Skip to content
Catholic Online Logo

By Andrew M. Greenwell, Esq.

5/13/2013 (1 year ago)

Catholic Online (www.catholic.org)

In the words of John Dryden's poem "The Hind and the Panther," the word transubstantiation "loosed the tongue," and with the tongue the human mind, "to explain," in the best human words available in the judgment of the Church, what our Catholic "forefathers meant by real presence in the sacrament." 

Highlights

By Andrew M. Greenwell, Esq.

Catholic Online (www.catholic.org)

5/13/2013 (1 year ago)

Published in Living Faith

Keywords: Eucharist, Transubstantiation, real presence, Andrew M. Greenwell, Tres Linguae Sacrae


CORPUS CHRISTI, TX (Catholic Online) - Jesus identified himself as the "living bread that has come down from heaven" given by God the Father.  (John 6:51)  He called himself the "bread of life," which, if eaten, gave eternal life.  (John 6:31)  He stated in no uncertain terms that the "bread which I am to give," was his "flesh," the "flesh of the Son of Man," and that, unless a man "eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood," he would have no spiritual life.  (John 6:52, 54-55)  This was "God's gift of bread" that came "down from heaven," and would give "life to the whole world."  (John 6:33)

Those words of promise came to reality when Jesus, at the Last Supper, uttered the words of Institution over the bread--"This is my body"--and over the wine--"This is my blood."  (Matt. 26:26-28; see also Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20) 

Two sets of four words: eight words in all.  In his marvelous hymn Pange Lingua, St. Thomas caught the gist of this remarkable historical grace-event ushered in by eight simple words: se dat suis manibus, Jesus gave himself with his hands.  This is pure St. Augustine: Jesus, Augustine says, "carried himself when he said, 'this is my Body.'"  (Enarr. in Ps., 33.II)

St. Paul recognized the import of Jesus' words of Institution when wrote to the Corinthians that they eat and drink damnation to themselves if they eat and drink the "Lord's body and blood" unworthily, not recognizing or discerning the Lord's body in the Sacrament of the Eucharist.  (1 Cor. 11:27-29)

There is no room for doubt that the early Church, maintaining the apostolic doctrine learned from none other than Jesus himself, understood that the bread and wine, after the words of Institution were uttered over them by the bishop or priest, became, in reality, the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ.  Francis Beckwith has called this belief by the early Church Eucharistic realism.

Witness, as just one example of myriads that could be cited of this Eucharistic realism, the yearning of St. Ignatius of Antioch in his Letter to the Romans written around 110 A.D.  Though in chains and being taken to sure martyrdom, he desired to celebrate the Eucharist which he described thus:  "I desire the Bread of God, the heavenly Bread, the Bread of Life, which is the flesh of Jesus Christ, the Son of God . . . .  I wish the drink of God, namely His blood, which is incorruptible love and eternal life." 

Witness also the words of St. Cyril of Jerusalem (ca. 313-386 A.D.) to his catechumens, as he taught them that before the consecration there existed "simple bread and wine," but after the consecration the "bread becomes the Body of Christ, and the wine the Blood of Christ."  After the consecration, he explained, the bread and the wine were not to be considered "bare elements, for they are, according to the Lord's declaration, the Body and Blood of Christ."  He tells the catechumens not to judge by "sense," or by "taste," but to grasp the truth by "faith," and so be "fully assured without misgiving" of Christ's Real Presence under the veils of bread and wine.  (Cat. Lects., 19.7; 22.6)

The witness of the Church Fathers which, when added to the clear message in the Scriptures, testify monolithically that the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist is part of the oral and written "traditions" received by the apostles from Jesus, handed down by them, and part of the early Church's faith. (cf. 2 Thess. 2:15)  It is revealed truth.

