'Artificial retina' allows limited sight to the blind
Users can't seen in conventional sense, but can make out outlines
A technology called the "artificial retina" has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. It's the first treatment to give limited vision to people who are blind. Users of the device can't "see" in the conventional sense, but can identify outlines and boundaries of objects. It's especially helpful when there is contrast between light and dark, such as fireworks against a night sky or black socks mixed with white ones.
Described as a sheet of electrodes implanted in the eye, the patient using the artificial retina is also given glasses with an attached camera and a portable video processor.
"This is just the beginning," Grace Shen, a director of the retinal diseases program at the National Eye Institute says. "We have a lot of exciting things sitting in the wings," in a field in which scientists are making strides with gene therapy, optogenetics and stem cells.
Described as a sheet of electrodes implanted in the eye, the patient using the artificial retina is also given glasses with an attached camera and a portable video processor. Called Argus II, the system allows visual signals to bypass the damaged portion of the retina and be transmitted to the brain.
One of four dozen American and European people who have been given the system in a test trial, 74-year-old Elias Konstantopolous, a retired electrician in Baltimore is bullish on the system.
"Without the system, I wouldn't be able to see anything at all, and if you were in front of me and you moved left and right, I'm not going to realize any of this," Konstantopolous says, adding that it helps him differentiate curbs from roads, and detect contours of objects and people. "When you have nothing, this is something. It's a lot."
The F.D.A. has approved Argus II to treat people with severe retinitis pigmentosa, in which photoreceptor cells, which take in light, deteriorate. The eyeglass camera captures images, which the video processor translates into pixelized patterns of light and dark, and transmits them to the electrodes. The electrodes then send them to the brain.
"The questions that this particular device raised for F.D.A. were very new," Dr. Malvina Eydelman, the F.D.A.'s director for the Division of Ophthalmic and Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices says. "It's a big step forward for the whole ophthalmology field."
About 100,000 Americans currently have retinitis pigmentosa, but initially between 10,000 and 15,000 will likely qualify for the Argus II. In order to be eligible, people must be over 25, have previously had useful vision and be so visually impaired that the device would be an improvement.
Experts say the technology holds promise for others who are blind, especially those with advanced age-related macular degeneration, the major cause of vision loss in older people, affecting about two million Americans.
© 2013, Distributed by NEWS CONSORTIUM.
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Pope Benedict XVI's Prayer Intentions for January 2013
General Intention: The Faith of Christians. That in this Year of Faith Christians may deepen their knowledge of the mystery of Christ and witness joyfully to the gift of faith in him.
Missionary Intention: Middle Eastern Christians. That the Christian communities of the Middle East, often discriminated against, may receive from the Holy Spirit the strength of fidelity and perseverance.
Keywords: Artifical retina, blindness, optogenetics, receptors, vision
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