses used to take the Tent and pitch it outside ... Read More

Psalm, Psalms 103:6-7, 8-9, 10-11, 12-13
6 Yahweh acts with uprightness, with justice to all ... Read More

Gospel, Matthew 13:35-43
35 This was to fulfil what was spoken by the prophet: ... Read More

Saint of the Day

Saint of the Day for July 28th, 2015 Image

St. Innocent I
July 28: Innocent was born at Albano, Italy. He became Pope, succeeding ... Read More

Inform, Inspire & Ignite Logo

Find Catholic Online on Facebook and get updates right in your live feed.

Become a fan of Catholic Online on Facebook


Follow Catholic Online on Twitter and get News and Product updates.

Follow us on Twitter