To be sure, the Real Presence is a mystery--the mysterium fidei--the mystery of faith, as it is frequently referred to.  Simply put, it is the belief that, after the words of consecration, Jesus is really, substantially, ontologically, essentially and entirely present, Body and Soul, Humanity and Divinity under the species, or under the accidents, or "under the veil" in Cardinal Newman's words, of bread and wine which no longer have any substantive reality as bread or wine. 

Christ's Real Presence has presented a stumbling block to those weak in faith, to those who rely on their senses or their reason alone to circumscribe God, and so seek to bind God to a lesser truth (their own), and thereby limit the power and presence and design of the Word of God. 

The Church, however, loyal to the Word made flesh, recognizes like the poet John Dryden that some truths--mysteries of the Faith, in particular, of which the Real Presence is one--are truths beyond the senses and beyond reason, though without contradicting their witness.  God is not confined to a box of sensory perception and human reason.  If one can comprehend it with the senses and with reason, it is not God. 

To limit God to what we learn from our senses and our reason is to make God a creature, to put God in a cage of sense and reason, to domesticate God.  It is to naturalize the supernatural, to tame the Divine.  It is also to emasculate faith, which is intended to take us way beyond human senses and human reason to another order altogether--the supernatural order.  "Faith is the evidence of things not seen!"  (Heb. 11:1)

But God, so wildly in love with us, will not be leashed by human weakness.

Can I my reason to my faith compel,
And shall my sight, and touch, and taste rebel?
Superior faculties are set aside;
Shall their subservient organs be my guide?


The Church answers Dryden's questions with an unequivocal "No!"

The Catholic Church takes the "is" in the words of the Lord, "This is my body" and "This is my blood," to mean, very simply, "is."  In varying degrees, those who rely too much on senses, or whose faith is too rationalistic, or who are just plain misinformed or misguided and so reject the dogma of the Church parse words and equivocate like President Clinton in his notorious statement: "It depends upon what the meaning of the word 'is' is." 

Sadly, those without the faith of the Church don't take Jesus at his word when he uses the word "is," but cavil, argue, quibble, wriggle, invoke nuance so as to have the word "is" mean anything else but "is."  If sincere, they might be, like the Roman Catechism charitably puts it, "possibly . . . overwhelmed" by the "greatness" of this mystery. 

But let us not belittle the gift of God!  "If you knew the gift of God!" said Jesus to the Samaritan woman at the well, and, we might be sure, to those who deny the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist.   (John 4:10)

In responding over the centuries to efforts to "cavil, argue, quibble, wriggle, and invoke nuance" regarding the word "is," the word the Church ultimately selected to protect this very simple and unwavering belief that "is" means "is" and nothing less than "is," is "transubstantiation."  It is therefore a word worth exploring in our series Tres Linguae Sacrae.

"Because Christ our Redeemer said that it was truly his body that he was offering under the species of bread," the Church declared at the Council of Trent, "it has always been the conviction of the Church of God, and this holy council now again declares, that, by the consecration of the bread and wine, there takes a change of the whole substance of bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord and of the whole substance of wine into the substance of his blood.  This change the holy Catholic Church has fittingly and properly named transubstantiation."  (DS 1642)

The Council of Trent defended Catholic Eucharistic doctrine against the attacks of the Protestant reformers, but it drew from its patrimony when it used the word "transubstantiation," a word first used by theologians to description the faith of the fathers in earlier controversies, and later adopted by the Church as descriptive of what occurs when the bread and wine are consecrated as when used by Pope Innocent III (1208 A.D.), the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), the Second Council of Lyons (1274), and the Council of Florence (1439).  (DS 782, 802, 860, 1321)

The word transubstantiation therefore had a centuries-old pedigree by the time it was used in the Council of Trent, though the truth it encapsulated was there in Christ's simple evangelical word "is."

The "dogma of transubstantiation," as Pope Paul VI called it in his encyclical on the Eucharist,  Mysterium Fidei, No. 10, is a "perennially valid teaching," says Blessed John Paul II in his Encyclical on the Eucharist, Ecclesia de Eucharistia,  No. 15.  The word transubstantiation ought to be worn proudly, like a badge of fidelity to the Lord. 

