Henry Benedict Maria Clement Stuart
Cardinal, Duke of York, known by the Jacobites as "Henry IX, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland "; born at Rome, 11 March, 1725; died at Frascati, 13 July, 1807. He was the second son of James Francis Edward Stuart, the Chevalier de St. George, and Clementina, daughter of Prince James Sobieski. In 1745, when hopes of a Stuart restoration ran high, he visited France, hoping to embark with French troops to the assistance of his brother Charles Edward. Having spent several months at Dunkirk without effect, he returned to Rome with the intention of entering the ecclesiastical state. In 1747, at the age of twenty-two, he was created cardinal, and during the following year he received Holy Orders, being ordained priest on 1 September. He was immediately made archpriest of the Vatican Basilica, and shortly afterwards cardinal camerlengo. In November, 1759, he was consecrated titular Archbishop of Corinth, and on 13 July, 1761, became Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati. Being sincerely pious and earnest, he proved a zealous administrator of his see, reforming the clergy, and founding a seminary which he endowed with a magnificent library. At the French Revolution he lost his French benefices, sacrificed many other resources to assist the pope, and finally was reduced to poverty by the seizure of his Frascati property by the French. Old and infirm, he fled to Padua and thence to Venice. King George III then came to his assistance, aiding him with a life-annuity till he was able to return to Frascati in 1800. In return for this kindness the cardinal bequeathed to the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV, the crown jewels of James II. In September, 1803, he became Bishop of Ostia and Velletri, and Dean of the Sacred College, though he still resided at Frascati. At his death the Stuart papers in his possession were bought by George IV for the Royal Library, and others are now in the British Museum. There are three pictures of him in the National Portrait Gallery, London, and one at Blairs College, Aberdeen. The cardinal lies buried in St. Peter's at Rome, where Canova's monument preserves his memory.
More Catholic Encyclopedia
Browse Encyclopedia by Alphabet
The Catholic Encyclopedia is the most comprehensive resource on Catholic teaching, history, and information ever gathered in all of human history. This easy-to-search online version was originally printed in fifteen hardcopy volumes.
Designed to present its readers with the full body of Catholic teaching, the Encyclopedia contains not only precise statements of what the Church has defined, but also an impartial record of different views of acknowledged authority on all disputed questions, national, political or factional. In the determination of the truth the most recent and acknowledged scientific methods are employed, and the results of the latest research in theology, philosophy, history, apologetics, archaeology, and other sciences are given careful consideration.
No one who is interested in human history, past and present, can ignore the Catholic Church, either as an institution which has been the central figure in the civilized world for nearly two thousand years, decisively affecting its destinies, religious, literary, scientific, social and political, or as an existing power whose influence and activity extend to every part of the globe. In the past century the Church has grown both extensively and intensively among English-speaking peoples. Their living interests demand that they should have the means of informing themselves about this vast institution, which, whether they are Catholics or not, affects their fortunes and their destiny.
Browse the Catholic Encyclopedia by Topic
Copyright © Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company New York, NY. Volume 1: 1907; Volume 2: 1907; Volume 3: 1908; Volume 4: 1908; Volume 5: 1909; Volume 6: 1909; Volume 7: 1910; Volume 8: 1910; Volume 9: 1910; Volume 10: 1911; Volume 11: - 1911; Volume 12: - 1911; Volume 13: - 1912; Volume 14: 1912; Volume 15: 1912
Catholic Online Catholic Encyclopedia Digital version Compiled and Copyright © Catholic Online