Section 1413 of the current Catechism of the Catholic Church insists on it as the means by which Jesus Christ "living and glorious" makes his appearance at Mass: "By the consecration the transubstantiation of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ is brought about.  Under the consecrated species of bread and wine, Christ himself, living and glorious, is present in a true, real, and substantial manner: his Body and Blood, with his soul and his divinity."

The word transubstantiation comes from Latin, transubstantiatio, a word formed by the prefix trans (meaning "across") and substantia (meaning "substance").  Literally, therefore, it means to undergo a change from one substance to another substance, which precisely describes the faith of the Church when it comes to her understanding of what happens at the words of consecration at Mass.

The concept of transubstantiation draws vaguely and loosely from Aristotelian metaphysics, but also absolutely revolutionizes Aristotle, since Aristotle had no notion of transubstantiation, only of the categories of substances and accidents.  Aristotle, moreover, would never have even imagined that the accidents of bread and wine "continue without a subject," through the direct power of God, who as creator of "both substance and accident, can by His unlimited power preserve an accident in existence when the substance is withdrawn whereby it was preserved in existence," as St. Thomas Aquinas put it in his Summa Theologia.   S.T. IIIa, q. 77, art. 1, c. 

That the Church draws from where she can, including pagan philosophers if need be, to preserve or develop the faith ought not to bother us.  This is not unlike the Church in other areas, for example, in its adoption of the word persona (Greek: prosopon) to describe the dogma of the Trinity, or in its elaboration of the natural moral law, which, based upon St. Paul's inspired lead in his letter to the Romans (Rom. 2:14), she selectively borrowed from the Stoic philosophers, but in taking it entirely transformed it.

Substance is one of Aristotle's ten categories (or praedicamenta), in fact the most fundamental category.  A thing's substance (in Greek οὐσία or ousia) is the what it is (τὸ τί ἐστι or to ti esti), its essence, its most fundamental reality.  The other nine categories were called accidents (in Greek συμβεβηκός or symbebēkos), relations or qualities or aspects of a substance that did not essentially change it or its reality, but that modified it.  (See Categories 4, 1b25-2a4; Topics 1.9, 103b20-25)

Accidents are things that can be said of a substance.  For example, a black dog and a brown dog, or a big dog and a small dog, share the same substance, but they differ in the accidental quality of color and/or the quantity of size.  In Aristotle's view, accidents need a substance, and cannot exist on their own.  There is no such reality as "big" or "brown" without reference to something big or something brown.

So, in Aristotelian terms but certainly way beyond even the wildest of Aristotelian imaginings, after the consecration, only the "accidents" of bread and wine remain; however, the "substance" is no longer bread and wine, but rather the entire Christ, Body and Soul, Humanity and Divinity.

The insights of Aristotle are not needed to understand transubstantiation.  As Pope Paul VI described it in his Encyclical on the Eucharist Mysterium Fidei

"As a result of transubstantiation, the species [what appears] of bread and wine . . . contain a new 'reality' which we can rightly call ontological [in other words, involves the order being, reality, essence].  For what now lies beneath the aforementioned species is not what was there before, but something completely different; and not just in the estimation of Church belief but in reality, since once the substance or nature of the bread and wine has been changed into the body and blood of Christ, nothing remains of the bread and the wine except for the species-beneath which Christ is present whole and entire in His physical 'reality,' corporeally present, although not in the manner in which bodies are in a place."  Mysterium Fidei, No. 46.

There is not a whiff of Aristotle here; rather, there is nothing but fidelity to Jesus, a striving in faith to understand him without quibble when he chose that splendid and simple word "is" in those two splendid and simple four-word-phrases that have the power to change the world as they have the power to change bread and the power to change us: "This is my body," and "This is my blood."

In the words of John Dryden in his poem "The Hind and the Panther," the word transubstantiation "loosed the tongue," and with the tongue the human mind, "to explain," in the best human words available (and it does not matter where they came from), what our Catholic "forefathers meant by real presence in the sacrament." 

What is absolutely crucial to understand is this: the dogma of transubstantiation is nothing less than what Jesus intended when he said those words--his dying declaration, his testament, his words of life--the night before he died:  "This is my body."  "This is my blood."  To believe in the dogma of transubstantiation is to believe Christ.  Knowingly to reject the dogma of transubstantiation is to deny him.

"This is a hard saying," some say.  Perhaps.  "Does this," the word transubstantiation and what it means, "offend you?" Jesus still asks.  (Cf. John 6:61)   Sadly, to some it does offend, and they have turned away.  Happily, others respond like St. Peter: "Lord, to whom shall we go?  You have the words of eternal life."  (John 6:68)

The dogma of transubstantiation helps us understand how something that looks, smells, tastes, and feels like bread and wine before the consecration as well as after the consecration can be--really, truly, substantially, essentially--something entirely and beautifully Other than it seems to our feeble senses and reason.

Yes.  This mystery's greatness very possibly overwhelms.  But it is precisely the overwhelming greatness of this mystery described by the dogma of transubstantiation that allows Saint Thérèse of Lisieux to say these beautiful and most simple words: "I cannot fear a God who made himself so small for me!"

There it is: the ineffability of the word "is" when used by the Lord, and the dogma of transubstantiation which forms a redoubt erected around the simple and defenseless word "is" so as to protect it from anyone, large or small, wise or foolish, rich or poor, sincere or insincere who dares contradict the Lord and make "is" anything less than "is."  The omnipotent, overwhelming, omniscient, infinite, and eternal God makes Himself small, for you, and for me.  That is why, if we approach the Eucharistic Lord worthily, we cannot fear Him.

Transubstantiation.  This is a truth to live for.  This is a truth to die for.

-----

Andrew M. Greenwell is an attorney licensed to practice law in Texas, practicing in Corpus Christi, Texas.  He is married with three children.  He maintains a blog entirely devoted to the natural law called Lex Christianorum.  You can contact Andrew at agreenwell@harris-greenwell.com.

---


Pope Francis: end world hunger through 'Prayer and Action'


Copywriter 2015 - Distributed by THE NEWS CONSORTIUM

Pope Francis Prayer Intentions for March 2015
Universal:
Scientists: That those involved in scientific research may serve the well-being of the whole human person.
Evangelization: Contribution of women: That the unique contribution of women to the life of the Church may be recognized always.


Rosaries, Crosses, Prayer Cards and more... by Catholic Shopping .com


Comments


More Living Faith

Unholy political positions in the Holy Land Watch

Image of

By Tony Magliano

As the minds and hearts of Christians throughout the world focus on the suffering, death and resurrection of our Lord Jesus, we naturally think of the Holy Land. Throughout much of history, in the land where the world's savior taught human beings to love one another as ... continue reading


5 Disney movies you never knew had hidden religious messages Watch

Image of

By Hannah Raissa Marfil (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

Disney movies are a well-known and well-loved part of most people's childhood. These stories talk and teach us things, like believing in ourselves and follow our dreams. Recently, the stories inspire courage and kindness, as well as forms of "true love." But viewers ... continue reading


5 excellent tips on how to read the Bible Watch

Image of

By Hannah Raissa Marfil (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

The Bible is one of the most popular published books ever written in the history of life, but also one of the hardest to read and understand. Unlike most books published today, the Bible contains a lot of statements that are full of dates, metaphors and written to ... continue reading


200 Christian teachers denied day off for Good Friday Watch

Image of The 2014-2015 school years are the first time in recent memory that officials scheduled classes during both Good Friday and the Jewish holidays.

By Catholic Online (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

A Rhode Island school district is being sued over the claim that 200 Christian teachers were denied requests to take Good Friday off from work. The teacher's union claims that the decision denies educators the two religious days that they are afforded in their ... continue reading


For the first time in over 150 years -- Blood of St. Januarius liquefies during Francis' visit to Naples Watch

Image of According to legend, Januarius was allegedly born in Benevento to a rich patrician family that traced its descent to the Caudini tribe of the Samnites.

By Catholic Online (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

For the first time in over 150 years, the blood of St. Januarius liquefied in the presence of a pope this past weekend. The phenomenon occurred when Pope Francis visited Naples this past weekend. It was the first time the blood liquefied in the presence of a ... continue reading


Church to Canonize Mom and Dad of St Therese, Show the Holiness of Christian Marriage Watch

Image of Pictured: Louis and Zelie Martin, the Mom and Dad of St Therese
For those called to live their Christian life in a consecrated Christian marriage, it is in the domestic church where progress in the spiritual life finds its raw material. The question we face every day becomes whether we live Christian marriage and family as a Christian vocation by responding to grace.

By Deacon Keith Fournier

Louis and Zelie married in France in 1858. They had nine children. Five entered a consecrated or religious life in the Church. We have 218 letters which were written by Zelie.  They record the naturally supernatural pattern of a very real, human and devout ... continue reading


Drinking the Chalice of the Lord: Facing Suffering, Struggle and Failure Watch

Image of All of those who bear the name Christian are invited to follow the path of Jesus' struggle, to walk along with Him on the way of His rejection. We too are invited to climb the mountain of His great saving act of unmerited selfless Divine love. Golgotha beckons.

By Deacon Keith Fournier

James was the son of Zebedee and brother of John. From faithful stock, we see in this encounter that some forms of zeal may indeed be genetic. In fact, the zeal in both of these brothers caused the Lord to name them the Sons of Thunder.(Mk 3:14-17) However, human ... continue reading


7 endangering myths Christians believe about other Christians Watch

Image of

By Hannah Raissa Marfil (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

Disheartening isn't it? But it has been observed that Christians are divided among themselves. This is not what God wanted, as expressed by the writings in the Scriptures. However, there are some issues between the believers that makes them not united as they should ... continue reading


Josephs Way: Joseph, Husband of Mary, Model for Christian Men Watch

Image of The Dream of Joseph led to the response of a life given over to God

By Deacon Keith Fournier

In an age that has lost its way, because it has succumbed to the selfish pursuit of illusory pleasure, Joseph needs to be lifted up as a model for men who truly want to follow Jesus Christ. It is time for Christian men to follow his example, and become men again. ... continue reading


Pope tells Nigeria's bishops to form united front against terror group Boko Haram Watch

Image of In addition to addressing various issues, the Pope praised Nigeria, with a population of more than 170 million people, and has experienced strong economic growth.

By Catholic Online (NEWS CONSORTIUM)

As the emerging African economic powerhouse of Nigeria takes to the polls, Pope Francis, in a stirring message, has urged the country's bishops to build a united front against the Boko Haram terrorist group. Pope Francis' comments came in a letter to the ... continue reading


All Living Faith News

Newsletters

Newsletter Sign Up icon

Stay up to date with the latest news, information, and special offers

Daily Readings

Reading 1, Isaiah 42:1-7
1 Here is my servant whom I uphold, my chosen one in ... Read More

Psalm, Psalms 27:1, 2, 3, 13-14
1 [Of David] Yahweh is my light and my salvation, ... Read More

Gospel, John 12:1-11
1 Six days before the Passover, Jesus went to ... Read More

Saint of the Day

Saint of the Day for March 30th, 2015 Image

St. Peter Regulatus
March 30: Also Peter Regalado, Franciscan reformer. Peter was born at ... Read More

Inform, Inspire & Ignite Logo

Find Catholic Online on Facebook and get updates right in your live feed.

Become a fan of Catholic Online on Facebook


Follow Catholic Online on Twitter and get News and Product updates.

Follow us on Twitter